|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Jihomoravský kraj|
|Area :||2461 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||5,964 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||693 01|
|License plate :||B.|
|Street:||D 2 : Brno - Břeclav|
|Railway connection:||Railway line Šakvice – Hustopeče u Brna|
|Mayor :||Hana Potměšilová (as of 2018)|
|Address:||Dukelské náměstí 2
693 01 Hustopeče
Hustopeče (German Auspitz ) is a city in the Czech Republic . The South Moravian wine town is 25 kilometers northwest of Břeclav and is the center of the Hustopečsko microregion . She belongs to the Okres Břeclav .
Hustopeče is located in the hills of Hustopečská pahorkatina, a foothill of the Ždánický les and is traversed by the Štinkovka brook. To the north rise the Volská hora (236 m) and the Hustopečský starý vrch ( Altenberg , 311 m), in the east the Zrcátko ( Wechselberg , 305 m), southeast the Kouty ( Fleckenberg , 238 m), in the south the Křížový vrch ( Kreuzberg) , 250 m) and west of the Žebrák ( Pettler , 292 m). On the northeastern periphery, the D 2 / E 65 motorway runs from Brno to Břeclav , exit 25 Hustopeče is on the northern outskirts. From the southeast along the Štinkovka, the Šakvice – Hustopeče u Brna railway leads into the city. About 8 km southwest of the city are the three Thaya reservoirs of Nové Mlýny ( Neumühl ).
Neighboring towns are Křepice and Nikolčice in the north, Kurdějov ( Gurdau ) in the north-east, Horní Bojanovice and Němčičky in the east, Bořetice , Velké Pavlovice and Starovičky ( Klein Steurowitz ) in the south-east, Šakvice in the south, Strachotín and Popice in the south-west and Starovice ( Grossowitz ) and Nová Ves in the northwest.
In the 11th to 13th centuries there was a great movement of settlements from west to east. Moravia was ruled by the Přemyslid dynasty from 1031 to 1305 . In order to use larger areas for agriculture and thus achieve higher yields, the colonists advertised them, for example, with ten years of tax exemption (German settler law). By 1150, the area around Mikulov (Nikolsburg) and Znojmo (Znaim) was settled by German immigrants from Lower Austria . The layout of the village and the ui dialect , which was spoken until 1945, show that they originally came from the Bavarian areas of the dioceses of Regensburg and Passau. They brought new agricultural equipment with them and introduced the high-yield three-field economy .
The first mention of the place comes from the year 1247. At that time the place belonged to the dominion of the influential nobleman Wilhelm von Uztopesch, who can be counted to the retinue of the Bohemian king Ottokar II. Přemysl . The construction of a small castle complex in Hustopeče at that time could go back to him. Whether the patch belonged to the Order of the Templars , which was dissolved in 1312 , is disputed. In the early 14th century, the place came under the rule of Queen Elizabeth , who gave it to the Cistercian convent in Brno. In 1363, the abbess Bertha allowed the citizens of Auspitz to use the inheritance law laid down in Brno's municipal law. The Margrave Jodok of Moravia granted the place a fair in 1410. In the years after 1510 the place was fortified.
In 1529 Philipp Plener established one of the first communities of property of the radical Reformation Anabaptist movement . A short time later, another Bruderhof was later to Jakob Hutter named Hutterer . The Hutterites also founded their own district, which is still called "Am Tabor" today. Otherwise Auspitz was considered Lutheran for a long time. Only after the victory of the imperial troops in the Battle of White Mountain and the subsequent Counter-Reformation did the place become Catholic again.
In 1571 the plague raged in Auspitz. A year later, the place of emperor Maximilian II. Raised to town and consisted of four cadastral: the Platzort Auspitz, the road Angersdorf Böhmdorf, the streets group village new and Schmiedgasse and the streets-street village cross and long line. The emperor also granted a third fair. Due to the trade routes between Prague and Hungary, the place was granted a weekly and a meat market in addition to the large cattle markets from 1589. Over the years there have been different markets depending on the season. These included a textile market, a carpenter's market, a binder market, a tableware market, a wagon market, a kids market, a grain market and a herb market. The Auspitzers also earn money from the wine trade, since around a fifth of the cultivation areas of Auspitz were used for wine.
Around 1598, with the takeover of Liechtenstein, the village became Catholic again. A Catholic priest appeared in Auspitz as early as 1617. In 1618 the last Anabaptists were expelled from the village and moved on to Transylvania . At the same time, a flourishing Jewish community developed in Auspitz. The parish registers of the city were conducted since the 1621st Online search via the Brno State Archives. During the Thirty Years' War the place was pillaged and plundered by the Transylvanians in 1623 and by the Swedes under Lennart Torstensson in 1643 and 1645 . Two major fires also raged in Auspitz in 1634 and 1684. In 1662 the frost destroyed the entire harvest of the village and in 1679 the plague broke out in Auspitz, claiming hundreds of victims. During the Turkish wars and the siege of Vienna in 1683, the place was taken by the Turks. 380 inhabitants were killed and 350 were deported into slavery.
In 1756 the order of the Piarists came to the place where they founded a grammar school. This school was later dissolved by an imperial decree and instead turned into a secondary school. In 1843 the large cattle market, where cattle from Hungary had been traded for a long time, was closed because other cities had become more important than Auspitz. In 1850 the city became the seat of the district administration . In 1875 a volunteer fire brigade was established in the city. On July 18, 1894, the city received a railway connection through the private Auspitzer local railway . Large parts of the population lived from agriculture. Hunting in the area around Auspitz was also very productive. In good years, up to 3,000 hares and several hundred partridges could be shot. In addition to a flourishing small business, there was a mill, a liquorice extract factory, a sawmill, a printing shop, three brickworks, a dairy and a pottery factory.
After the First World War and the peace treaty of Saint Germain in 1919, the city, of which 88% of the inhabitants were German-speaking in 1910, became part of the new Czechoslovak Republic . The place was electrified, the streets paved and the park and the lower secondary school expanded. As a result of the Political Parties Act, a Czech was given the office of mayor for the first time in 1933. After the Munich Agreement in 1938, Auspitz came to the German Reich and became part of the Reichsgau Niederdonau . Czech officials and teachers then moved to the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia .
During the Second World War, 80 houses in the city were destroyed. After the end of the Second World War , which claimed 131 victims among the local residents of Auspitz, the community returned to Czechoslovakia on May 8, 1945. Post-war excesses of the local German population and their expulsion by the Czech militias resulted in 21 civilian deaths. Between April 6 and October 3, 1946, the German population was forcibly evacuated from their homeland from Auspitz via Nikolsburg. About 350 Auspitzer were established in Austria, the majority in Germany, some in other European countries and two in Australia.
Coat of arms and seal
The place seal has been known since 1350. It shows a branch with three grapes and next to it a hoe and a vine knife. In the first half of the 16th century Auspitz even had two community seals. The seal was also changed when the city was raised. The city also received a coat of arms. It consists of a red and gold split shield , in the front half of which lies a red bunch of grapes in a golden bar and a silver pruning knife with a golden handle. The rear half of the shield shows a red-tongued half silver eagle. The shield itself is held in both hands by a red-clad angel standing behind it.
|census||Total population||Ethnicity of the inhabitants|
|Source: 1793, 1836, 1850 from: South Moravia from A – Z, Frodl, Blaschka|
|Other: Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960, sv.9. 1984|
No districts are designated for the city of Hustopeče. Basic settlement units are Horní Stará hora, Hradní, Hustopeče-střed, Křížový vrch, Nové sady, Pod Křížovým vrchem, Svahy, U stadiónu, U trati, V táborech, Za nemocnicí and Záhumenní.
- The parish church of St. Wenceslas and Agnes of Bohemia was only rebuilt from 1990 to 1994 after the old church tower collapsed in 1961 and damaged the old building with parts from the early Gothic period. The government ordered the church to be blown up in 1963.
- Chapel of Saints Rochus, Sebastian and Rosalia from 1721, south of the town on Křížový vrch, it was renovated in 1894
- Holy Trinity Column (1668)
- Town Hall (1906)
- The Jewish cemetery in Hustopeče was leveled, but today it is a park with a memorial
- Town houses in the Renaissance style
- City Fountain (1596)
Frauenthal Holding has a manufacturing plant in Hustopeče for the manufacture of compressed air tanks for braking systems for trucks and buses. The plant was founded in Auspitz in 1881 by Edmund Wessely. Liquid gas cylinders and other pressurized gas containers were manufactured under the company names Jihokov (since 1954), Plynokov (since 1958) and Gastec (since 1992). In 2012 Frauenthal Holding took over the Worthington Cylinders plant .
Every year on the last Saturday in June in Hustopeče, cycling tours through the André red wine region are organized with extensive wine tastings and a culinary program.
- Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (7 March 1850 - 14 September 1937) lived in Auspitz from 1861 to 1868. The grave of his parents Jozef and Terezie is in the municipal cemetery.
- Fritz Felzmann (born June 16, 1895 in Boskowitz; † May 10, 1980 in Vienna), Auspitz's town doctor and poet, father of Ilse Tielsch
- Eduard Schleimayer (born January 28, 1859 - † June 3, 1929 there), member of the Moravian Parliament, mayor
- Hermann Zerzawy (born July 28, 1880, † December 11, 1976 in Baden near Vienna), writer, local researcher
- Josef Reinfuß (1882–1962), teacher and politician, member of the Moravian Landtag and the Prague Parliament
- Eduard Rußmayr (born August 11, 1882 - † February 8, 1924 there), pharmacist, local researcher
- Othmar Kallina (born September 10, 1889 - † May 12, 1945), Member of Parliament for the DNP
- Josef Šural (born May 30, 1990 - April 29, 2019), Czech national football player
- Ilse Tielsch (born March 20, 1929), writer. Her books have been translated into 20 languages. She has received a large number of domestic and international awards and honors.
- Eduard von Kreysa (born February 18, 1860 - † April 28, 1923), President of the Supreme Court of the Landwehr, most recently General of the Infantry
- Johann Wolfgang Brügel (born July 3, 1905 - † November 15, 1986), politician and journalist
- Wenzel Freiherr von Ebner-Eschenbach (* 1743; † 1820), Lieutenant Field Marshal and father-in-law of Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach
- Thomas Schüller: History of the city of Auspitz. 1890
- Franz Nosek: Viticulture in Auspitz before and after the Thirty Years' War. 1917
- Loserth Johann. The communism of the Moravian Anabaptists in the 16th and 17th centuries: contributions to their history, doctrine and constitution. Carl Gerold's son, 1894
- Rudolf Wolkan : History book of the Hutterite Brothers , Vienna 1923.
- AJF Zieglschmied: The oldest chronicle of the Hutterite Brothers , 1943
- Gregor Wolny : The Anabaptists in Moravia, Vienna 1850
- Hans-Jürgen Goertz: The Anabaptists - History and Interpretation, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-406-07909-1
- Ladislav Hosák: Hustopečský okres. Vlastivěda Moravská No. 34, 1924
- Gustav Gregor: History of the town of Auspitz. 1967
- Ilse Tielsch -Felzmann: South Moravian Legends . Heimatwerk publishing house, Munich 1969
- Gerhard Haas: Special dialect words from the colloquial language of the village Poppitz and Auspitz. 1982
- Wenzel Max: Thayaland, folk songs and dances from South Moravia , 1984, Geislingen / Steige
- Felix Bornemann: Art and handicrafts in South Moravia , Auspitz, s. 2, C. Maurer Verlag, Geislingen / Steige 1990, ISBN 3-927498-13-0
- Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume 3. The history of the German South Moravians from 1945 to the present . South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , p. 210, 211, 406, 414, 417, 423, 535, 573 (Auspitz).
- Johann Peschina: Auspitz, the German city in South Moravia. 1st edition, 2001
- Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from A to Z , (2008), Auspitz, p. 34
- Auspitz in "Old Postcard Motifs of the South Moravian Communities"
- City website (Czech)
- Ilse Tielsch biography
- Cultural database of displaced persons
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Joachim Rogall: Germans and Czechs: History, Culture, Politics Verlag CH Beck, 2003. ISBN 3-406-45954-4 . Preface by Václav Havel. Chapter: The Přemyslids and the German Colonization S33 f.
- Leopold Kleindienst: The forms of settlement, rural building and material culture in South Moravia , 1989, p. 9
- Hans Zuckriegl: Dictionary of the South Moravian dialects . Their use in speech, song and writing. 25,000 dialect words, 620 pages self-published. 1999.
- Franz Josef Schwoy : Topographie vom Markgrafthum Moravia, Volume 2 , 1793, s. 46
- Heinrich Gottfried Gengler: Regesta and documents on the constitutional and legal history of German cities in the Middle Ages , Erlangen 1863, p. 93 .
- Blaschka, Frodl: The circle Nicolsburg from A to Z . 2006, p. 39
- Längin: Die Hutterer , 1968, p. 237
- German General Vicariate: Church handbook for South Moravia , Auspitz, page 13
- Acta Publica Online search in the historical registers of the Moravian Provincial Archives Brno (cz., Dt.). Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from AZ. South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige, 2006, Book of the Dead p. 216
- Ludislava Šuláková, translated by Wilhelm Jun: The problem of the deportation of Germans in the files of the Municipal People's Committee (MNV) and the District People's Committee (ONV) Nikolsburg . South Moravian Yearbook 2001 p. 45f,
- Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume 3. The history of the German South Moravians from 1945 to the present . South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , p. 311 f . (Auspitz).
- Bruno Kaukal: The coats of arms and seals of the South Moravian communities, 1992, Codex diplomaticus et epistolaris regni Bohemiae IV / 194, 237, VIII225; Codex diplomaticus et episotlaris Moraviae VI / 139, 144, 152, 171, 183, 205, VIII / 30, 233, 243, IX / 216, X / 2, XI / 402, XIV / 1, 123; Liechtenstein Archive Vienna / Vaduz 1258, 1262; Okresní archiv / B Nikolsburg (original coat of arms); Statní ústřední Archive Praha, Fond Mor.1605; Statní oblastní archiv, Brno D 6/836, D 12/2485, G 125/726, 1040, 2093; Brno City Archives; Okresní archive Lundenburg.
- Johann Zabel: Church guide for South Moravia . Vicariate General Nikolsburg, Auspitz 1941, p. 13
- Georg Dehio, Karl Ginhart: Handbuch der Deutschen Kunstdenkmäler in der Ostmark, 1941, Anton Schroll & Co, Auspitz p. 155
- Felix Bornemann: Arts and Crafts in South Moravia , 1900, p. 2
- Frauenthal Holding: History of the Frauenthal Group , accessed on May 16, 2014.
- Petr Steiner: Tour through the growing area of the red wine variety André. June 20, 2020, accessed June 20, 2020 .