History and usage of terms
Nazi was originally a pet form of the given name Ignaz , which was common in Bavaria and Austria . For example, Ludwig Thomas Bauernschwank's The Shoemaker Nazi premiered in 1905 in the Theater am Gärtnerplatz in Munich. The term was used disparagingly for a simple-minded, foolish person and for German-Austrians and German-Bohemians .
"If one understands by the 'Nazi' the German-Austrian and German-Bohemian, then it is a grave injustice to hold him responsible for the failure of the Habsburg ally."
"If the German-national student could read and read this book, he would be quick to say, for example: 'Such a field curate certainly never even existed with the Nazis.'"
In February 1930, Tucholsky first applied the term to National Socialists:
“The deep blood relationship between these judges and everything that is called the military is evident; you saw that again from the last trials against the Nazis. "
In the Illustrated Lexicon of German colloquial language by Heinz Küpper , 1984, in line with the Historical Dictionary of German Figurative Use by Keith Spalding (Oxford 1984): "The abbreviation 'Nazi' referred to the ' National Socials' under Friedrich Naumann in 1903. " The The first known use of the word National Socialist is even older, according to the language advice service of the University of Vechta ; so proved Cornelia Berning - in the Deutsches Adelsblatt 1887 under the heading Prince Bismarck the first National Socialist .
From around 1930 the term was used in analogy to Sozi ( socialist or SPD or SPÖ supporter) more sharply distanced for the supporters of Adolf Hitler . After the Second World War , the word denazification was created , which primarily meant the systematic removal of National Socialists from public office .
The American journalist Ron Rosenbaum thinks that Naso was a common abbreviation for National Socialist until the journalist Konrad Heiden popularized the word Nazi in his articles, well aware of its supposedly negative connotation in Bavaria. The term was also used by the National Socialists as a self-designation (and later stopped), so Joseph Goebbels published a work in Elberfeld in 1927 with the title Der Nazi-Sozi. Questions and Answers for the National Socialists .
In real socialist systems, for example the GDR , the terms Nazi (s) and Nazism as well as the terms National Socialist (s) and National Socialism were officially avoided, presumably because of the affirmative word component -socialism . Instead, the terms fascist (s) and fascism were used .
Special case Swiss German
In Switzerland, for example, in Basel and Zurich published until 1976 left-liberal National-Zeitung , a precursor Journal of the Basler Zeitung , commonly known especially in the children's supplement as Nazi Zyttig referred, as well as the Swiss national football team as a national team is called which is only pronounced with a slightly shorter vowel a than in Nazi . Neither has anything to do with the designation as a National Socialist.
Use of terms in non-German language areas
For example, the voice information from the University of Vechta announced : “A few Nazi documents for the period after 1945, mostly indications that the word can be found as a foreign word in English, also in French or Turkish, are offered by the Society for German Archives language . in Wiesbaden [...] "in the Cologne Rundschau of 18 September 1998 was an article about German foreign words in American English , among other things, the following section included:" a strange career has [...] made the word Nazi '. In the northern US states it is understood to be any kind of fanatic. A 'tobacco nazi' is a passionate smoker, a 'jazz nazi' is a jazz fetishist. “Colin McLarty from Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland, Ohio) called this representation partially wrong and noted that a tobbaco nazi is not someone who likes to smoke, but instead rigorously enforces compliance with smoking bans . A jazz nazi is not just a passionate jazz lover, but intolerant of any other kind of music. One should therefore translate the American-English word Nazi , which is anything but “value-free”, with “fanatic”, “extremist” or “fundamentalist”.
Slang or jargon
According to media reports in 2015, jargon terms such as “ grammar nazi ” triggered state investigations in Russia due to linguistic misunderstandings.
- Nazi , duden.de, accessed on July 17, 2013.
- Nazi . In: Etymological Dictionary etymonline.com (English): “ […] the nickname Nazi […] was used colloquially to mean 'a foolish person, clumsy or awkward person.' ”(German:“ The nickname Nazi [...] was used slang for a foolish person, clumsy or clumsy person. ”), Accessed on August 9, 2008.
- Cornelia Berning: From "Proof of Descent" to "Breeding Warden". Vocabulary of National Socialism . Berlin 1964, p. 138.
- Ron Rosenbaum : explicar a Hitler: La búsqueda de los Origen de su maldad . Siglo XXI Editores (Mexico), 1999, p. 179. “ A veces se attribuye a Heiden el haber popularizado la palabra 'nazi'. En sus primeros tiempos, los Nacional-socialistas eran conocidos por la abreviatura convencional 'naso', hasta que heathen, según se dice, empezó a usar en sus artículos' nazi ', que en la jerga popular de Baviera significaba' bobo 'o' simple '[...] "(German:" Sometimes the popularization of the word' Nazi 'is also attributed to [the journalist Konrad] Heiden. In the early days of the National Socialists they were known under the abbreviation' Naso 'until Heiden, according to reports , began to use 'Nazi' in his articles, which means 'stupid' or 'simple' in Bavarian jargon [...] ")
- Friedrich Kluge, arr. v. Elmar Seebold: Etymological dictionary of the German language . 24th edition. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2002, ISBN 3-11-017473-1 , p. 647 .
- Goebbels biography of Ralf Georg Reuth, Piper-Verlag
- Nazi . In: Etymological Dictionary etymonline.com (English): “ In the USSR, the terms national socialist and Nazi were said to have been forbidden after 1932, presumably to avoid any taint to the good word socialist. Soviet literature refers to fascists. ”(German:“ In the USSR, the terms National Socialist and Nazi were banned after 1932, presumably to avoid any blemish on the good word socialist. Soviet literature refers to fascists. ”) Retrieved on August 9, 2008.
- "Dr glai Nazi" on barfi.ch. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
- Basel: Kinderbylag (children's supplement) National-Zeitung, 1950-1977 in the swissbib library network
- National coach Martina Voss-Tecklenburg: “We have already cried together” , SRF, November 13, 2017, (heard 4 times in the first minute).
- Nazi . Office for language information and language advice at the University of Vechta ; Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- In Russia “Want to kill people because of spelling mistakes” - authorities misunderstand “grammar nazi”. Focus Online , May 28, 2015, accessed July 30, 2017.
- Head of Russian Media Group Questioned About Ties to 'Grammar Nazis'. The Moscow Times , May 29, 2015, accessed July 30, 2017.