Federal fortress Ulm
The federal fortress Ulm in Ulm was - next to Landau , Luxemburg , Mainz and Rastatt - one of five federal fortresses and Europe's largest fortress. These fortresses were financed by the German Confederation (hence the name) and, in addition to numerous state fortresses, were expanded or rebuilt in the 19th century and completed in 1859. With a polygonal main wall of around 9 km, Ulm had the largest fortification of the 19th century.
After Napoleon's final defeat in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 , it was agreed that the countries should also be secured internally. The federal fortresses were one of the few projects of the German Confederation that was realized. The federal fortress Ulm was designed in the period from 1842 to 1859 by the Prussian fortress construction director and then Colonel Moritz Karl Ernst von Prittwitz and Gaffron and built under his direction. Up to 10,000 workers were employed when it was built. Major Theodor Ritter von Hildebrandt was in charge on the Bavarian side from December 1843 after the death of the original fortress construction director Friedrich Herdegen.
In peacetime, the fortress was supposed to accommodate 5,000 soldiers from the federal army , but up to 20,000 soldiers were expected in the event of an emergency. Further planning even provided for 100,000 soldiers. The total cost of building the fortress is estimated at 16,500,000 guilders .
The fortress presents itself as a closed, polygon-shaped wall around both cities of Ulm and Neu-Ulm , with a series of forts in front of it some distance away . Due to the topographical location, the forts in Ulm ensured striking heights above the city, while this was not done in Neu-Ulm due to the lack of mountains around the city. The first stone bridge over the Danube was between the two cities within the fortress, the next was only in Regensburg .
For the first time in Germany, the bastionary system was abandoned when the Koblenz Fortress (built 1815–34) was built and a polygonal system with upstream fortifications was created instead . In this connection we speak of the New Prussian or New German manner . This is clearly recognizable as a model for the construction of the Ulm Fortress. The two later works on the Upper Eselsberg were executed as Biehler forts . The works were numbered in Roman numerals on the Württemberg side and in Arabic numerals on the Bavarian side, but Roman numerals were also used here in the original plans.
Since the Federal Fortress Ulm, unlike the Fortress Rastatt, did not come under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles , it did not have to be demolished after the end of the First World War . Nevertheless, many of the fort's facilities have irrevocably disappeared after the destruction of the Second World War and in the years that followed. Another large part is threatened with decay, which is particularly true of some forts and the concrete structures of the imperial fortress between 1901 and 1916.
Upper city front
I - Upper Danube Bastion
The Upper Danube Bastion (later, but seldom, called artillery barracks and motor vehicle barracks) was built between 1843 and 1855 under Major von Schele from Württemberg and could hold up to 2,253 men. The largest and still preserved building of the bastion is the four-storey reduit , which was used as a defensive barracks (living rooms on the throat side, gun casemates on the front), it has a stair tower in the front and two flank towers. The connection to Plant XXVIII was in front of the left flank tower . The Bastion also had two powder magazines in Wallenden, a half caponier on the left corner of the throat, a bonnet casemate in the Saillant , behind that a litter battery in and a bonnet casemate on the wall. These three components were able to coat the Neu-Ulm apron in front of Plant 9. On the right shoulder there was a second flank with four artillery holes; Plant II was connected to this flank. There was a brick block house on the outside of the trench . Along the escarpe and along the left flank wall was a wet trench with a batardeau in front of the saillant.
The bastion was occupied from 1855 to 1873 by the Württemberg foot artillery regiment No. 13, then until 1918 by the field artillery regiment "King Karl" (1st Württemberg ) No. 13, from 1920 to 1933 by the Reichswehr and finally until 1939 by of the Wehrmacht . Thereafter, the Reduit served as an air raid shelter in World War II and as an emergency shelter until 1971.
The glacis is almost completely preserved and is now part of the so-called "Ehinger facilities". The Reduit received a tiled roof instead of the earth cover in 1935 and was restored between 1996 and 2000. Since then, it has been used by the Danube Swabian Central Museum , several clubs and shops and a Turkish theater. The wall was removed between 1904 and 1914 and the moat was filled with it. Various supply buildings, stables and a riding hall for the artillery barracks were built there. The buildings are still used today by various associations, dealers and organizers. Today there is a parking lot and the Roxy on the former gun yard. The archescarpe was only removed to the level of the trench and is still preserved in the subsoil. It became visible again in the 1960s when the federal highway tunnel was built. The preserved basement of the Bonnet Kasematte was made accessible in 1996 with a riser shaft. The owner of the Upper Danube Bastion was the state of Württemberg (from 1952 Baden-Württemberg) and since 2000 the Federal Republic. The Upper Danube Bastion is not to be confused with the medieval Upper Danube Bastion in the southwest of the old town, which is also called "Bastion Lauseck".
II - Courtine with Ehinger gate
The Courtine was built between 1843 and 1855 under the Württemberg Lieutenant Faber du Faur and connected the Upper Danube Bastion with the Middle Bastion. The work could accommodate 133 men and consisted of the ramparts with the inner Ehinger Tor located inside , a caponniere that secured the wet ditch to the south to the Saillant of the Upper Danube Bastion and to the north to the Saillant of the Middle Bastion, the Escarpe and a tenaille on the Connection to Plant I, which secured the left moat of the upstream Ravelin . In the course of the softening, the wall was removed in 1904 and filled into the ditch with an escarpe, and the caponniere was demolished. The inner Ehinger Gate and the gate pillars in front of the gate are the only ones still preserved today. The Ehinger Tor is now in the middle of a large traffic junction (intersection of several federal highways, large bus stop and tram stop). Houses were built on the site of the former ramparts, and today federal highways 10 and 28 cross the moat .
III - Ravelin in front of the Ehinger Tor
The 80-man Ravelin was built under Major von Schele between 1843 and 1855 in front of the Caponniere of Plant II to protect them. It consisted of a traversed rampart, the outer and the middle Ehinger Tor, a log house on the outside of the ditch, a wet ditch and the glacis, which is the only one of this work to be preserved today. Today it belongs to the "Ehinger plants". The school buildings and Furttenbachstrasse trace the course of the Ravelin today.
IV - Middle Bastion
The 288-man central bastion was built between 1843 and 1855 under the direction of Lieutenant von Sachs from Nassau . It consisted of a rampart, a wet ditch, an escarpe, a tenaille in the left shoulder and a caponniere in the right shoulder. In the Saillant a bonnet casemate, a litter battery and a hollow traverse were laid in the wall. In the center of the throat side was the small octagonal reduit, also known as the "Böblinger Tower". The Reduit only has rifle slots, no gun slots, as the actual defense should be taken over by the blue flèche upstream and the apron could be flooded in the event of an attack. Around 1880 several earth trusses were piled up on the wall. Of the bastion, only the reduit, which is used by a diving club, remains today. Wall and ditch were leveled in 1905 in the course of the softening. The Caponniere was hit by a bomb in World War II after it had already been halved in length and the ruins were torn down in 1961.
V - blue patch
The Blauflèche was built between 1843 and 1855 under Major von Schele and could hold up to 96 men. It was located in front of the middle bastion to protect it and consisted of its own wet ditch, a pentagonal traversed wall and a log house at the connection to the middle bastion and another in the inner courtyard. On February 21, 1903, the walls were blown up and the area was then leveled.
VI - Courtine with Blaubeurer Gate
It was built from 1843 to 1855 under Major von Schele and was occupied by 56 men. Together with the subsequent Courtine VIII, the work connected the middle bastion with the Kienlesberg bastion. It consisted of the escarpe, a wet ditch, batardeaus to regulate the water in the ditch, the small flower-shining gate that led to the Blue Island, and at the right end the inner Blaubeurer gate, which stands out from the entire fortress due to its Romanesque architectural style. Under the courtine, two arms passed through the blue. The construction of the plant turned out to be difficult because the area was the old flood plain of the Blau . The Blaubeurer Tor, for example, stands on a grate made of 736 wooden posts that has been rammed deep into the ground. From this work, the gate, which was partially removed when the bridge was built in the 1960s, 100 meters of the escarpen wall and the blue passages are preserved.
VII - Ravelin in front of the Blaubeurer Tor
The Ravelin, which was laid out under Major von Schele between 1843 and 1855, had 93 men. It was located in front of the inner Blaubeurer gate and consisted of the middle and outer gate, the wall, a wet ditch, a powder magazine at the left connection to Plant VI and a blockhouse opposite the right connection to Plant VIII, as well as a glacis. The plant was leveled in 1904 as part of the softening process. The foundations of the log house were rediscovered in 2002 when a hardware store was demolished, but shortly afterwards it was completely removed.
VIII - Courtine to Kienlesberg
The Courtine was built from 1843 to 1855 under the Hessian Lieutenant Schleenstein and could be occupied by 43 men. It consisted of a wet ditch, glacis, escarpe, rampart and a blockhouse at the connection to Contregarde IX. The parapet of the wall was bent twice like a wave at the level of the fork in the trench at Works VI and VII, so that two gun positions were built on it, which could line the right trench of Ravelin VII. In 1867 a passage for the Ulm – Sigmaringen railway line was built just before the right end . From around 1870 the wet ditch was a popular ice skating facility in winter. When the wall and ditch were softened from 1904 onwards, part of the southern wall remained as a ramp for the old Wallstrasse bridge. This remnant was also removed after the Second World War.
Western mountain front
IX - Contregarde on the Kienlesberg
The Contregarde was built between 1843 and 1852 under the Württemberg first lieutenant von Hügel and could be occupied by 37 men. It consisted of a wall and casemates carved deep into the Kienlesberg rock, which are still preserved today, but are no longer accessible. Opposite the double caponier of the Kienlesberg bastion was the small Ruhetaltor, of which the right pillar and a bolt are still preserved today. Due to the complicated wall shape, the Contregarde was popularly known as "Seven Hills". The wall was completely demolished in 1968 during the construction of Bundesstraße 10 and the descent to Eselsberg .
X - Kienlesberg Bastion
The bastion was built between 1843 and 1852 under von Hügel and was occupied by 390 men. The bulky double caponier, which is located directly on the main road today, is striking. In addition, the completely preserved work consists of a small reduit - a significantly larger one was planned in the drafts - an escarpe reinforced with arches, the throat wall, the wall traversed in 1880, a mortar battery behind the caponniere and a dry ditch. Powder magazines were set up in the Wallenden, the one on the left was later converted into a bullet loading magazine. After the end of the First World War there were plans to convert the double caponier into a church for the Eselsberg district, but this was not implemented. Today the Caponniere is used by a youth club and a scout community. In the 1990s, the wild growth on the site was removed and a walkway was created in the 2000s.
XI - western connection line to Wilhelmsburg
This connection line could accommodate 30 men and was built under von Hügel between 1843 and 1852. It connects the Kienlesberg bastion with the Wilhelmsburg over a height difference of 70 meters and consists of a 350 meter long escarp wall, a dry ditch, a wall with three gun positions in the middle, a bonnet casemate in the Saillant with a litter battery behind it and a glacis. In addition, at the connection to the Kienlesberg bastion there is a large war powder magazine with a capacity of 1200 quintals (~ 60 t) of powder, as well as a smaller magazine in the uppermost gun positions. In the upper area behind the wall there was a Wallmeisterhaus . During the Second World War, the casemates and the large powder magazine served as air raid shelters, but as these were insufficient, tunnels were driven under the wall, of which the concrete entrances on the lower Säntisstrasse can still be seen today. Plant XI has been completely preserved except for the Wallmeisterhaus. Between 1994 and 1999 the ditch and covered path were cleared and returned to their original state. At the end of the 1990s, a cannon slot on the Saillant was enlarged and a wooden bridge for walkers was placed over the moat. In the lower area the trench is used by a shooting club.
XII - Wilhelmsburg
The 200 × 130 meter Wilhelmsburg, which was built under the Württemberg Major von Erhardt in the years 1842 to 1849, serves as a reduit for the Wilhelmsfeste, which consists of several works, and is the strongest element of the main wall. The citadel could accommodate 6,951 men. The inner courtyard has an area of 1.3 hectares. The Wilhelmsburg consists of four flanks, a throat tower with its own inner courtyard and two 30 meter high flank towers on the front. It also extends from the bottom of the trench about 20 meters, in the area of the counter mine tunnels 25 meters deep into the ground. In addition, a dry ditch ran around the castle, the north side of which was filled in when the Wilhelmsfeste was converted into a Bundeswehr barracks in the 1950s. There are around 570 rooms in the Wilhelmsburg, it consists of 300,000 tons of limestone from the Blautal valley. Like the redoubts of the Danube bastions, the Wilhelmsburg was laid out as a defensive barracks, which means that the soldiers' living quarters are on the side facing the inner courtyard and the gun casemates on the outside. In the throat side there are semicircular openings that could be used as throw batteries. In Kehl tower is one with Horse Pairs passable ramp with which the individual floors can be supplied with all necessities. On the flank towers are the connections to plants XIII (left tower) and XVII (right tower), on the right flank the connection to plant XVIII and on the left corner to plant XI.
The Wilhelmsburg was used in different ways. From its completion until 1866 it was occupied by the Austrian fortress artillery , at the same time, but longer (until 1871) by the 6th Württemberg Infantry Regiment . In 1871 the Grenadier Regiment "King Karl" (5th Württembergisches) No. 123 moved in and stayed until 1918. It was not until 1920 that soldiers of the Reichswehr moved in again. In 1928 the now leaky earth cover was replaced by a tiled roof. In 1935 the units were reorganized through the establishment of the Wehrmacht, thus creating the 56th Infantry Regiment, of which only a part moved into the Wilhelmsburg. The Wehrmacht made little use of the citadel during the Second World War.
In August 1944, Telefunken's electron tube plant, threatened by the Soviet operation Bagration , was relocated from Łódź (then Litzmannstadt ) to Wilhelmsburg. Barracks were built in the inner courtyard to accommodate the forced or “ Eastern workers ” who worked there .
The roof structure burned out extensively as a result of several bomb hits, the rest was confiscated by the Americans after the end of the war for the reconstruction of the city. The castle now served as an emergency shelter for bombed-out citizens and homeless people. Over the years, a refugee camp with up to 3,000 residents and its own infrastructure was created. In 1956 it was dissolved and the last remaining residents were relocated to the Gaisenberg barracks. From 1956 to the 1970s, the castle was then used by the German armed forces, until the moisture that had penetrated due to the missing roof became so great that the rooms were uninhabitable. In 1985 the chimneys were sealed and from 1986-89 a tin roof was put on. The castle has almost dried up since the mid-1990s. In 1986 the city of Ulm bought the castle from the Federal Republic for the symbolic price of one mark. Since then it has been largely empty, only one solar company uses part of the Kehlturm and the sheet metal roof on the front for solar collectors, and there are also rooms for the Federal Fortress Ulm in the Kehlturm. The inner courtyard is used on official Bundeswehr events and by the Ulm Theater for open-air performances. In addition, the Förderkreis Bundesfestung offers a free guided tour on the 3rd Sunday of each month at 11 a.m. A registration is not necessary.
The Wilhelmsfeste - Works XIII to XVII
These fortresses were built between 1842 and 1857 under the direction of the Württemberg captain von Finsterlin with the support of the Württemberg lieutenants Berger, von Gaisberg and Arlt and could accommodate a total of 1,607 men, of which 766 were on the left base (XIV), 286 on the middle courtine ( XV) and 555 on the right base (XVI). The courtines XIII and XVII could not be proven as pure walls and ramparts. The Wilhelmsfeste had the strongest front of the federal fortress on the hilltop of the Michelsberg. Overall, the work consists of a circumferential and traversed rampart with an escarp wall and a dry ditch, interrupted several times by walls, as well as two bases (also known as redoubts ) on the shoulders of the front, each with a reduit. At the left corner of the throat there is a half caponier, in Courtine XV the large main caponier and on the right side a flank tower. Various barracks and a powder magazine were built in the inner courtyard. In the south is the Wilhelmsburg, which is its own fortress. To the north of the fortress were the teacher's tower and Fort Prittwitz, and it was connected to both by covered paths. The entire fortress has been used for military purposes almost continuously since its completion. The Württemberg army was based there until 1918, the Reichswehr from 1920 to 1935 , and then the Wehrmacht until 1945 . From 1945 to 1956 it was occupied by the US Army and since 1956 it has been the location of the Bundeswehr as Wilhelmsburg barracks , from 1956 to 2005 by the II Corps , from 2005 to 2013 by the Command Operative Command, intervention forces and since July 2013 by the Multinational Command Operational Command / Multinational Joint Headquarters Ulm . During the construction of some Bundeswehr installations, parts of the ramparts, especially on the left side, were destroyed, but overall the installation is well preserved.
Eastern mountain front
XVIII - Eastern connection line to Wilhelmsburg
The connection line, which can be occupied by 20 men, was built between 1843 and 1858 under the Saxon captain Vogt with the support of the Württemberg lieutenants Count von Reischach and von Valois. It connects the Wilhelmsburg with the Upper Gaisenberg Bastion and consists of a rampart that was subsequently traversed and equipped with powder magazines and casemates, a dry ditch, a glacis and an escarpe. In the right part a log house was built in front of the trench, in the left part a war powder magazine behind the wall. The gate in the Escarpen wall at the connection to Wilhelmsburg was blown up in 1905 and large parts of the trench were subsequently filled in from 1917. The Escarpen wall has been restored for a number of years, otherwise most of the work has been preserved.
XIX - Upper Gaisenberg Bastion
It was built between 1843 and 1858 under Hauptmann Vogt and could accommodate up to 206 men. Components of the core work were a traversed rampart, escarp wall, dry ditch, glacis, a reduit, second flanks at the shoulder points and a bonnet casemate with a litter battery behind in the saillant. The reduit was planned as a powder magazine and therefore has a rather unusual square shape. In 1903 the right side of the factory was demolished for the construction of Eythstrasse, only the right flank of the Second remained. In 2002 the now neglected plant was restored by the city after incidents of arson and vandalism became more frequent in the left flank of the Second. The front is now used by an adjacent nursery, the Reduit is the seat of a publishing house.
XX - Courtine am Gaisenberg
It connected the two Gaisenberg bastions and was built under Hauptmann Vogt between 1843 and 1858. The courtine included a rampart, escarpe, a dry ditch, a caponniere in the Saillant with a litter battery behind it, a glacis and the railway gate for the Filstalbahn . The Caponniere had the task of painting the moat to the two Gaisenberg bastions. From 1916, the wall was torn down by French prisoners of war and the trench was filled with it. Today only the Caponniere remains, which is used by the Sauschdall Jazz Cellar and the CAT Club.
XXI - Lower Gaisenberg Bastion
This bastion was one of the strongest core works of the main wall, the three-story reduit was built as a defensive barracks similar to the reduits of the Danube bastions, but because of the difference in height, it was divided into two wings. In 1896 another floor was added to the lower wing. It also consisted of a rampart, escarpe and dry ditch, a second flank on the left shoulder and a double caponier on the right shoulder. Powder magazines were installed in each of the wall ends, in the Saillant there were bonnet casemats, mortar batteries and bonnet batteries, the latter two on the wall. The bastion was occupied between 1897 and 1918 by the first battalion of the 127th Infantry Regiment , the Caponniere between 1913 and 1918 by the 12th Company of III. Battalions. The bastion, also known as the Gaisenberg barracks, was disbanded after the First World War and the Reduit became a residential building. During the Second World War, the floor added in 1896 burned down completely. In 1956 the last residents of the Wilhelmsburg were housed there, as this was to be used by the Bundeswehr. In 1960 the demolition of the bastion began to make room for the Ulm University of Applied Sciences . There is now a parking lot on the grounds of the Reduit. Only parts of the right wall, the mighty double caponier and parts of the right face and throat wall were preserved. Since then, the Caponniere has been used by the student café and Club 15, the area of the wall by the Charivari meeting place.
Lower city front
XXII - Courtine to the Lower Danube Bastion
This work connected the Lower Gaisenberg Bastion with the Lower Danube Bastion and could hold up to 165 men. It was built between 1845 and 1855 under the Prussian engineer Major Voelker . In addition to the usual structures of ramparts, escarpe, wet ditch and glacis, the Courtine had the Stuttgarter Tor on the left end, the Friedrichsautor on the right and a cavalier in the Saillant , in order to better target the apron, which is otherwise only protected by Fort Friedrichsau. A war laboratory for ammunition production was built behind the Cavalier in 1861. In addition to the Stuttgart Gate, the railway gate for the Brenz Railway was broken through between 1875 and 1877 . To the left of the Friedrichsautor was the large caponier on the lower city front, which had to line the moat on both sides up to the respective Saillants. Demolition of the plant began in 1902 and the facility was completely leveled by 1925. Today the glacis and some remains of the wall are still preserved.
XXIII and XXIV - Contregarde and Lower Danube Bastion
Both plants were built between 1845 and 1855 under Major von Völker, the Reduit under Lieutenant Sonntag from Württemberg and had 1,611 men (Bastion) and 52 men (Contregarde). The two plants consisted of a four-storey reduit with two flank towers and a stair tower that could be used as a defensive barracks, wall, escarpe, two wet trenches (a separate one for each plant), glacis, an unusually strong bonnet casemate in the bastion top with the one behind Litter battery, powder magazines in the Wallenden, a caponiere on the left shoulder and a half caponiere on the right throat wall. Between 1873 and 1918, the Reduit served the 1st and 3rd Company of the Württemberg Pioneer Battalion No. 13 as a barracks, hence the popular name "Pioneer Barracks". In 1894–96 the Reduit was raised by one floor. From 1904, after the main wall was abandoned, the wall was filled into the ditch and barracks buildings were erected on the resulting areas. Between 1921 and 1939, the barracks was occupied by engineer battalion No. 5, after which the military use of the bastion ended. During the Second World War, the upper floor burned down completely and was rebuilt in a modern form in 1950. The Reduit served as a building for the Robert Bosch School from the 1950s. Today the building houses a branch of the Ferdinand von Steinbeis School, a branch of the Ulm City Archives and the district media center. The Valckenburg School Ulm has been located on the site east of the Redoubt since 1975 , the Congress Center Ulm and the Maritim Hotel in the forecourt . The Lower Danube Bastion is not to be confused with the early modern and no longer existing Lower Danube Bastion, which was also called "Bastion Drath".
XXV and XXVI - Lower Danube Tower and Lower Town Throat
The gun turret, also known as the “Red Tower” due to its building material, and the throat wall were built between 1845 and 1855 under Major von Völker and could be occupied by up to 72 men, the throat with 7 men. The small country gate was located between the tower and the throat wall. The tower is still complete today, half of the throat wall has been preserved, and the right pillar of the country gate is still standing. In the first planning a complete fortification of the Danube bank between the Danube bastions was considered, but probably for cost reasons only short pieces of wall were built in the end, which reached up to the level of the Neu-Ulm Danube connections. The red tower is used today by the youth and culture platform Donauturm eV.
XXVII and XXVIII - Obere Stadtkehle and Oberer Donauturm
The works were built between 1843 and 1855 under Major von Schele. The so-called “White Tower” could be occupied by 73 men, the 75 meter long throat as pure masonry not at all. The southern railway gate also ran through the throat . The Danube Tower is still complete, the throat is only 30 meters between the railway line and the cycle path on the Danube Tower.
Neu-Ulm city wall
The Neu-Ulm city wall is completely different from the Ulm wall. It consists of alternating bastions and courtyards, all of which were built using brick. The fortress construction director Theodor von Hildebrandt was responsible for the design and implementation, and the construction of the main wall was led by the Bavarian lieutenants Lutz, Ysenburg and Schönnamsgruber. It was built between 1844 and 1850.
Half bastion 1 with Augsburger Tor
The half bastion was opposite the lower town throat and could be occupied with 66 men. To the right of the bastion, the Augsburger Tor led to the outside, which was expanded from one to two passageways in 1877/78. Most of the half-bastion was leveled as early as 1910/11. The batardeau for regulating the water in the bar was located on the log cabin . The Augsburger Tor remained there until 1960 and was used as a fire station, but was then demolished in favor of a wide road despite protests from the population. Parts of the glacis and the base of the connection block house at Uferstrasse 5 are still preserved today.
Courtine 2 with railway gate
The Courtine connected the half bastion 1 with the bastion 3 and could be occupied with 281 men. In the middle of the courtine stood a large caponier, with flank batteries in the tenailles on either side. The railway blockhouse was located on the covered path to the right of the Caponniere and next to the battery on the right was the railway gate of the Augsburg – Ulm railway line , built in 1852/53 and expanded in 1873–75 . In 1909/10 the work was almost completely removed. Today the railway blockhouse and the right flank battery are still preserved.
Bastion 3 with war powder magazine
In the south-eastern tip of the main wall was the up to 88 strong bastion 3. It consisted of the wall with an underlying battery on the Saillant, a drill hall and the war powder magazine I. In 1880, three earth and two hollow beams were built into the wall. Around 1910 the bastion was demolished up to the left hollow traverse, the war powder magazine followed in 1936, the rest of the work was leveled in 1954 and the parade hall was finally demolished in 2003. Large parts of the walls were still preserved underground, but they were removed in 2011 for the planned housing construction on the site.
Courtine 4 with the middle passage
The Courtine, up to 332 men strong, connected bastions 3 and 5. Its floor plan is similar to that of Courtine 2; a passage was created on the right flank battery in 1865 to relieve the other two gates. The demolition of the plant began in 1919 and on October 12 the foundation stone of the Neu-Ulm fortifications in the Caponniere was lifted, but under pressure from the government the work had to be stopped a little later. The demolition material already obtained was used for the renovation of the Catholic garrison church (today the parish church of St. Johann Baptist ) in 1922 and the erection of a war memorial on the Schwal in 1932. The courtine was leveled for the construction of a furniture factory from 1932, the caponniere was built over and later used as a canteen. When the factory was demolished in 1993, the Caponniere was exposed again and, instead of the planned demolition, included in the planning for the 2008 State Garden Show in 1998. In 2005–2007 the Caponniere was completely restored, a piece of moat with a trench was modeled in front of it, and a terrace was created on the roof, where concerts are regularly held. Further remains of the wall in the ground were removed in 2010 when construction began on apartments.
Bastion 5 with war hospital
The bastion lies exactly in the middle of the city wall and could be occupied with 814 men. The hospital was built as a defensive barracks between 1850 and 1854 and is the only one of its kind on the Neu-Ulm side. The hospital was used from 1873 by the 1st Battalion of the 1st Bavarian Foot Artillery Regiment . In 1894 the hospital was raised by two floors and the notches were replaced by windows. These projectiles burned out completely after an air raid in 1945 and were subsequently removed. The escarpen wall was designed as a shield wall with a wall thickness of up to 3.80 m. The work is overall in good condition, only part of the left work side is missing.
The Courtine connected bastions 5 and 7 and held a maximum of 335 men. As in Plant 4, the floor plan corresponds to that of Courtine 2. However, the wall behind the Caponniere was expanded to become a Cavalier. The Caponniere was hit by a bomb during World War II, the damage to the earth cover has not been repaired to this day. With the exception of the log houses in the covered path, the work has been completely preserved today. In front of the top of the Caponniere, an open-air stage was built at the end of the 1970s and the entire moat, including the wall, was redesigned into a park for the State Garden Show in 1980 in Ulm and Neu-Ulm. In summer there is a beer garden to the left of the Caponniere. The facades of the Escarpen walls were renovated in 2005.
The up to 92 man strong bastion is located in the southwestern tip of the Neu-Ulm wall, the floor plan corresponds to that of the bastion 3. Behind the wall in today's Kollmannspark is the former war powder magazine II with a capacity of 60 t (1200 quintals) of black powder; The Neu-Ulm water tower was built on the magazine in 1898. In contrast to Bastion 3, no hollow trusses were built into the wall during the modernization, instead it received three earth trusses on the top of the wall. The Saillant is currently used as a warehouse by an adjacent company.
Courtine 8 with war powder magazine
The Courtine connected the bastion 7 with the half bastion 9 and could accommodate up to 288 men. Here, too, the floor plan corresponds to that of the other courtines with small differences. In 1912 Schützenstrasse was broken through to the left of the Caponniere, otherwise the work was completely preserved during the deconsolidation. The wall was later built on with houses. During the 1930s and during the Second World War, the Caponniere was expanded and used as a rescue center for civilian air defense. After that, a paint shop was operated in it; today there is a nature conservation association in the building. The earth cover that had become leaky was exchanged for a sheet metal roof in 2001.
Half bastion 9 with Memminger Tor
The half bastion is located exactly opposite the upper city throat of the Ulm city wall and could be occupied by up to 82 men. The floor plan corresponds to that of half bastion 1, the Memminger Tor has been preserved here in its original form with a passage. On the connecting blockhouse (Jahnstraße 54), which is still partially preserved today, there was a batardeau to regulate the water level of the barn surrounding the main wall.
Outer forts of the federal fortress
XXIX and XXX - Fort Unterer Kuhberg with horn work
The fort including the hornworks was built between 1846 and 1858 under the Nassau lieutenant von Sachs and the Württemberg lieutenant von Valois about one kilometer southwest of the Ravelin III at the foot of the Kuhberg in the form of a semi- lunette and could hold up to 1,300 men, 1,270 of them im Fort and 30 in the horn factory. The entire work consists of a reduit, a rampart with 25 gun positions, escarpe and dry trench, the hornwork, which connects to the double caponier on the left shoulder, a throat caponier, a half caponier on the right shoulder, a bonnet casemate in the, a separate caponier in front of the saillant and a log house in front of the flank tower of the horn factory. Litter batteries are also located in the left shoulder and in the wall behind the Saillant. Between 1890 and 1910 numerous barracks buildings were built behind the wall, the Reduit was also raised by one floor and the gun slots were converted into windows. The fort was occupied from 1873 by the Württemberg foot artillery battalion No. 13, which was converted into a Prussian foot artillery from 1893 and was called Hohenzoller's foot artillery regiment No. 13 from 1902. The artillery had to be completely dissolved due to the Treaty of Versailles in 1920. The Reichswehr occupied the fort from 1921 to 1933, then the Wehrmacht until 1945. At that time the fort was already called "Lower Kuhberg Barracks". In 1944/45 several rooms were also used as air raid shelters. After the war, the casemates were used by companies and the barracks by a secondary school. During this time, the trench was filled with rubble and the roofs of the escarp walls were removed. Overall, the system is in good condition, only the horn factory and the right-hand side of the factory have suffered a lot of damage from neglect. A youth farm has been located at the Hornwerk since 1980, the grounds of the fort are used by the Illerblick Waldorf School and the Reduit as well as the barracks buildings by the Academy for Performing Arts and the Ulm Fools' Guild.
XXXI - Fort Mittlerer Kuhberg
The small tower fort was built about one kilometer southwest of the Unterer Kuhberg fort between 1855 and 1857 under the Württemberg captain von Gaisberg. It had a throat wall with a reduit and a rampart with four gun emplacements. It was built because the area of Fort Unterer Kuhberg was not visible and an intermediate work was necessary. Around 1880 the redoubt was filled with earth and the wall was provided with three trusses. During the Second World War, the Reduit served as a warehouse for duds and stick incendiary bombs . On September 24, 1944, the fort was badly damaged by an explosion after children scratched explosives from a 2,000 kg bomb and set them on fire. The ruin was torn down in 1959/60. Today there is a youth hostel on the site, the outline of the fort can still be seen from the row of trees.
XXXII - Fort Oberer Kuhberg
This fort was built 500 meters northwest of Fort Mittlerer Kuhberg under the direction of Lieutenant von Valois (foundations) and Captain von Gaisberg (completion) in the years 1848 to 1857 on the Kuhberg, which then merges into the Hochstrasse . It has a rampart with mortar batteries in both shoulders and in the saillant, a surrounding wall with flank towers on the frontal shoulders, and a crescent-shaped reduit in the throat side. A dry moat runs around the fort, on the outside of which there was a log cabin in front of the Saillant. The fort could be occupied with a maximum of 814 men. During the Franco-Prussian War , French prisoners of war, mainly Turkos , were housed in the fort . The fort was modernized between 1878 and 1882: three hollow beams, a war powder magazine and two under-tread rooms were built into the wall; the height of the side walls and the side towers were lowered. In 1889 the bridge was replaced by an earth dam. During the last modernization in 1903/04, infantry fences were erected around the fort and the central casemates were reinforced with concrete. The fort became a pure infantry work of the advanced position of the Reich Fortress Ulm (see #Armierungsbauten der Reichsfestung Ulm ). After the First World War, the fort was used by the Reichswehr, and in 1921 the blockhouse in front of the Saillant was demolished. In 1933 the fort was rented by the Württemberg Ministry of the Interior in order to build a concentration camp there. From 1939 to 1945 the fort was successively an ammunition plant, then a prisoner-of-war camp for Poles, and from 1942 for French. In 1944/45, like many of the Ulm fortifications, it was used as an air raid shelter, then as emergency accommodation and company premises. From 1945 to 1955 there was a restaurant in the Reduit. In 1955, the Ulm School of Design was built on the left glacis . From 1967 the restoration of the fort by the Ulm veterinarian Otmar Schäuffelen began, which in 1974 led to the establishment of the Federal Fortification Association. Today the support group and the documentation center Oberer Kuhberg share the completely preserved fort, in which guided tours take place again and again.
Fort Oberer Kuhberg as a concentration camp in the Third Reich
Fort Oberer Kuhberg was one of the first concentration camps of the Third Reich from November 1933 to July 1935 . The fort was named " Monument of the Month January 2010" by the Monument Foundation Baden-Württemberg .
XXXIII - Fort Söflinger Tower
The tower fort was built in 1855 and 1856 under the direction of Lieutenant Faber du Faur, it could be occupied with 65 men. It is just under two kilometers west of the Kienlesberg bastion and two and a half kilometers north of the Oberer Kuhberg fort. It consists only of a circumferential rampart, a valley wall and a reduit. In 1899 the stair tower on the Reduit was demolished. Until the 1970s, the fort was used by an industrial company and restored from 1981.
XXXIV - Fort Unterer Eselsberg
The fort is located 1.2 km west of the Wilhelmsburg and 900 m northeast of the Söflinger Turm fort and could accommodate up to 684 men. It was built under the direction of Faber du Faur between 1848 and 1856. It consists of a traversed rampart with eight gun emplacements, a surrounding wall, an arched reduit, the ends of which (called traditors) extend into the throat, a trench, a double caponier in the Saillant and a litter battery behind it. In 1903 the fort in front of the right front was expanded to include an ammunition plant. During the Second World War, the Reduit was badly damaged and the ramparts were devastated by explosive bombs. In the post-war period, the fort was home to the fire department, a police station and a police dog squadron. From 1985 the fort was restored and the reduit rebuilt. Today several associations have their headquarters in the Reduit.
XXXVI - teacher tower
The largest gun turret of the federal fortress was built between 1848 and 1852 about 200 m in front of the large trench caponier of the Wilhelmsfeste under the direction of Lieutenant Arlt. It could be occupied by 336 men and had three casemated floors. The ground floor only had gun slots, the first floor gun slots and on the second floor there were gun slots at the front and semicircular openings to the Wilhelmsfeste. Since the tower was completely unprotected in front of and at the same time too close to the front of the Wilhelmsfeste, it was completely demolished during the modernization in 1876. The work number was assigned to the main factory in Oberer Eselsberg in 1881.
XXXVII - Fort Prittwitz
The northernmost outer fort was built from 1847 to 1854 under Lieutenant Arlt and could accommodate 413 men. It is about 500 m from the front of the Wilhelmsfeste and was called Fort Avancé until 1863 . It was renamed in honor of the fortress construction director. It has a rampart, an escarpen wall, a dry ditch, a round reduit in the throat wall and caponiers at both shoulder points. There are powder magazines in the Wallenden. It is connected to the Wilhelmsfeste by a covered path within a glacis-like embankment. In the course of modernization measures from 1877, the caponiers and the reduit were lowered by one floor and the walls in the facets were removed up to the level of the circular corridor below the ramparts. Three hollow cross beams were built into the wall and the wall was expanded and placed around the reduit to protect it from fire. During the Second World War, the fort was the location of the Luftwaffe Flight Command V and the Air Warning Command . In the post-war period it was used as a production facility and warehouse. It has belonged to the Wilhelmsburg barracks since 1960.
XXXVIII - Fort Örlinger tower
The free-standing gun turret, also popularly known as the "Swedish Tower", was built between 1850 and 1852 under Lieutenant Arlt and was occupied by 106 men. It is located 600 m east of the Wilhelmsfeste in the Örlinger Valley directly on the Filstalbahn , which it was built to protect. A special feature of the Ulm Federal Fortification are the machicolations on the tower instead of the otherwise usual flanking turrets, with which the floor directly in front of the tower could be coated. On the ground floor there are retracted arches into which sinkholes have been built. The earth cover was exchanged for a smooth cement coat in 1948. The tower then served as a youth hostel until it moved to the site of the former Mittlerer Kuhberg fort in 1960. The tower was still inhabited until July 2010.
XXXIX - Fort Albeck
On the summit of the Safranberg, the largest outer fort of the federal fortress was built from 1846 under Lieutenant Zimmerle from Württemberg and Lieutenant Becher from Austria and completed in 1859 as the last work of the fortress. The fort could be occupied with up to 1,340 men and is located about 700 m northeast of the Upper Gaisenberg bastion. It consists of a traversed rampart with 16 gun positions, an escarpe with double capons in the shoulder points, a throat wall with a reduit, the traditors of which protrude into the trench, a bonnet casemate with a litter battery behind in the Saillant, two powder magazines in the wall, a Wallmeisterhaus in the left throat and log houses at the throat corners and in front of the Saillant. Around 1880, four more hollow trusses were built into the wall. From 1897 the 2nd Company of the 9th Württemberg Infantry Regiment No. 127 occupied the fort. From 1918 the fort was only used for military purposes. During the Second World War it was badly damaged in bombing and attacks by the Wehrmacht itself. Like many other works in the fortress, the premises were used by companies and homeless people in the post-war period. The fort is badly disfigured and neglected due to illegal rubbish dumps and renovations from this period and after 1960. Only the reduit, which was restored by the city in 1977/78, and the Wallmeisterhaus that was inhabited are in good condition. Until some time ago there were several traders on the site, a scout community is housed in the Reduit, and allotment gardens are located on the wall. At the end of 2011, the city of Ulm laid a ramp in the Kehlgraben and started clearing work there. On December 11, 2014, a circular route in and around Fort Albeck was opened to make it accessible to the public.
XL - Fort Safranberg
Fort Safranberg is the smallest external fort of the federal fortress with 150 × 100 meters and is located about 300 m east of Fort Albeck. It was built between 1855 and 1858 in the form of a semi-bezel under Lieutenant Blumhardt from Württemberg and held up to 66 men. It consists of a reduit, a rampart, a throat wall and a dry moat. After the military use ended in 1918, the Reduit served as a warehouse for explosives and fireworks for a long time, and there is still a privately used garden in the inner courtyard to this day. After being neglected for decades, the fort was bought by the Bundesfestung Förderkreis in 1995 and has been restored since then.
XLI - Fort Friedrichsau
Fort Friedrichsau, 750 m north-east of the Lower Danube Bastion, was built between 1852 and 1854 under Lieutenant Blumhardt and held up to 113 men. The plant was the only fort in the fortress to have a wet moat. It also consists of a reduit, a rampart, a valley wall, two hollow traverses, two flank towers at the shoulder points and - also unique in the fortress - a capital traverse in the saillant of the ramparts, which almost completely separates the two halves of the factory. Originally it was planned as a fort in the second row and should have five sides of equal length. After the Neu-Ulmer Werke 10 and 11 were canceled, however, the plans for the fort had to be adapted and it was built in the form of a lunette. In 1914 the reduit on the inner courtyard side was provided with a meter thick concrete armor, as the rooms were intended as a fuel store. During the Second World War it was also used as an air raid shelter and then as a food store. The right flank tower was demolished in the 1960s in favor of a bear enclosure. The bear enclosure was relocated to the nearby zoo in 2003. Otherwise the work is completely preserved.
12 - Schwaighofen Vorwerk
The outer fort was built between 1850 and 1853 under the Bavarian lieutenants Belleville and Knollmann and could accommodate up to 231 men. It is only about 250 meters in front of the Saillant of Bastion 3 and consists of a rampart that was subsequently traversed in 1880, an escarpe with a dry ditch, and two capons on the sides of the redoubt in the throat wall. The fort was later extended, today the walls are used as apartments and company headquarters. Today the plant is hidden in the industrial park in Starkfeld.
13 - Ludwigsvorfeste
The Vorwerk, named after the Bavarian King Ludwig I , is located 800 m south of Bastion 5 and was built in the form of a lunette between 1850 and 1853 under the Bavarian lieutenants Ysenburg and Dillmann. The Vorfeste could accommodate up to 283 men and consists of a rampart that was subsequently traversed in 1880, a surrounding wall with a ditch, a three-winged reduit and a total of four capons at the throat and shoulder points. After Neu-Ulm ended as a garrison town in 1918, the plant was no longer used for military purposes until 1945; the throat was integrated into the Ludendorff barracks from 1937. During the occupation by the US Army, the fort was included in the Wiley Barracks and converted into an ammunition depot. During the construction of the Europastraße, the valley side had to be changed significantly. In the mid-1980s, the Americans began restoring the fort with funds from the monument authorities. After the Americans moved out, the fort slowly became overgrown again until it was included in the 2008 State Garden Show and restored. Today the reduit is used by two restaurants and a small craft company.
14 - Vorwerk Illerkanal
The Vorwerk Illerkanal was planned as Vorwerk No. 15 and built from 1850 to 1853 under the Hanoverian Oberleutnant Oppermann and the Bavarian Oberleutnants Ysenburg and Leutner in the manner of a round tower fort. It is located around 700 m southwest of Bastion 7 and up to 265 men could be occupied. Until the completion of the Illerkanal, which gave it its name, in 1910, the fort remained nameless. The work consists of a rampart that was subsequently traversed in 1878, an escarpe with a ditch and a three-wing reduit. During the construction of the Neu-Ulm exit in the middle of the A 80 (now the B 28 ) in the 1970s, part of the glacis and the ditch on the left side were removed. In 1978 the plant was acquired by the city of Neu-Ulm, where the Vorwerk Festival takes place regularly.
XXXV - subsidiary plant Upper Eselsberg
The fort, located on the top of the 620 meter high Eselsberg, was built between 1883 and 1887 under Lieutenant Colonels Küster and Lehmann. The construction of this fort and the main structure is called the Biehler unit fort after its inventor . The entire rampart is built deeper into the ground and cannot be seen by the enemy straight away. The side work could accommodate up to 350 men and has a total of four caponiers, one on each shoulder, one in the saillant and one in the throat. A war powder magazine is located under the left flank wall. The casemate building under the wall served as a reduit for the fort. During the second wave of modernization of the federal fortress in 1903/04 it was reinforced with concrete on caponiers, the front casemate corps and parts of the Kehl barracks and a monier observation post. The fort then served as a pure infantry factory. In 1914 it was included in the advanced main battle position of the Reich fortress as base 30. After the Second World War, it was first used as an emergency shelter, then the Bundeswehr as a depot, and then the animal research institute. Since 2009, after 30 years of vacancy, the Förderkreis Bundesfestung Ulm has been working here every week with maintenance of the green spaces and renovation work.
XXXVI - main plant Oberer Eselsberg
The large main factory in Oberer Eselsberg, like factory XXXV, was designed as a Biehler fort and built from 1881 to 1887 under Lieutenant Küster and Lehmann as an almost symmetrical bezel. It could be occupied with up to 750 men. The work has a caponier on each shoulder and one on the saillant, there was also a casemate corps. Around 1903 the factory was converted into a pure infantry factory and in 1914 it was included in the main combat position as base 29. The Reichswehr and Wehrmacht used the fort, but not as a barracks. After that it was first used as an emergency shelter, then as an ammunition depot for the Americans and as a warehouse. In 1971 the interior of the plant was demolished in order to build the supply center of the University of Ulm on it, only the moats and parts of the wall have been preserved.
Works not built
Mostly for cost reasons, but also due to pressure from the Federal Assembly, some planned works were subsequently deleted. These included the original XXXV on the Ulm side, a turret similar to the Lehrer Turm in the Ruhetal. On the Neu-Ulm side, the Vorwerk 10 near Offenhausen (today in the area east of Robert-Stolz-Straße) and the gun tower 11 on the Maximiliansbahn, the original Vorwerk 14 (called 13½ in later plans) in the area of the Wiblinger Steige south of the Courtine 6 and the later planned fort on Kapellenberg in Pfuhl were deleted.
Reinforcement structures of the Reich Fortress Ulm
In addition, there are a few rooms and bases outside the fortifications and fortifications, which were made of concrete and reinforced concrete between 1901 and 1916 . The works were built on land owned by farmers without their permission and most of them were never completed. Many of these reinforcement works were leveled during the First World War. In 1945 many more works were blown up by the Allies, some of these works can still be seen today.
1st construction phase 1901–1910
- Böfingen infantry base (1903-04, Ulm-Böfingen, Alfred-Delp-Weg, destroyed 1945/46) - from 1914: ammunition room 1
- Infantry base Gleißelstetten (1901–02, Ulm-Söflingen, Hasensteige, almost completely preserved) - from 1914: rear ammunition store in the Kuhberge section
- Haslach infantry base (1901–02, Ulm-Böfingen, Heidenheimer Strasse, 1945/46 partially destroyed) - from 1914: ammunition room 2 and the headquarters of the section command for the Haslach section
- Jungingen-Mitte infantry base (1901–02, Ulm-Jungingen, Albstraße, destroyed 1945/46) - from 1914: seat of the section command for the Jungingen section
- Jungingen-Ost infantry base (1901–02, Ulm-Jungingen, east of Albstraße, partially destroyed in 1945/46) - from 1914: ammunition room 3
- Jungingen-West infantry base (1901–02, Ulm-Jungingen, Stuttgarter Straße, destroyed 2006–09) - from 1914: Artillery room 9
- Infantry base Kapellenberg (1907-09, Neu-Ulm / Pfuhl, Narzissenweg, completely preserved underground) - from 1914: base 70
- Infantry base Lehr (1905–07, Ulm-Lehr, south of Tobelstraße, destroyed 1945/46, terrain forms recognizable) - from 1914: base 26
- Spitzäcker infantry base (1908–10, Ulm-Lehr, Lerchenfeldweg north of Lehr, destroyed in 1945/46) - from 1914: base 22
- Weinberge infantry base (1901–02, Ulm-Eselsberg, east of Heilmeyersteige, destroyed in 1945/46) - from 1914: base 32
2nd construction phase 1914–1916
The front line was to consist of a belt of trenches and bases, which began with trench 1 near Obertalfingen, ran counterclockwise around Ulm and Neu-Ulm and ended north of Pfuhl with trench 78. In addition, according to the original plans, there were 9 space strokes, 26 artillery rooms, 12 ammunition rooms, 4 pumping stations and numerous batteries and artillery positions. Construction began in the first days of World War I in July 1914. Only six weeks later it was clear that the enemy would not advance on Ulm and work on the unfinished last fortress belt was stopped. Some of the already completed works were immediately demolished, others were used by the farmers on whose fields the works had been built without being asked. After the Second World War, numerous facilities, especially bases, ammunition and artillery rooms, were blown up by the US Army.
Only a few remnants are completely preserved from this construction phase today: The spaces in between 6 at the Römerhöfe, the entire base 58 (Humboldtstrasse, Neu-Ulm), the Buchbrunnen pumping station near Jungingen, the guard rooms 1 and 2 of the base 63 (Reuttier Strasse, Neu-Ulm) and under room 31 on Eselsberg. Also underground are the waking room 1 of the support point 37 (Harthauser Straße, Söflingen), the waking rooms 1 and 2 and the dressing room of the base 3 (Lehle, Böfingen), the waking room of the support point 14 (Haslacher Straße, Jungingen), the rooms under the trenches 16 (Gehrnstrasse, Jungingen), 66 (Steinheimer Weg, Pfuhl), 69 (Lindenstrasse, Pfuhl) and 74 (Pfuhler Hauptstrasse) and support point 70 (Narzissenweg, Pfuhl). The debris of the ammunition rooms 5 and 6, the artillery rooms 3, 15 and 19, the Butzental pumping station, the support point 45 and the interstice space 5 are still visible today, the forms of the earth from support point 26 (Tobelstrasse, Lehr). Only construction pits exist to this day from the trench 2 and the interstice 1 (both between Obertalfingen and the Danube), the artillery rooms 18 (Klosterwald, Söflingen) and 24 (Koppenwörth, Neu-Ulm) and the trench 2c (along the Illerkanal near Ludwigsfeld).
- Hellmut Pflüger: Monument protection for the Ulm federal fortress. An interim balance. In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg , 4th year 1975, issue 2, pp. 57–59 ( PDF )
- Otmar Schäuffelen: The federal fortress Ulm and its history . Europe's largest fortress. 2nd Edition. Vaas Verlag, Langenau 1982, ISBN 978-3-88360-019-2 (208 pages).
- Otmar Schäuffelen: Federal fortress Ulm . a guide through the fortifications. 2nd Edition. Vaas Verlag, Langenau 1989, ISBN 978-3-88360-066-6 (31 pages).
- Matthias Burger: The Federal Fortress Ulm . Germany's largest fortress ensemble. 1st edition. Süddeutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, Ulm 2006, ISBN 978-3-88294-366-5 (352 pages).
- Simon Palaoro: city and fortress . a short history of the federal fortress Ulm. 2nd Edition. Klemm & Oelschläger, Ulm 2009, ISBN 978-3-932577-87-1 (101 pages).
- Matthias Burger: Federal Fortress Ulm . a guide through the fortifications. 1st edition. Förderkreis Bundesfestung Ulm, Ulm 2010, ISBN 978-3-88294-414-3 (45 pages).
- Markus Theile: The Fort Oberer Kuhberg . 1st edition. Süddeutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, Ulm 2014, ISBN 978-3-88294-455-6 (54 pages).
- Markus Theile: The Ulm 6-pounder fortress gun from 1848. Self-published by the Förderkreis Bundesfestung Ulm e. V., Ulm 2016
- Sabine Kraume-Probst, Simone Wolfrum: A sleeping giant. The Wilhelmsburg in Ulm - importance and approach to a listed renovation. News sheet of the preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg, year 2018, issue 2, pages 82-87 (PDF; 5.8 MB)
The self-published publications of the Förderkreis Bundesfestung Ulm eV can be obtained from them.
- Support group Bundesfestung Ulm eV
- The federal fortress Ulm
- Views of the fort Oberer Kuhberg in Ulm
- The subsidiary Upper Eselsberg
Coordinates: 48 ° 24 ′ 43 " N , 9 ° 58 ′ 58" E