Cross and parallel relationship

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cross- relationship and parallel relationship are technical terms used in ethnology (ethnology) to distinguish siblings with regard to their gender and the resulting social relationships to one another and between their respective descendants , especially when they marry each other: Siblings of different sexes are viewed as cross- related ("crosswise") - Same-sex siblings are related in parallel , including their children (of both sexes). Similarly, a man is parallel related to all his brothers and their children , while he and his offspring are cross related to his sister ; the sister, on the other hand, is cross-related to all brothers and their descendants, with a sister and her children she would in turn be related in parallel (because of the same sex).

The following diagram illustrates the parallel relationship of two brothers ( , in green with a solid line) and their cross-relationship to the sister ( , in yellow with dashed lines); This differentiation of the relationship between the siblings also includes all of their respective offspring:

= cross related
+ her children ♂ +
+ grandchildren ♂ +
Ego =
(person, test subject ) '
+ own children +
+ grandchildren +
= parallel related
+ his children ♂ +
+ grandchildren ♂ +

Determination of the relationship type

Siblings are laterally related to one another (collateral) because they and their offspring are not descended from one another (exceptions are relatives marriages with one another). All persons shown in the diagram are descended in a “direct line” from the parents of the three siblings, they are the last common ancestors of the persons listed (see diagram for linear relationship ). If two people claiming to be "removed blood relatives understand" who want to determine their parallel or checkbox with a cross side relationship to each other, they have in their two ancestors lists (for example, ancestry lists or family trees looking for) those ancestors from which they both descended ( ancestress and / or progenitor , bodily or mediated through adoption or acknowledgment of paternity ). Two children of these forefathers, related siblings, founded the two lines to which the two persons belong. If these great siblings were of the same sex (two brothers or two sisters), all of their descendants were parallel relatives - if the great siblings were of different sex (brother and sister), their respective offspring were cross-related . This division is preserved through all generations , also for future descendants of the two people.

Social effects of kinship type

Many of the world's 1,300  ethnic groups and indigenous peoples attach great importance to this division of their co-relatives for family ties, especially with regard to marriage rules for the children of siblings, i.e. between cousins . A well-known example is the widespread cousin marriage in Arab culture , where the father's brother ( parallel related uncle ) play an important social role in the (large) family occupies. Both brothers like to marry their children together ( parallel cousin marriage); The Bint ʿamm , the “daughter of the father brother” (see purpose of the Bint ʿamm marriage ) is particularly popular . In Arabic , ʿamm also refers to brothers from earlier generations of fathers, and accordingly their female descendants are also sought-after marriage partners ( parallel nieces and great-nieces of a distant degree).

In contrast, in other societies parallel cousins as equated considered to own siblings, especially the children of the sister of the mother ( parallel related aunt , formerly aunt called). Here children of sisters often grow up together and would not marry each other, also because of the current incest prohibitions . Sought-after marriage partners in such societies are cross- cousin marriages with children of the mother's brother ( cross- related uncle, formerly called uncle ).

The reason for this different preference for parallel or cross-related siblings and their descendants lies in the different social roles that men and women assume in their families: societies that are derived from the line of the father and his forefathers ( patri- linear ), prefer the marital union of the children of brothers (parallel) , while in matri- linear societies following the maternal line, the children of sisters (parallel) “belong to the family”. In addition, in matrilineal families, the mother's brother (cross-related) often looks after the children of his sisters as a social father (referred to as avunculate ), so that his own children make interesting marriage partners for them. His children don't live with him, instead they belong to their respective mother's extended family (see matrilocality ).

See also

Web links

  • Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek: Differentiation into parallel and cross relatives. (PDF: 1 MB, 32 S.) In: Introduction to the forms of social organization (part 1/5). Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Vienna, 2011, pp. 26–28 , archived from the original on October 21, 2013 (documents from her lecture in the 2011 summer semester).;

Individual evidence

  1. Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek: Definition of parallel and cross relatives. In: Introduction to the forms of social organization (part 1/5). (PDF: 1 MB, 32 p.) (No longer available online.) Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Vienna, 2011, p. 26 , archived from the original on October 21, 2013 ; retrieved on March 13, 2020 : "German: Parallel- und Kreuzverwandte; english: parallel and cross-relatives. Definition of parallel and cross relatives according to BARNARD / SPENCER: »parallel-relative: In kinship, a parallel relative is any relative (eg a parallel uncle or aunt) whose relationship is traced through a same-sex sibling link (eg FB or MZ, but not MB or FZ); the contrast is with cross-. "(BARNARD / SPENCER 1997: p.616)" cross-relative: Any relative whose relationship is traced through an opposite-sex sibling link, eg a cross-cousin. Contrast parallel relative. "(BARNARD / SPENCER 1997: p.600)" .
  2. German Civil Code ( BGB ): § 1589 Relationship: “People, one of which is descended from the other, are related in a straight line. People who are not directly related but are descended from the same third person are related in the sideline. "
  3. The Ethnographic Atlas was founded in 1962 by the American anthropologist George Peter Murdock and contains extensive data sets on now 1,300 ethnic groups and indigenous peoples worldwide (status 2018 in InterSciWiki ); it serves the holistic cultural comparison of the peoples, z. B. in the international HRAF project .
  4. ^ Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek: Parallel and cross cousins ​​and bases. In: Introduction to the forms of social organization (part 1/5). (PDF: 1 MB, 32 p.) (No longer available online.) Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Vienna, 2011, p. 27 , archived from the original on October 21, 2013 ; Retrieved March 12, 2020 : “In many societies the parallel cousins ​​are classified in the same way as the siblings of Ego. (see BARNARD / SPENCER 1997: p.616). For example, in the terminological systems of the Hawaiian type (according to the MURDOCK structure) or the generational systems (according to the LOWIE structure). "
  5. Hans-Rudolf Wicker: Incest ban. In: Guide to Introductory Lecture in Social Anthropology, 1995–2012. (PDF: 387 kB; 47 pp.) Institute for Social Anthropology, University of Bern, July 31, 2012, p. 10 , accessed on March 13, 2020 : “For example: Inuit […]: Patrilateral parallel cousins ​​[Note: Children of Father brothers] are subject to an absolute prohibition of incest, in the case of matrilateral parallel cousins ​​[Note: children of mother sisters] the prohibition is ambivalent and with regard to cross cousins ​​it does not exist. Tamils: preferential marriage with matrilateral cross cousins ​​[note: children of mother brothers], parallel cousins ​​are taboo. Arab region: The marriage of children of two brothers is common [note: patrilateral parallel cousins]. "