|State :||Czech Republic|
|Historical part of the country :||Moravia|
|Region :||Jihomoravský kraj|
|Area :||4532 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||7,359 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||692 01|
|License plate :||B.|
|Street:||Vienna - Brno|
|Railway connection:||Břeclav – Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou|
|Mayor :||Rostislav Koštial (as of 2018)|
692 01 Mikulov
Mikulov (German: Nikolsburg ) is a town in the South Moravia region in the Czech Republic. It is right on the border with Lower Austria . There is a border crossing between Mikulov and Drasenhofen in Austria , seven kilometers to the south .
The Jakobsweg Weinviertel , which has been signposted since 2010 and is part of the Via Francigena and the Via Slavica and leads to Krems on the Danube , begins on Svatý kopeček u Mikulova ( Holy Mountain near Nikolsburg ) . The Šibeník ( Gallows Pond), located two and a half kilometers southwest of the city center, is the largest fish pond in the Pálava Protected Landscape Area .
Mikulov was probably in the 11th century at the time of the Czech Mark of Babenberger populated German. The Bavarian-Austrian Ui dialect that was spoken there until 1945, with its special passwords , indicates that the settlers came from Austria or southern Germany. In 1182 Moravia became a margravate through Friedrich Barbarossa . After the battle of Lodenitz in 1185, the place came into the possession of Count Wilhelm von Dürnholz. The first documentary mention as "Nikulsburch" is in the deed of donation from 14 January 1249 from Margrave Ottokar II Přemysl to Heinrich I of Liechtenstein , who received the village including Pardorf , Klentnitz , Muschau , Tannowitz , Bratelsbrunn as a fief. This document was expressly confirmed by Ottokar II in 1262. A church was mentioned in 1276. After the Battle of Dürnkrut , Rudolf von Habsburg granted Henry II of Liechtenstein the right to a weekly market “in villa Nicolspurch” on August 24, 1279.
As early as 1526, one of the first communities of property of the radical Reformation Anabaptist movement was formed in the Nikolsburg area around Balthasar Hubmaier . Jakob Hutter , who came from Tyrol, was able to prevent the threatened dissolution of the Anabaptist community after the execution of Hubmaier in 1528 . The Anabaptists were also called Hutterite Brothers after him. Up to 60,000 Anabaptists lived in Moravia, 12,000 of them in Nikolsburg. Shortly after the Anabaptists and supported by the local nobility, the teaching of Martin Luther also found its way into South Moravia. This led to the church split and the formation of the Evangelical Lutheran Church and denominations of Protestantism. During the Counter-Reformation and the re-Catholicization that was successfully carried out by the Jesuits , a large number of churches were re-consecrated as Catholics. After the persecution in Moravia from 1535 to 1767 by Catholics, Protestants and Turks, a remnant of Anabaptists fled to Russia.
In 1560, the Liechtensteiners sold Nikolsburg as an imperial fief to the rich Hungarian Ladislaus von Kerecsenyi for 60,000 Bohemian thalers . In 1572 Adam Graf Dietrichstein was given the rule of Nikolsburg by Emperor Maximilian II . In 1575 he acquired this as an inherited property, which remained in the ownership of the Princes of Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg from the Dietrichstein and Mensdorff-Pouilly houses until the 20th century . They had their crypt church on the town square of Nikolsburg, which is now open to the public.
In 1621 Cardinal Dietrichstein made a peace with Gábor Bethlen of Transylvania on behalf of the emperor . In 1625 the Hofrat met under Ferdinand II in Nikolsburg and awarded Albrecht Wallenstein the first generalate and the title of Duke of Friedland. At the same time the last improvement of the city coat of arms of Nikolsburg took place. The former princely Nikolsburg Palace and the Piarist College, which Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein founded in 1631 as the first Piarist College north of the Alps, also bear witness to the work of the von Dietrichstein family .
The Jewish community in Mikulov was in 1421, when the Jews of Duke Albrecht V of displaced Vienna and Lower Austria . The refugees settled under the protection of the Princes of Liechtenstein in the city about 80 km from Vienna , near the Austrian border . Further settlers came to the city after King Ladislaus Postumus had expelled the Jews from the Moravian royal cities in 1454. The community first achieved importance in 1575 when the emperor gave the place Mikulov to Count Adam von Dietrichstein . His son, Cardinal Franz Xaver von Dietrichstein , protected the Jews whose taxes he needed for his work in the Thirty Years War .
The importance of the community grew. In 1653 it became the seat of the Moravian regional rabbis, i.e. the cultural center of the Moravian Jews. Rabbi Loew (1525–1609), who is said to have created the Golem of Prague, worked there for 20 years as the second regional rabbi (1553–1573).
In the first half of the 18th century, the Mikulov parish had more than 600 families and was the largest Jewish settlement in Moravia. The census of 1754, ordered by Empress Maria Theresa, showed 620 families, the Jewish population of around 3,000 souls made up half of the inhabitants of Mikulov. Only the smaller part of the Jews of Mikulov could make a living as craftsmen, the rest were engaged in commercial activities. The community suffered badly in the Silesian Wars (1740–1742, 1744–1745, 1756–1763) when they had to pay for their share of the high taxes that the government of Maria Theresa imposed on Moravian Jews.
Many Jews from Mikulov looked for a living in Vienna, where they were allowed to stay for a while with special passports. After the Jews during the March Revolution of 1848 , the establishment was approved, the number of Jewish residents dropped from Mikulov to less than a third. In 1904 only 749 of the city's 8192 inhabitants were Jews.
Joseph von Sonnenfels (1732 / 1733-1817), an advisor to Maria Theresa, comes from the community . Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808–1888) lived there from 1846 to 1851 as the regional rabbi of Moravia before he was appointed rabbi in Frankfurt am Main .
After the First World War and the break-up of Austria-Hungary, the city, 97% of the inhabitants of which were German-speaking in 1910, was given to Czechoslovakia against the will of the majority of the population. With the Munich Agreement , Nikolsburg became part of the German Reichsgau Sudetenland on October 1, 1938 . Half a year later, the entire southern part of it was incorporated into the Reichsgau Niederdonau , as Lower Austria was called during the Nazi era .
In 1938 Mikulov had about 8,000 inhabitants, 472 of them Jews. Of these, 110 were able to flee abroad. 327 did not survive the Holocaust . The Jewish community in Nikolsburg ceased to exist.
After the end of the Second World War , which claimed 504 victims among the Nikolsburgs, the city returned to Czechoslovakia. Many of the German city residents fled or were arbitrary Czech troops across the nearby border into Austria sold . This resulted in 51 civilian deaths. The Beneš Decree 115/46 (Law on Exemption from Punishment ) declared acts committed "in the struggle to regain freedom ..." or "which aimed at just retaliation for the acts of the occupiers or their accomplices ..." as not unlawful. Between March 15 and October 3, 1946, 2,140 Nikolsburger and a further 20,000 German South Moravians were forcibly evacuated from the camp near Nikolsburg (Oberfeldbaracken, north of the barracks) to West Germany.
Mikulov was a district town until 1960, when it was incorporated into the Břeclav district.
No districts are shown for the city of Mikulov. The basic settlement units are Hliniště, Mikulov-střed, Na Mušlově, Na okraji, Pavlovská, Pod brněnskou silnicí, Pod Turoldem, Průmyslový obvod, Příkopy, Sídliště Hraničář, Uí kopeček, Víčáňář, Uídoldíkáž, Uíkáža, Uíkáža, Vatý kopeček .
Parish registers were kept since 1625.
|census||Houses||Total population||Language affiliation of the inhabitants|
|Source: 1793, 1836, 1850 from: Frodl, Blaschka: South Moravia from A – Z. 2006|
|Other: Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960, sv.9. 1984|
The historic city center was declared an urban monument reserve in 1982 .
- Mikulov Castle
- Jewish cemetery with mourning hall
- Provost Parish Church
- Piarist church and monastery in Nikolsburg
- Crypt church of the princes of Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg on the town square
- Sgraffito house
- A memorial to the fallen commemorates the victims of the First World War .
- town hall
- Cathedral Chapter Houses
- the buildings on the Holy Mountain
- Trinity Column
- Statue of St. John of Nepomuk
- Pomona fountain in front of the town hall
- Marien pillar
- Ruin Kozí hrádek ( Gaisburg ) on the Kozí vrch ( Gaisberg )
- Portz Castle and brick bridge to Portz Island in the Portz pond
- Balthasar Hubmaier (around 1485–1528), was an Baptist around 1526
- Judah Löw (between 1512 and 1525–1609), was here between 1553 and 1573 rabbi and chief rabbi
- Johann Ferdinand Hertodt von Todtenfeld (1645–1714), doctor, alchemist and author
- Jakob Fellner (1722–1780), master builder of the Esterházy family
- Joseph von Sonnenfels , (1732 / 1733–1817), advisor to Empress Maria Theresia
- Floridus Leeb (1731–1799), provost in Klosterneuburg Abbey , rector of the University of Vienna , namesake of Floridsdorf
- Anton Josef Leeb (1769–1837), Mayor of Vienna
- Franz Theodor Finger (1764–1831), cathedral chapter councilor, notary and legal advisor, grandfather of the lawyer August Finger and the dermatologist Ernest Finger
- Bonifác Buzek (1788–1839), priest, educator, philosopher and educator, taught at the local grammar school
- Moritz Deutsch (1818–1892), musicologist, composer and chasan
- Hieronymus Lorm (1821–1902), (actually Heinrich Landesmann), writer and inventor of the tactile alphabet for the deaf-blind
- Simon Deutsch (around 1822–1877) Jewish bibliographer, merchant and revolutionary 1848/49
- Eduard Kulke (1831–1897), Austrian writer
- Leopold Oser (1839–1910), medic
- Emil Schweinburg (1854–1919), a linen manufacturer in New York, bequeathed his legacy equally to Jewish and Christian Nikolsburg foundations
- Edmund Wengraf (1860–1933), Austrian journalist
- Karl Renner (1870–1950), Austrian State Chancellor and Federal President, attended Nikolsburg grammar school from 1881 to 1889
- Siegfried Altmann (1887–1963), educator
- Erich Fritz Schweinburg (1890–1959), writer and lawyer
- Adolf Schärf (1890–1965), Austrian social democratic politician and Federal President
- Manfred Ackermann (1898–1991), Austrian social democratic politician and trade union official
- Norbert Langer (1899–1975), Austrian literary historian and writer
- Herbert Horntrich (1914–1941), writer and folk song researcher, poet
- Wolfgang Oberleitner (1918–2006), senior editor "Die Presse"
- Leopold Beierl (1915–1991), folklorist, South Moravian Culture Prize winner 1986
- Karel Krautgartner (1922–1982), Czech jazz musician and orchestra leader
- Kurt Nedoma (1929-2020), writer and poet. Author of more than 2,700 poems for calendars, newspapers and magazines. South Moravian Culture Prize Winner 1990.
- Reiner Elsinger (* 1932), local researcher, local writer, winner of culture award, medal of honor of the federal state of Lower Austria
- Felix Bornemann: Arts and Crafts in South Moravia. South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 1990, ISBN 3-927498-13-0 , p. 25 f.
- Dehio / Ginhart : Handbook of the art monuments in the Ostmark. Volume 1: Vienna and Lower Danube. 2nd, revised edition. Deutscher Kunstverlag et al., Berlin 1941, p. 351 f.
- Reiner Elsinger (Ed.): Festschrift 750 years of Nikolsburg (= Kulturverein Südmährerhof. Kulturvereins-Nachrichten. 1). Kulturverein Südmährerhof, Sulz im Weinviertel 1999, ISBN 3-9500683-1-7 .
- Reiner Elsinger (Ed.): Heimatbuch Nikolsburg. History and fate of a German city from its beginnings up to 1946. Nikolsburg cultural association in Vienna, Vienna 1987.
- Felix Ermacora : The Sudeten German Questions. Legal opinion. With the text of the treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic on good neighbors and friendly cooperation. Langen Müller, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-7844-2412-0 .
- Gerald Frodl, Walfried Blaschka: The Nikolsburg district from A to Z. Population, corridors, extensions, monuments, facilities, trade and change, club life, history, customs and famous people, collected and processed based on the records of the district supervisors and supplemented by statistical data. Publishing house of the South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 2006, pp. 141–151.
- Richard A. Hofmann: Nikolsburger Hefte. 1972-1975, .
- Richard A. Hofmann: Reformation and Counter-Reformation in the rule of Nikolsburg. An overview. In: Archives for Church History of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia. Vol. 5, 1978, , pp. 434-439.
- František Hrubý: The Anabaptists in Moravia. In: Archive for the history of the Reformation . Vol. 30, No. 1, 1933, pp. 1–36, doi : 10.14315 / arg-1933-0102 , Vol. 30, No. 2, 1933, pp. 170-211, doi : 10.14315 / arg-1933- 0202 , Vol. 31, No. 1, 1934, pp. 61-102, doi : 10.14315 / arg-1934-0106 , Vol. 32, No. 1, 1935, pp. 1-40, doi : 10.14315 / arg- 1935-0102 , (Also as a special print: Heinsius, Leipzig 1935).
- Bruno Kaukal: The coats of arms and seals of the South Moravian communities. In the home districts of Neubistritz, Zlabings, Nikolsburg and Znaim. Publishing house of the South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 1992, ISBN 3-927498-16-5 , p. 162 f.
- Fritz Lange: South Moravia. Pictures tell a story. Sutton, Erfurt 2010, ISBN 978-3-86680-658-0 .
- Johann Loserth : The Communism of the Moravian Anabaptists in the 16th and 17th centuries. Contributions to their history, teaching and constitution. In: Archives for Austrian History . Vol. 81, 1895, pp. 135-322 .
- Josef Matzura: Guide through Nikolsburg, Feldsberg, Eisgrub and into the Pollau Mountains. A. Bartosch, Nikolsburg 1921, (2nd, enlarged and enlarged edition, ibid. 1931).
- Wenzel Max (Ed.): Thayaland. Folk songs and dances from South Moravia. 2nd Edition. Publishing house of the South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 1984.
- Kurt Nedoma: Through land and time. Poems. Publishing house of the South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 2009, ISBN 978-3-927498-36-5 .
- Kurt Nedoma: South Moravian Legend. Poems. Publishing house of the South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-28-9 .
- Soňa Nezhodová: Židovský Mikulov (= Knižnice Matice Moravské. 19). Matice Moravská, Brno 2006, ISBN 80-86488-28-4 ( The Jewish Nikolsburg. ).
- Alfred Schickel : The expulsion of the Germans. History, background, reviews. 2nd, expanded edition. MUT, Asendorf 1987, ISBN 3-89182-014-3 .
- Alfred Schickel: History of South Moravia. Volume 2: 1918-1946. Publishing house of the South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 1996, ISBN 3-927498-18-1 .
- Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume 3: The history of the German South Moravians from 1945 to the present. Publisher of the South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , pp. 34, 181, 206-208, 210, 212, 217-218, 220-231, 233-237, 241, 243-247 , 249-253, 255-258, 265, 406-409, 411, 414, 417, 421-423, 427, 431-432, 491, 508, 526, 532, 542, 550, 552, 573-575, 577 .
- Franz Josef Schwoy : Topography of the Markgrafthum Moravia. Hraschanzky, Vienna 1793, pp. 260-268 .
- Theodor R. Seifert: Nikolsburg. History of the city in words and pictures. Bartosch, Nikolsburg 1937.
- Moritz Spegele: Chronicle of the city of Nikolsburg. Compiled from Wolny, Schwoy and other sources. 2nd Edition. Bezdieka, Nikolsburg 1880.
- Wilhelm Szegeda: District studies of the Nikolsburg school district including the cities of Břeclav and Hodonín as an auxiliary and reading book in local history lessons. Teachers' Association Pohrlitz, Brno 1935, p. 27 f.
- Hugo Triesel: Nikolsburg Memories. In: Journal of the German Association for the History of Moravia and Silesia. Vol. 37, No. 4, 1935, , pp. 121-140.
- Andreas JF Zieglschmid (ed.): The oldest chronicle of the Hutterite brothers. A language monument from the early New High German period. Cayuga Press, Ithaca, NY 1943.
- Official website of the city (cz, en, dt)
- Nikolsburg in "Old postcard motifs of the South Moravian communities"
- History of the city (cz)
- History of the Jews in Nikolsburg
- Digitized contemporary documents in the Austrian National Library from the time of the former Danube Monarchy: Deutsches Südmähreblatt 1904-1906, 1909-1914.
- Cultural database of displaced persons
- Nikolsburg - history and sights (PDF)
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Leopold Kleindienst: The forms of settlement, rural building and material culture in South Moravia. 1989, p. 9.
- Hans Zuckriegl: Dictionary of the South Moravian dialects . Their use in speech, song and writing. Self-published. 1999.
- Reiner Elsinger: 750 years of Nikolsburg.
- Anton Kreuzer: History of South Moravia Volume 1. P. 62. Publishing house of the South Moravia Landscape Council Geislingen / Steige. 1997. ISBN 3-927498-20-3 .
- Gregor Wolny : The Anabaptists in Moravia, Vienna 1850.
- Peter Hoover: Baptism of Fire. The radical life of the Anabaptists - a provocation , Down to Earth, Berlin 2006, ISBN 978-3-935992-23-7 , pp. 20-25 and pp. 161-185
- Reiner Elsinger: Heimatbuch Nikolsburg
- "Municipalities", "Nikolsburg"
- Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume III. Maurer, Geislingen / Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , Nikolsburg pp. 34, 181, 206-208, 210, 212, 217-218, 220-231, 233-237, 241, 243-247, 249 -253, 255-258, 265, 406-409, 411, 414, 417, 421-423, 427, 431-432, 491, 508, 526, 532, 542, 550, 552, 573-575, 577.
- Archive Mikulov, Odsun Němců - transport odeslaný dne 20. května, 1946th
- Ludislava Šuláková, translated by Wilhelm Jun: The problem of the deportation of Germans in the files of the Municipal People's Committee (MNV) and the District People's Committee (ONV) Nikolsburg: Südmährisches Jahrbuch 2001 p. 45f,
- Contemporary witness documentations: Wilhelm Turnwald: Documents on the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans. Special print: Europa-Buchhandlung, Munich, 1951, Nikolsburg p. 376.
- Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims (Ed.): The expulsion of the German population from Czechoslovakia. Weltbild Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-89350-560-1 . Vol. 1: 6,10,13,25, Vol. 2: 16,438,454,488,496f, 788
- Ludislava Šuláková, translated by Wilhelm Jun: The problem of the deportation of Germans in the files of the Municipal People's Committee (MNV) and the District People's Committee (ONV) Nikolsburg: Südmährisches Jahrbuch 2001 , , p. 45f.
- Acta Publica Online search in the historical registers of the Moravian Provincial Archives Brno (cz, dt). Retrieved April 2, 2011.
- Correction and addition by Reiner Elsinger on July 6, 2009
- Johann Zabel: Church guide for South Moravia. 1941, Vicariate General Nikolsburg, Nikolsburg p. 33f.