Highest in the Odenwald
|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 49 ° 48 ' N , 9 ° 0' E
|Administrative region :||Darmstadt|
|Height :||156 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||30.51 km 2|
|Residents:||10,199 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||334 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||64739|
|Area code :||06163|
|License plate :||ERB|
|Community key :||06 4 37 009|
|LOCODE :||DE HOE|
|Address of the
|Montmelianer Platz 4
64739 Höchst in the Odenwald
|Mayor :||Horst Bitsch (independent)|
|Location of the municipality of Höchst in the Odenwald in the Odenwald district|
Höchst im Odenwald (officially Höchst i. Odw. ) Is a municipality in the Odenwaldkreis in southern Hesse .
Höchst is located in the northern Odenwald in the Mümlingtal at an altitude of 175 to 400 meters.
Höchst borders in the north on the city of Groß-Umstadt ( Darmstadt-Dieburg district ) and the city of Breuberg , in the east on the municipality of Lützelbach , in the south on the city of Bad König , in the southwest on the municipality of Brensbach and in the west on the municipality of Otzberg ( Darmstadt-Dieburg district).
In addition to the core municipality of Höchst, the municipality includes the districts of Annelsbach , Dusenbach , Forstel , Hassenroth , Hetschbach , Hummetroth , Mümling-Grumbach and Pfirschbach .
The Höchst basin, like other conveniently located places in the Mümlingtal, was permanently settled at least since the Neolithic Age. Numerous Stone Age traces as well as finds from Celtic and Roman times bear witness to this. In the district of Hummetroth, a Roman villa rustica from the 2nd century was uncovered; it is now accessible as an open-air museum ( Roman Villa Haselburg ).
The first written mention of Höchst dates back to 1156. The rendering of the place name in documents and documents changed over the course of the Middle Ages and the early modern period from Hoiste (1158) to Hoste (n) (1366/1374), Hoest (e) (1393, 1438), Hest (1485) and Hoegst (1567, 1607) to today's Höchst.
In the Middle Ages , the Lords of Breuberg , the Counts of Wertheim , the Lords of Eppstein and the Counts of Erbach ruled . Until the dissolution of the old empire, Höchst belonged together with Breuberg and Lützelbach to the reign of Breuberg . The Augustinian nunnery at Höchst was built around 1200 and was inhabited by Fulda Benedictine nuns from 1511 onwards and was dissolved after the Reformation around 1567/68. At the end of the Thirty Years War the place was almost extinct and only recovered very slowly.
From 1822 to 1968 Höchst was the seat of a district court and then until 1977 the seat of a branch of the Michelstadt District Court .
The valley of the Obrunnbach , located southeast of Höchst, has been known as the Obrunn Gorge since 1857 and has been open to varied tourism.
Immediately after the establishment of the Nazi dictatorship, the terror against opponents of the regime began. On the evening of March 2, 1933, the highest SPD chairman Wilhelm Fröhlich and - accidentally - the SA man Andreas Weidt were shot by SS men. As a result, the resistance of the workers' movement - here in Höchst predominantly SPD-oriented, occasionally also communists - was rigorously crushed. For those affected, this meant imprisonment in prisons and penitentiaries, but also protective custody in Gestapo prisons and concentration camps .
The fate of the Höchst Jews who emigrated in time and who were later murdered in concentration camps (1933: 102; houses: 28) tried to clarify and document the research group for the research of the Höchst home history under the editor and later mayor Reiner Guth 40 years after the Second World War. In addition, the municipal council decided to erect a memorial to commemorate the destruction of the synagogue on the Reichspogromnacht in 1938.
During the Second World War , at least (unreported number) 331 foreign forced laborers were used in Höchst (including districts). 123 came from Poland , 99 from the Soviet Union , 72 from France . The rest came from the Netherlands , Italy , Belgium , Bulgaria , Lithuania and Yugoslavia , three were stateless. Four camps could be located in the local area.
In the run-up to the regional reform in Hesse , the previously independent community of Annelsbach was incorporated on November 1, 1969. Hetschbach joined the company on February 1, 1971. Dusenbach, Forstel, Hassenroth, Hummetroth, Mümling-Grumbach and Pfirschbach followed on December 31, 1971. For the incorporated communities - not for the core community - local districts with local advisory councils and local councilors were set up.
The local elections on March 6, 2016 produced the following results, compared to previous local elections:
||Parties and constituencies||
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||31.3||10||30.9||10||32.1||10||31.7||10|
|KAH||Local political working group Höchst in the Odenwald||24.1||7th||28.9||9||35.1||11||41.9||13|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||22.9||7th||20.5||6th||22.6||7th||20.6||6th|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||9.3||3||12.5||4th||4.3||1||5.8||2|
|WfH||Turn for Höchst||8.9||3||7.1||2||6.0||2||-||-|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||3.4||1||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Voter turnout in%||49.7||48.5||51.1||59.4|
In the mayoral election on February 5, 2006, Reiner Guth (KAH) was elected mayor with 64.3% of the vote. The opposing candidate Jürgen Hild (SPD) received 35.7%. Guth retired on August 31, 2011 for health reasons and died on October 11, 2011. Horst Bitsch, who was independent from party and who took office on January 2, 2012, was elected as his successor in a runoff election on November 20, 2011. again in the runoff election - was re-elected.
coat of arms
Blazon : "In silver on a blue wavy beam a three-arched stone red bridge, above two and below a red star."
The coat of arms was approved for the municipality of Höchst in the Odenwald in 1934. It was designed by the heraldist Georg Massoth.
It shows the former bridge over the Mümling and thus symbolizes the location of Höchst on both sides of the river. The stars are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Erbach , who formerly ruled the place.
Originally there was still a black swastika between the two upper stars, which was removed in 1945.
Sponsorship and partnerships
The municipality of Höchst in the Odenwald took over the sponsorship of the Sudeten German municipality of Bölten (today Bělotín in the Czech Republic) in the former administrative district of Opava on August 2, 1953 , and later also for the seven other municipalities of the Bölten parish with a total of 3765 inhabitants on May 17, 1939: Daub, Hermitz, Kunzendorf, Litschel, Lutschitz, Neudek and Pohl. Every year, Höchst is the meeting place for the Bölten residents who were expelled to the American occupation zone in Germany in 1946 with six evacuation transports . Parish priest Franz Polak was part of the third transport that came to Sandbach in the Odenwald .
In 1987, in front of the Catholic Christ the King's Church, erected under Pastor Polak, the municipality of Höchst dedicated a memorial stone TO THE VICTIMS OF WAR AND DISPLACEMENT with a depiction of the Bölten St.
More information about the Sudeten German sponsored communities of the parish of Bölten can be found in the memorial book on the sponsorship of the community of Höchst i.Odw mentioned in item 12 below.
The municipality of Höchst i.Odw maintains partnership relationships . since 1966 to the French Montmélian in Savoy and (since 2006) with the parish Bölten based in Höchst to the Czech community Bělotín and its affiliated university choir Ostrava (German: Ostrau).
- The four-day Apple Blossom Festival takes place every year in May. On this occasion, an apple blossom queen is chosen. In 2007 it was celebrated for the 56th time.
- The annual Odenwald potato market also has a long tradition.
- In November the annual premiere of a play by the TEGS theater group takes place in the Bürgerhaus.
- On Fridays, from 2:30 p.m. to 6:00 p.m., there is a weekly market on Montmelianer Platz.
Economy and Infrastructure
Höchst, like Hetschbach and Mümling-Grumbach, have train stations or stops on the Odenwaldbahn . It runs north from Höchst to Hanau and Darmstadt, with connections to Frankfurt a. M. exist. The south Odenwaldbahn leads among other things to Michel city , Lauterbach and terminates in the in Neckartal lying Eberbach .
By December 31, 1998, the Aschaffenburg – Höchst (Odenwald) line , which originally led to Aschaffenburg , branched off at Höchst station . It has been gradually abandoned, shut down and dismantled in 1999 since 1974 .
Of local political importance - but also beyond - was the handling of the listed goods hall Höchst . In the dispute between politicians - who wanted to tear down the goods hall - and a citizens 'initiative - who wanted to keep the goods hall - the citizens' initiative had the last word. The goods hall has meanwhile been renovated in accordance with a listed building.
Due to the increasing volume of traffic on the federal highway 45 , which runs in north-south direction through the z. Some of the narrow town center led to a 2.8 km long bypass road to the west . The groundbreaking ceremony by the Parliamentary State Secretary Angelika Mertens took place on July 27, 2005. The project was supposed to be completed after a few delays in late summer 2009 and was completed on December 21, 2009 with the handover of traffic. The construction costs were estimated at 22.8 million euros.
The following cycle paths lead through the city :
- The 225 km long 3-country cycle path runs along the Mümling as a circular route through the triangle of Hesse, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. The route explores the Odenwald along the Mümling, Neckar and Main rivers. Part of this route is the 75-kilometer Mümling cycle path that connects Obernburg with Hirschhorn am Neckar .
- The Hessian long- distance cycle route R9 starts in Worms and leads over 82 kilometers through the Odenwald to the Mümling and from there to the Bavarian border.
- The Hessian long-distance cycle route R4 begins in Hirschhorn am Neckar and runs with a total length of 385 kilometers from south to north through Hesse, along from Mümling, Nidda and Schwalm to Bad Karlshafen an der Weser.
- The primary school "Schule an der Mümling" is located directly at the Mümling, in which approx. 400 pupils are taught together with the learning aid classes.
- The Ernst Göbel School has existed since 1964, a cooperative comprehensive school with an upper level.
- The former Höchst Monastery is operated by the Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau as a youth education center and conference center, which is also used by non-church providers for seminars.
In the middle of the city is the Höchst Police Station, which is part of the Erbach Police Department.
In addition to various general and specialist practices, there is an institute outpatient clinic and day clinic for 12 children at the Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy Riedstadt in Höchst .
- Franz Polak (1909-2000), Roman Catholic clergyman (pastor in the German community of Bölten / East Sudetenland until May 7, 1945, after the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans in Höchst in the Odenwald)
- Eduard Kavala , Mayor of the Czech partner municipality Bělotin, 2019.
Sons and daughters of the church
- Karl Scherer (1862–1931), member of the state parliament
- Maria Bergmann (1918–2002), pianist
- Rose Nabinger (* 1948), jazz singer, lyricist
- Luca Schnellbacher (* 1994), soccer player
- Association for home history Höchst im Odenwald (Hrsg.): Contributions to the history of Höchst im Odenwald. Höchst in the Odenwald 2006.
- Hans Teubner and Sonja Bonin: Cultural monuments in Hesse. Odenwaldkreis. Published by the State Office for Monument Preservation Hessen , Vieweg, Braunschweig / Wiesbaden 1998 ( Monument Topography Federal Republic of Germany ), ISBN 3-528-06242-8 , pp. 362–378.
- Municipality of Höchst i.Odw. (Ed.): Destiny of the expulsion, memorial book on the sponsorship of the municipality of Höchst in the Odenwald with the municipalities of the parish of Bölten / Ostsudeten. 2nd edition Bad König 1988, ISBN 3-924388-03-2
- Municipality board of Höchst i.Odw. (Ed.): "History and fates of the Jews in Höchst". Maximum 1985, 2nd edition 1988, ISBN 3-9801204-0-6 .
- Hartmut Lenz: From the life of a country doctor in the 20th century. Factual reports from my youth and the longstanding medical practice in Höchst in the Odenwald. Association for local history, Höchst im Odenwald 2000.
- Literature about Höchst in the Odenwald in the Hessian Bibliography
- Literature by and about Höchst im Odenwald in the catalog of the German National Library
- Official website of the municipality of Höchst in the Odenwald
- Höchst in the Odenwald, Odenwaldkreis. Historical local dictionary for Hessen. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Information on the municipality of Höchst in the Odenwald. In: Hessisches Gemeindelexikon. HA Hessen Agentur GmbH , 2016.
- Link catalog on Höchst im Odenwald at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
References and comments
- ↑ Hessian State Statistical Office: Population status on December 31, 2019 (districts and urban districts as well as municipalities, population figures based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- ^ Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg (StA MR, documents R Ia, Stift Fulda 1156); Heinrich Wagner: The first mention of Höchst in the Odenwald 1156. In: Association for home history Höchst eV (Hg.): Contributions to the history of Höchst in the Odenwald , Höchst 2006.
- ↑ Höchst in the Odenwald, Odenwaldkreis. Historical local lexicon for Hesse (as of July 7, 2014). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS). Hessian State Office for Historical Cultural Studies (HLGL), accessed on July 11, 2014 .
- ↑ Wolfgang Stapp: Never forget again! In memory of the Odenwald anti-fascists, Part 3/1: Persecution and resistance in Höchst: The Night of Blood. In: " gelurt". Odenwälder Jahrbuch für Kultur und Geschichte 2009. Erbach 2008, ISBN 978-3-9805891-6-5 , pp. 97–122.
- ↑ Wolfgang Stapp: Never forget again! In memory of the Odenwald anti-fascists, part 3/2: Persecution and resistance in Höchst: After the night of blood. In: "gelurt". Odenwälder Jahrbuch für Kultur und Geschichte 2010. Erbach 2009, ISBN 978-3-9805891-7-2 , pp. 218–232.
- ↑ See the work given above under literature : "History and fates of the Jews at Höchst"
- ^ Wolfgang Stapp: Deported for Germany's final victory. Foreign forced laborers in the Breuberger Land 1939-1945. 2nd revised, supplemented and updated edition. Höchst im Odenwald 2004, here: pp. 31–33 and 261–263.
- ^ Municipal reform: mergers and integration of municipalities from January 20, 1971 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): State Gazette for the State of Hesse. 1971 No. 6 , p. 248 , para. ( Online at the information system of the Hessian State Parliament [PDF; 6.2 MB ]).
- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 357-358 .
- ^ Result of the municipal election on March 6, 2016. Hessian State Statistical Office, accessed in April 2016 .
- ^ Hessian State Statistical Office: Result of the municipal elections on March 27, 2011
- ^ Hessian State Statistical Office: Result of the municipal elections on March 26, 2006
- ↑ Höchst mourns Reiner Guth. Former mayor succumbs to cancer shortly after leaving office. ( Memento from October 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: Echo Online on October 11, 2011.
- ↑ The new mayor is called Horst Bitsch ( Memento from November 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: Echo Online on November 20, 2011.
- ↑ Final result of the mayoral election 2017
- ↑ Mayoral election in Höchst i. Odw. Hessian State Statistical Office , accessed in April 2019 .
- ^ Karl Ernst Demandt , Otto Renkhoff : Hessisches Ortswappenbuch. C. A. Starke Verlag, Glücksburg / Ostsee 1956.
- ↑ Destiny of the expulsion, memorial book on the sponsorship of the municipality Höchst in the Odenwald with the municipalities of the parish of Bölten / Ostsudeten. 2nd Edition. Bad König 1988, ISBN 3-924388-03-2
- ↑ More details can be found on the website about Bölten - Walter Fr. Schleser : Bölten. Private website, archived from the original ; accessed in September 2019 . as well as the article about the Germans in the 1st CSR Germans in the First Czechoslovak Republic and the article about the expulsion of Germans from the CSR Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia .
- ↑ See Franz Polak
- ↑ Zdo Schreiber: In the center of mobility . In: Ed .: State Office for Monument Preservation Hessen : Monument Preservation and Cultural History . ISSN 1436-168X, 4/2019, p. 30f.
- ↑ B45 bypass Höchst in the Odenwald
- ^ Website of the school on the Mümling
- ↑ See honorary citizenship of the municipality of Höchst i. Odw. Awarded to Mayor Eduard Kavala. In: website. Municipality of Höchst in the Odenwald, accessed in November 2019 . With regard to the mentioned, on the occasion of the Heimatfest 1929 by the [German] Böltenern abroad, especially Vienna, erected memorial stone "Der Heimat treu" for more details on website Bölten , section memorial stones and plaques in Höchst i.Odw. and in Bělotin / Bölten. See also the caption under the photo Bölten-Mitteldorf