District rule Schmalkalden

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reign of Schmalkalden 1866–1945

The district of Schmalkalden , from 1907 to 1946 the district of Herrschaft Schmalkalden , was a district in southern Thuringia from 1821 to 1950 .

Half of the Schmalkalden lordship has belonged to the Landgraviate of Hesse and Hesse-Kassel since 1360, and half since 1583 . From 1868, after Hessen-Kassel had been annexed by Prussia in 1866 , the area was part of the Prussian province of Hessen-Nassau . It existed as a district in the Soviet Zone and GDR until 1950 . The district had an area of ​​279.6 km² and in 1939 52,000 inhabitants. The seat of the district administration was Schmalkalden .

In Barchfeld was the ancestral seat of the Landgraves of Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld , a branch line of the Hessian sovereigns ; The William Castle in Schmalkalden used the ruling line itself.

Administrative history

The rule Schmalkalden belonged 1360-1583 to half the land county Hessen (from 1567 to Hesse-Kassel) and the county Henneberg -Schleusingen. After the Counts of Henneberg died out , the Schmalkalden rule belonged entirely to the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel from 1583 to 1866 and, from 1803, to the Electorate of Hesse . In 1821 administration and jurisdiction were separated. The administrative district of Schmalkalden was formed from the previous offices of Schmalkalden , Hallenberg , Herrenbreitungen and Brotterode . Four justice offices (Schmalkalden, Brotterode , Herrenbreitungen and Steinbach) were set up as courts of first instance for the administration of justice .

With the "law concerning the formation of new administrative districts and the introduction of district councils" of October 31, 1848 and the corresponding ordinance of December 22, 1848, which became effective on February 1, 1849, the previous four provinces were dissolved and nine instead Districts set up. Two districts were formed from the previous province of Fulda , including the Schmalkalden district. This change was a consequence of the March Revolution . Nothing changed in Schmalkalden: the new district was congruent with the old district. At the head of the district stood a district director. This was Friedrich Fondy from 1848-1851 . The new administrative structure was dissolved shortly after the reaction prevailed. With the ordinance and the “provisional” “law concerning the reshuffle of the internal state administration and the executive power of the administrative authorities and the district councils” of July 7, 1851, the old order was restored.

As a result of the German War in 1866 , Prussia annexed the Electorate of Hesse and converted it, together with the Duchy of Nassau , into the Province of Hesse-Nassau on December 7, 1868. The district of Schmalkalden was assigned to the administrative district of Kassel . From April 26, 1907, the district was called Herrschaft Schmalkalden .

With the dissolution of the province of Hessen-Nassau by the Nazi government on July 1, 1944, the district was incorporated into the administrative district of Erfurt , which had previously belonged to the province of Saxony . Also on July 1, 1944, this province was also subdivided and the administrative district of Erfurt was subordinated to the administration of the Reich Governor for Thuringia in Weimar. In the spring of 1945, the district was briefly occupied by the US Army . The district came with the administrative district of Erfurt when the state of Prussia was dissolved to the newly formed state of Thuringia of the SBZ or GDR .

On July 1, 1945, the district gave the municipality of Barchfeld to the district of Meiningen . On October 1, 1945, the Thuringian municipality of Kleinschmalkalden from the district of Gotha was incorporated into the district and merged with the municipality of the same name to form the municipality of Pappenheim. By law, the district was renamed Schmalkalden on January 30, 1946 .

The district of Schmalkalden was dissolved and divided on July 1, 1950:

Two years later, on July 25, 1952, a new district of Schmalkalden was created with a layout similar to that before 1950 - extended to Roßdorf and Schwallungen .

Population development

year Residents source
1871 28,613
1890 33,268
1900 37,720
1910 44,561
1925 48,694
1933 50,816
1939 51,666
1946 58,326

District administrators

List of municipalities

Municipalities (as of 1935)
today's parishes
Altersbach Steinbach-Hallenberg
Asbach Schmalkalden
Aue Schmalkalden
Auwallenburg Brotterode-Trusetal
Barchfeld Barchfeld-Immelborn
Bermbach Steinbach-Hallenberg
Breitenbach Schmalkalden
Brotterode Brotterode-Trusetal
Elmenthal Brotterode-Trusetal
Fambach Fambach
Escaped Flea Seligenthal
Grumbach Schmalkalden
Haindorf Schmalkalden
Helmershof Flea Seligenthal
Herges-Hallenberg Steinbach-Hallenberg
Herges-Vogtei Brotterode-Trusetal
Man spreads Breitungen / Werra
Hessles Fambach
Hohleborn Flea Seligenthal
Kleinschmalkalden (Hessian part) Flea Seligenthal
Laudenbach Brotterode-Trusetal
Mittelschmalkalden Schmalkalden
Medium quiet Schmalkalden
Closer silence Schmalkalden
Oberschönau Steinbach-Hallenberg
Reichenbach Schmalkalden
Rotterdam Steinbach-Hallenberg
Schmalkalden Schmalkalden
Schnellbach Flea Seligenthal
Seligenthal Flea Seligenthal
Jumping silence Schmalkalden
Steinbach-Hallenberg Steinbach-Hallenberg
Struth Flea Seligenthal
Trusen Brotterode-Trusetal
Unterschönau Steinbach-Hallenberg
Volkers Schmalkalden
Choice Brotterode-Trusetal
Weidebrunn Schmalkalden

On October 1, 1936, Struth and Helmershof merged to form the Struth-Helmershof community. On April 1, 1937, Auwallenburg and Herges-Vogtei merged to form the municipality of Herges-Auwallenburg .

Local constitution

The district of Herrschaft Schmalkalden was divided into the city of Schmalkalden, as well as 37, since 1937 35 (rural) communities. With the introduction of the Prussian Municipal Constitutional Law of December 15, 1933 and the German Municipal Code of January 30, 1935, the leader principle was enforced at the municipal level on April 1, 1935 . In 1936 the municipalities of Brotterode and Steinbach-Hallenberg also received town charter. A new district constitution was no longer created; The district regulations for the province of Hessen-Nassau from June 7, 1885 continued to apply.


Even today, the area of ​​the former district of the Evangelical Church of Kurhessen-Waldeck belongs to the Evangelical Church and not to the Evangelical Church in Central Germany .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. SG p. 237 ff and 277 ff.
  2. Thomas Klein: Volume 11: Hessen-Nassau, the series: Walther Hubatsch: Outline of German Administrative History 1815-1945, 1979, ISBN 3-87969-126-6 , p. 96
  3. SG p. 27ff., 31 ff.
  4. ^ First ordinance on the district division of the state of Thuringia
  5. Fourth ordinance on the district division of the state of Thuringia
  6. Ordinance of January 30, 1946
  7. 1. Ordinance on the implementation of the law amending the district and municipal boundaries in the state of Thuringia of April 26, 1950
  8. ^ The municipalities and manor districts of the Hesse-Nassau province and their population in 1871
  9. a b c d e f Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Landkreis Herrschaft Schmalkalden. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  10. 1946 census