Malcolm II

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Malcolm II

Malcolm II ( Máel Coluim mac Cináeda ; * around 954; † November 25, 1034 in Glamis ) was the Scottish king from 1005 to 1034. He was the son of Kenneth II and cousin of his predecessor Kenneth III.

Malcolm, who had been King of Strathclyde from 990 to 995 , fought for the Scottish throne over a period of ten years. In 1005 he killed his cousin Kenneth III in the battle of Monzievaird ( Tayside ). and now became King of Scotland himself. It is believed that he ruled only part of Scotland. Again and again he was harassed by aristocrats from Moray , including Findláech mac Ruadrí († 1020, probably the father of Macbeth ) and Máel Coluim mac Máel Brigte († 1029). Both have been referred to as kings of "Alba" (meaning Scotland) in Irish annals, but neither are considered Scottish kings in modern texts.

In 1006 Malcolm was defeated near Durham by troops from Northumbria led by Uhtred . But the English then had to defend themselves against attacks from Denmark. Malcolm was able to skillfully exploit this situation, defeated the Anglo-Saxons under Uhtred's brother Eadwulf Cudel at the Battle of Carham in 1018 and recaptured Lothian , extending his empire in the south to the River Tweed and his influence in the west as far as Strathclyde. However, the Anglo-Saxons were subjugated by the Danes under King Canute , and after an Anglo-Danish invasion in 1031, Malcolm Canute also had to submit.

When the King of Strathclyde died without an heir, Malcolm claimed the kingdom for his grandson Duncan. This led to unrest in the Kingdom of Strathclyde and finally to Malcolm's murder in Glamis in 1034. Shortly afterwards he was buried on the island of Iona .

Malcolm had no sons to succeed him on the throne. Therefore he skillfully arranged marriages for his daughters. His daughter Plantula married Jarl Sigurd of Orkney . Through their son Thorfinn , the Orkneys , Caithness and Sutherland in the north of the country came to the Scottish Kingdom. Malcolm's eldest daughter, Bethoc, married Crínán, the lay abbot of Dunkeld . From this connection came Duncan I , who succeeded Malcolm. In addition, Malcolm had abolished the Tanistry system, making his grandson Duncan the first monarch of Scotland to inherit the royal dignity to his successors.

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predecessor Office successor
Kenneth III. King of Scotland
Duncan I.