Vögte von Plauen
The bailiffs of Plauen were a noble family named after their seat in Plauen in the Vogtland . Like the governors of Gera , they were a branched line from the governors of Weida . A later branch of the Plauen bailiffs were the Burgraves of Meissen and the Reussians of Greiz . The latter ruled as the House of Reuss until 1918 in two German federal principalities. The Vogtland is named after the entire clan of the bailiffs.
Lending with Plauen
Relatives of the Counts of Everstein (or Eberstein), who came from the Weser Uplands , founded the Dobnagau around Plauen as locators from around 1100 . Their first castle seat was on the Dobenaufelsen in the Syratal , then they built a city castle on the southwest corner of the Plauen wall ring, the remnant of which is today's Malzhaus . The Ebersteiners enfeoffed Heinrich II "the rich" († around 1209) from the dynasty of the bailiffs of Weida with Plauen. In 1236 Plauen appears for the first time in a document in the possession of the "Vögte von Plauen". Heinrich's grandson, Heinrich I. von Plauen , built the Plauen Castle as his seat. On May 25, 1278, the previous sovereign, Count Konrad von Everstein from Lower Saxony, came to Plauen personally and assigned the city to his brother-in-law, Vogt Heinrich I. Plauen and the Gau Dobena. Heinrich obviously remained in a loose feudal association with the Count of Everstein. His older son Heinrich II "the Bohemian" founded the line of the bailiffs of Plauen, the younger, Heinrich Ruthenus , "the Russian", founded the younger line, the later Princely House of Reuss .
Until the middle of the 13th century, the heads of the entire bailiff's family acted uniformly and expanded their terra advocatorum (the territory of the bailiffs). In the 14th century, however, they fell victim to the expansive efforts of their neighbors, the Margraves of Meißen and the kings of Bohemia: The Vogtlinien concluded, in part, mutually targeting alliances with the two neighbors, so the House of Plauen came under Bohemian feudal rule in 1327 while the governors of Weida and those of Gera joined the Wettins. In the Vogtland War of 1354–57, the bailiffs of Weida, Gera and Plauen lost most of their property to Emperor Charles IV and the Wettins .
Differentiation of the bailiffs and lords of Plauen from the Reussians
The Vögte von Plauen emerged from the tribe of the Vögte von Weida (extinct in 1531), as did the line of the Vögte von Gera , which became extinct in 1550. The Vogtland takes its name from this large clan. The line of the bailiffs of Plauen was divided into the later burgraves of Plauen and the later counts and princes of Reuss .
The two sons of Heinrich I , the first bailiff of Plauen, who were named after their wives, are considered to be the founders and namesake of new lines. Heinrich II. , The older son, called "the Bohemian" († documented until April 23, 1302), was the founder of the older Plauen line, from which the later castle-counts line of Plauen emerged.
Heinrich Ruthenus , or Heinrich the Russian , († before December 12, 1295) founded the younger line. First his son called himself Heinrich II. Reuss. With him, Reuss became a family name in 1307. The future Princely House of Reuss emerged from this line .
The namesake of both lines died before their father Heinrich I. von Plauen.
In 1306 the rule of Plauen was divided under the grandsons of Heinrich I into the older line, which bore the title of Vogt von Plauen and the younger line, which bore the title of Vogt von Plauen zu Greiz and from then on took its seat in Greiz , from which the " Reuss von Greiz and Gera ”emerged.
The older line died out with the death of Henry VI. von Plauen on January 22nd, 1572. His property fell to the Russians.
The bailiffs of Weida, Plauen, Gera and Greiz as well as the Reussians 1
|Heinrich II. The rich
Vogt von Weida
Lord of Weida , Gera , Plauen ,
Greiz and Ronneburg
(† around 1209)
|Henry III. the elder
Vogt of Weida and Ronneburg
(† around 1224)
|Heinrich IV. The Middle
Vogt of Plauen and Gera
|Heinrich V the Younger
Vogt of Greiz and Reichenbach
(† around 1240)
|Bailiffs and Lords of Weida
Lords of Weida and Ronneburg
Heinrich I the Elder
Vogt of Plauen
Lord of Plauen, Greiz
(† around 1303)
|Heinrich I the Younger
Vogt of Gera
Lord of Gera, Tanna
Heinrich II the Bohemian
Vogt and Lord of Plauen
Heinrich I der Reuße
Vogt and Lord of Plauen
Bailiffs and Lords of Gera
Lords of Gera, Schleiz
|Bailiffs and Lords of Plauen,
Lords of Plauen and Mühltroff
|Lords Reuss von Plauen,
Lords of Greiz and Gera
|Bailiffs and Lords of Plauen
Lords of Mühltroff
(† around 1380)
Burgrave of Meissen,
Lords of Plauen
Reuss older line
Reuss middle line
Reuss younger line
(since 1930 Reuss)
1 RED: line extinguished / GREEN: flowering line
Vögte von Plauen
- Heinrich I von Plauen († after March 7, 1303 / last documentary mention), Vogt von Plauen
- Heinrich II. , The Bohemian, Vogt von Plauen (last documented mention April 23, 1302)
- Henry III. , der Lange, Vogt von Plauen (last documented mention February 16, 1347)
In 1348 the country was divided into the houses of Mühltroff (older line) and Plauen (younger line).
- Heinrich IV. , Vogt von Plauen, Herr auf Mühltroff († before May 8, 1364), lost Voigtsberg, Oelsnitz and Adorf to the Margraves of Meißen in the Vogtland War and exchanged his remaining Vogtland property to them in 1357,
- Heinrich VII. , Vogt von Plauen, Lord of Mühltroff († around 1380)
- Heinrich V , Vogt of Plauen, († after December 12, 1356)
- Heinrich VIII. , Vogt and lord of Plauen (documented until August 25, 1368 / † around 1370), is the first to call himself lord of Plauen, was the younger brother of Heinrich V. von Plauen
- Henry IX. , Herr zu Plauen, owns Plauen as bohemian. Fiefdom and Auerbach Pausa, Gefell and Liebau as Thür.-Meißnisches fiefdom, buys the rule Königswart in Bohemia in 1387 , († around 1413)
Burgrave of Meissen
see also: List of Burgraves of Meißen
- Heinrich I von Plauen († 1446/47), actually Heinrich X. von Plauen, as Heinrich I Burgrave of Meißen, Lord of Beschau and Königswart , court judge of the Holy Roman Empire, Reichspfleger in Eger , was appointed in 1426 after the death of Heinrich II . (Meinheringer) ( Meinheringer ) appointed Burgrave of Meissen by King Sigismund ; Since the Meissen possessions of the extinct Meinheringer were occupied by the Saxon elector and the rule of Hartenstein by the Schönburgers , the Plauen man never ruled as a burgrave, he only received the office of Frauenstein as a Wettin fiefdom and held the title of burgrave
Heinrich II. Von Plauen († 1484), was burgrave from 1446/47, was expelled from the Vogtland in 1466 because he was feuding with both the Saxon electors and the Bohemian king
- In 1466, with the expulsion of Heinrich II, the rule of the Plauen people over the offices of Plauen and Voigtsberg , which the Saxon Elector Ernst received as a Bohemian fief , ended. His son Heinrich III finally waived his claims in favor of the Wettins in 1482 , but still received the right for himself and his descendants to use the title of Burgrave of Meissen, which meant one vote at the Reichstag . This was given to him by Emperor Friedrich III. Documented in 1490.
- Henry III. von Plauen († 1519 on Neuhartenstein ), bailiff of Lower Lusatia, lord of Königswart and Beschau , was burgrave from 1482
- Heinrich IV. Von Plauen (August 24, 1510 - May 19, 1554), Bohemian Schenk 1530 , January 22, 1542 Colonel Chancellor of the Crown of Bohemia, royal councilor and chamberlain under King Ferdinand , received the entire Vogtland from 1547 to 1550, conquered in 1553 / 54 City and Office of Hof and the Office of Schauenburg
- Heinrich V. von Plauen (* 1533; † 1568), first ruled alone, after Heinrich VI came of age. together with him the inherited lands, received the Bohemian possessions when the country was partitioned in 1563 and the offices of Plauen and Voigtsberg, pledged to Saxony in 1559, which he could no longer redeem in 1563, and in 1567 he lost the last Bohemian property
- Henry VI. von Plauen (* 1536; † 1572), received the rule Schleiz , Lobenstein and Burg Posterstein as well as the office of Pausa when the country was divided .
With the extinction of the older line of bailiffs von Plauen in 1572, the dynasty of the Burgraves of Meissen ended. After the Plauen had never reigned as burgraves, the title was now also passed to the Electors of Saxony.
Plauen Castle ,
seat of the Plauen bailiffs
Mühltroff Castle ,
owned by the bailiffs until 1357
Castle tower in Auerbach / Vogtl.
coat of arms
On December 15, 1294, in the field camp at Borna, Count Palatine Rudolf near Rhine and Duke of Bavaria issued the bailiffs Heinrich the Elder and Heinrich the Younger of Plauen, as well as the bailiffs of Weida and Gera, a formal letter of coat of arms, in which he says that the ancestors of the bailiffs Shield and banner from his, the Duke's ancestors. The Palatine lion can be traced back to 1230 and has been crowned since around 1240. The first coat of arms seal of the bailiffs of Weida is from approx. 1240–44, all earlier seals are gems. The award of the coat of arms and banners should therefore fall during this time. The actual origin of the lion is likely to have from the Counts of Everstein, who had the same coat of arms (also the same crest), only in other tinctures (silver-blue): The rule of Plauen belonged to Count Everstein in 1122, Plauen appears for the first time in 1236 Property of the Weida bailiffs. One line was then called Vögte von Plauen, with Plauen as an Eversteinian fief. It is therefore not excluded that the Everstein coat of arms (the Reussen) received the palatine tinctures, perhaps around 1261, when the bailiffs of Weida, Gera and Plauen had concluded a war alliance with the father of the Count Palatine Rudolf. Only in 1370 did the crest of the Gera line change to the Brackenhaupt, which it possibly owes to the Zollern family, who bought the right to this crest in 1317 (the silver-black tincture would speak for it). Around the middle of the 15th century, the Brackenhaupt was also taken over by the Reuss and Plauen lines. The family coat of arms then showed a red crowned and armored golden lion in black. On the helmet with black and silver covers a bracken trunk split by silver and black . This coat of arms is the same for all lines that are derived from the bailiffs of Weida:
- the Weidaer themselves
- the governors and masters of Gera
- the Plauener
- the governors and lords of Plauen zu Greiz
As burgraves, the Lords of Plauen carried on the Meinheringer coat of arms, a black St. Andrew's cross on a golden background. On the helmet a golden square umbrella board, on it the cross, which is decorated with 5 peacock feathers at the corners. The ceilings are gold and black.
- Traugott Märcker : Das Burggrafthum Meissen , in: Diplomatically critical contributions to the history and constitutional rights of Saxony, 1 vol., Leipzig 1842.
- Berthold Schmidt : Die Reußen, genealogy of the entire Reuss house older and younger line, as well as the extinct Vogtslinien to Weida, Gera and Plauen and the burgraves of Meißen from the House of Plauen , Schleiz 1903.
- Berthold Schmidt: Burgrave Heinrich IV of Meißen, Colonel Chancellor of the Crown of Bohemia and his government in the Vogtland , Gera 1888.
- Berthold Schmidt: History of the Reußenland , 1st and 2nd half volume, Gera 1923 and 1927.
- Robert Hänsel: Reussische Genealogie - additions and corrections using the notes left by Berthold Schmidt and with his own contributions , = contributions to medieval and modern history 13, Jena 1940.
- Johannes Richter: How the Vogtland became part of Electoral Saxony. On the history of the bailiffs of Weida, Gera Plauen and Reuss-Plauen in the High and Late Middle Ages [3 parts], in: Vogtländische Heimatblätter, H. 4/1997, pp. 11–13; H. 5/1997, pp. 4-6; H. 6/1997, pp. 12-14.
- Johannes Richter: On the genealogy and history of the Burgraves of Meißen and Earls of Hartenstein from the older Plauen house , in Sächsische Heimatblätter H. 5/1992.
- Johannes Richter: Burgrave Heinrich IV of Meissen, Count of Hartenstein, Lord of Plauen and Gera - "The Conqueror of Hof" . In: History on the Obermain . Volume 19. Lichtenfels 1993/94. Pp. 47-55.
- Gerhard Cheap: The Burgraves of Meißen from the House of Plauen - a sequel to the immediate imperial position and rule of the bailiffs of Weida, Plauen and Gera. Part 1 . In: Messages from the Association for Vogtland History, Folklore and Regional Studies. - Plauen. - Vol. 4 (47) (1995), pp. 13-48.
- Gerhard Cheap: The Burgraves of Meißen from the House of Plauen - a sequel to the immediate imperial position and rule of the bailiffs of Weida, Plauen and Gera. Part 2 . In: Messages from the Association for Vogtland History, Folklore and Regional Studies. - Plauen. - Vol. 6 (49) (1998), pp. 51-82.
- Hans-Jürgen Pohl: The Burggrafschloss to Meissen - buildings of the Burggrafenhof then and now , Meissen 2000, ISBN 3-9806962-0-0 .
- Hugo Gerard Ströhl , Deutsche Wappenrolle, published by Julius Hoffmann, Stuttgart 1897, p. 9