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Québec (French Québécois [male form] or Québécoise [feminine form], English Quebecers and Québec ) is called the 7.5 million residents of the Canadian province of Quebec . 82% of Quebecers are Francophone, 7.9% are Anglophone and 10.1% are allophone , which means that their mother tongue is neither of the two official Canadian languages, English and French . Most Francophone Quebecers speak Quebecer French . The English of most Anglophone Quebecers is a variant of Canadian Englishwhose specialty lies in the adoption of some Gallicisms such as autoroute for expressway . Other languages ​​spoken in Quebec are, for example, Yiddish , Spanish , Arabic , Italian and Chinese .

For some francophone residents of the province of Quebec, the expression Québécois also serves as an ethnic self-designation that is intended to distinguish them from the (Anglophone) Canadians. In the discussions about the possible independence of Quebec, the question of the extent to which the Anglophone and allophone Quebecers are included in the Quebec identity plays a central role. In the early years of sovereignty, an ethnic definition of the term Quebecer that was limited to the long-established Francophone population was widespread. In recent years, a territorial definition of Quebecer has gained prominence in the Francophone population that includes Francophone, Anglophone, and Allophone Quebecers.

The Francophone Quebecers are descendants of the French settlers of the 17th century or of other immigrants who have come to Quebec over time (Irish, Arabs, Haitians etc.). The French settlers in the Saint Lawrence River have settled -Tal, initially called themselves Canadians ( Canadiens ), from the mid-19th century French Canadians ( Canadiens français ) and since the Quiet Revolution Quebec. The new ethnic definition as Quebecer no longer includes the Francophone populations of Ontario and the western provinces, who also considered themselves French Canadians .

In the Statistique Canada censuses , the overwhelming majority of Quebecers identify themselves ethnically as Canadians, although Québécoi is not listed as a possible ethnic self-designation in the questionnaires .

In Canadian English, the term Quebec and Québec mostly to the entire population of the province, while the term Québécois only the francophone population of Quebec (in French in the English text) French Canadian called descent.

See also


  • Alain-G. Gagnon, Ingo Kolboom , Boris Vormann (eds.): Québec: State and Society , Heidelberg: Synchron Publishers 2011
  • Gérard Bouchard: Genèse des nations et cultures du nouveau monde: Essai d'histoire comparée , Montréal: Boréal 2001
  • Jacques Lacoursière, Jean Provencher and Denis Vaugeois: Canada. Quebec. 1534-2000 , Sillery: Septentrion 2001.

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