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Lednice coat of arms
Lednice (Czech Republic)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Region : Jihomoravský kraj
District : Břeclav
Area : 3127 ha
Geographic location : 48 ° 48 '  N , 16 ° 48'  E Coordinates: 48 ° 47 '57 "  N , 16 ° 48' 7"  E
Height: 173  m nm
Residents : 2,299 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 691 44
License plate : B.
Street: Podivín - Valtice
Railway connection: Boří les – Lednice
Status: local community
Districts: 2
Mayor : Libor Kabát (as of 2018)
Address: Zámecké náměstí 70
691 44 Lednice
Municipality number: 584631
Website : www.lednice.cz
Jubilee fountain on the market square

Lednice (German Eisgrub ) is a municipality with 2366 inhabitants in the Czech South Moravia . It is located on the right bank of the Thaya , eight kilometers northwest of Břeclav (Lundenburg) near the Austrian border and belongs to the Okres Břeclav or Jihomoravský kraj (South Moravian Region) . Lednice is registered with the Lednice Castle as part of the Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape on the UNESCO World Heritage List.


The neighboring towns are in the south Valtice (Feldsberg) , in the north Bulhary (Pulgram) and in the northeast Podivín (Kostel) .


In the 11th to 13th centuries there was a great movement of settlements from west to east. Moravia was ruled by the Přemyslid dynasty from 1031 to 1305 . In order to use larger areas for agriculture and thus achieve higher yields, the colonists advertised them with privileges such as ten years of tax exemption (German settler law). Until 1150, the area around Mikulov (Nikolsburg) and Znojmo (Znaim) was populated by German-speaking immigrants from Lower Austria . The ui dialect that was spoken until 1945 and the layout of the village show that they originally came from the Bavarian areas of the dioceses of Regensburg and Passau . They brought new agricultural equipment with them and introduced the high-yield three-field economy .

Over the centuries the name changed several times. So one spoke of "Izgruobi", "Eysgruob", "Aysgrueb" and "Eysgrueb". Eisgrub was granted the right to hold a weekly market as early as 1286, but the place only became a real market town towards the end of the 16th century. In 1426 the church was burned down by the Hussites . Only around 1500 is a pastor mentioned again in the village.

In the middle of the 16th century the Bohemian Brothers took over the parish, so that the place took on the evangelical faith. In 1601, the owner of the estate, Karl von Liechtenstein , reintroduced the Catholic faith. During this time, Croatians were settled in the area. A few years later they fled from an invasion of the Turks around 1600. Until the expropriation in 1945, Eisgrub was the main seat of the main line of the House of Liechtenstein . This built a magnificent castle in the Tudor Gothic style in Eisgrub .

Towards the end of the Thirty Years War , the residents of Eisgrub suffered a Swedish occupation from 1645 to 1646. After the war, 86 houses in the village were destroyed. Later the place suffered from the plague and Turkish invasions . Registries have been kept since 1688, land registers since 1567. In the 18th century a small Jewish community developed in the village.

During the German-Austrian War in 1866, Eisgrub was occupied by Prussian troops. In the 19th century, Prince Johann II of Liechtenstein built a new town hall, a school and a 7 km long aqueduct. In 1884 the Eisgrub volunteer fire brigade was founded. A local railway from Eisgrub to Lundenburg connected the place and the property of the rulership with the main railway lines. Around 1900 a women's hospital was opened by the Sisters of Mercy of the Order of St. Vincent erected by Paul . The House of Liechtenstein also had a poor house built in 1905. During excavations in the castle park, Roman coins from the 2nd century were discovered. Large parts of the population lived from agriculture. Viticulture itself decreased over the centuries in the municipality, instead the wine trade in Eisgrub soon came to the fore. There were four annual markets and one weekly market in town. The annual markets were always on the Monday after Epiphany (January 6th), on the fourth Sunday after Easter, on Aegydius (September 1st) and on the first Sunday in Advent. The weekly market was always held on Wednesdays. In addition to a flourishing small business, there was a sawmill, a canning factory, a cement factory, a pottery factory, a brick factory and a taxi company.

After the First World War , the multi-ethnic state Austria-Hungary disintegrated . With the Treaty of Saint-Germain , Eisgrub, whose inhabitants were 92% German South Moravians in 1910, became part of the new Czechoslovak Republic . In the interwar period , new settlers and newly appointed civil servants increased the influx of people of Czech nationality. During the land reform, starting in 1924, around 2/3 of the princely property was expropriated and largely given to Czech settlers. The place was electrified in 1924. In 1931 a canal system was built in the place. The growing attempts at autonomy by the Germans led to tensions within the country and further to the Munich Agreement , which forced the cession of the Sudeten German territories to Germany. On October 8, 1938, German troops entered the town. Eisgrub belonged to the Reichsgau Niederdonau until 1945 .

In the spring of 1945, roadblocks, trenches and tank traps were erected around Eisgrub. A forced evacuation was ordered on April 14th. One day later, up to 700 people left the place. Most of the refugees returned to Eisgrub in May 1945.

The Second World War claimed 141 victims among the local residents and ended on May 8, 1945. The territories transferred to Germany in 1939, including Eisgrub, were reassigned to Czechoslovakia . Before the onset of post-war excesses fled from the end of May, many German citizens or were in "wild expulsions" over the nearby border into Austria sold . So on May 19, 1945 around 400 people. This resulted in deaths among the civilian population. A legal processing of the events did not take place. With the exception of three people, the remaining 474 German local residents were forcibly evacuated between March 15 and October 3, 1946 in ten organized expulsion transports via Nikolsburg to West Germany. Francis E. Walter's report to the US House of Representatives attests that these transports were never carried out in a “proper and humane” manner. According to the Beneš decree 108, the entire property of the German residents as well as the public and church German property was confiscated and placed under state administration.

In accordance with the original transfer goals of Potsdam, the Eisgruber located in Austria should be transferred to Germany. Nevertheless, about a third of them were able to stay in Austria, the majority of them settled in Germany, two families emigrated to Canada and one family each to Australia and the USA.

1966 Nejdek was incorporated.

Community structure

The Lednice municipality consists of the districts Lednice and Nejdek (Neudek) , which also form cadastral districts.

Seal and coat of arms

A seal can only be found for the year 1614 or 1629. The size of the seal changed three times until 1918, but the seal image remained the same. It showed a divided oval shield in a dense wreath of leaves. Blazon : In its upper half grow three leafy oak branches, each with an acorn, in the lower half of the shield there is a butted stake.

Although there was no formal award of the coat of arms - there is no evidence of an award presumed for 1614 - the heraldic specialist literature from the 19th / 20th Century the shield from the seal as a market coat of arms. The interpretation and color details are inaccurate: while the post is interpreted as a building made of brick and seven silver acorns (three large between four smaller ones) are mentioned in the upper half of the shield, another book of coats of arms shows the post black and gold nested in the red field.


census Houses Total population Ethnicity of the inhabitants
year German Czechs other
1793 267 1,648      
1836 306 1,954      
1869 372 2,061      
1880 351 2,387 2,182 158 47
1890 369 2,280 2,072 176 32
1900 386 2,377 2,246 99 32
1910 410 2,395 2,204 168 23
1921 439 2,501 1,828 522 134
1930 490 2,441 1,704 628 109
1939   2,103      
Source: 1793, 1836, 1850 from: Frodl, Blaschka: South Moravia from A to Z
Other: Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960, sv. 9th 1984

Transport and economy

There is a railway line from the town of Břeclav to Lednice. See the Boří les – Lednice railway line .

The Faculty of Horticulture and Landscaping of the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno with over 1,100 students has been based in Lednice since 1985 .


The castle after an engraving by Johann Adam Delsenbach in 1848
  • Lednice Castle (Zámek Lednice, reconstruction in the neo-Gothic (Tudor-Gothic) style from 1846 to 1858)
  • Castle Church of St. Jacob the Elder (rebuilt 1856)
  • Chapel of St. Trinity (1740)
  • War memorial (1924)
  • Hunting lodge (Lovecký zámeček, 1806)
  • Johannesburg (also Johannsburg or Hansenburg, Janův hrad, 1807–1810)
  • Temple of Apollo (Appolonův chrám, 1817–1819)
  • Border castle (Hraniční zámeček, 1816–1827)
  • Pond castle (Rybniční zámeček, 1814–1816)
  • Jubilee fountain (1898) by Karl Weinbrenner and Ferdinand Hartinger

Say from the place

There was a multitude of legends among the German residents:

  • Georg Birt - the master of Eisgrub.
  • The nimble master.
  • The Black Rider.
  • The origin of the Liechtensteins.
  • The knight game.

Sons and daughters of the church

  • Johann II , Prince of Liechtenstein
  • Andreas Lach (1817–1882), flower and still life painter
  • Carl Maria Thuma , academic painter
  • Eduard Reichel (1879–1939), writer
  • Anton Schultes, local researcher and poet
  • Wolfgang Thuma, painter
  • Albert Esch (1883-1954); Austrian garden architect
  • Franz Lubik (1893–1987), local history researcher
  • Hans Recht (1903–1987) poet, local researcher and winner of the Josef Freising Prize.
  • Alfred Vogel (* 1926). Born in Eisgrub. Grew up in Pulgram. Pedagogue. Local history explorer. Winner of the Federal Cross of Merit and the Josef Freising Prize.


  • AJF Zieglschmied: The oldest chronicle of the Hutterite Brothers , 1943
  • Felix Bornemann: Arts and Crafts in South Moravia. Eisgrub: p. 5, C. Maurer Verlag, Geislingen / Steige 1990, ISBN 3-927498-13-0
  • Bruno Kaukal: The coats of arms and seals of the South Moravian communities. Eisgrub: p. 50 f., Josef Knee, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-927498-19-X
  • Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume 3. The history of the German South Moravians from 1945 to the present . South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , p. 218 f . (Eisgrub).
  • Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from A to Z. Eisgrub 2008, p. 67 f.
  • Leopold Kleindienst: The forms of settlement, rural building and material culture in South Moravia. Contributions to the folklore of South Moravia. South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 1989, ISBN 3-927498-09-2 .
  • Anton Rzehak: Prehistoric finds from Eisgrub and the surrounding area. 1905
  • Michael Witzany: The Margraviate of Moravia and the market town of Eisgrub. Vols 1-3, 1901/07
  • Josef Matzura: Guide through Nikolsburg, Feldsberg, Eisgrub, Pollauer Berge . A. Bartosch publishing house. 1921, new edition 1931.
  • Isidor Herrisch: The Jewish community in Eisgrub in Moravia. 1932
  • Anton Kreuzer: Eisgrub and the Hochstift Regensburg. 1970
  • Hans right: Eisgrub in graphic images of the 18th and 19th centuries. 1979
  • Miloš Stehlík: Lednice Castle (Eisgrub)
  • Hilde Bayer: Eisgrub. 1987
  • Karl Abzieher: Eisgrub - war memorial
  • Fritz Lange: South Moravia - Pictures tell history. Sutton-Verlag 2010, ISBN 978-3-86680-658-0 .

Web links

Commons : Lednice  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

supporting documents

  1. http://www.uir.cz/obec/584631/Lednice
  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  3. ^ Joachim Rogall: Germans and Czechs. History, culture, politics. Beck, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-406 45954-4 , chapter: The Přemyslids and the German colonization. P. 33 f.
    Leopold Kleindienst: The forms of settlement, rural building and material culture in South Moravia. 1989, p. 9.
  4. Online search via the Brno Provincial Archives: Acta Publica Online research requiring registration in the historical registers of the Moravian Provincial Archives Brno (CZ, Ger). Retrieved March 24, 2011.
  5. ^ Hugo Gold: Memorial book of the lost Jewish communities of Moravia. P. 48.
  6. ^ Hans Freising, Wilfried Fiedler: Contributions to the prehistory and early history of Moravia. P. 47.
  7. ^ Johann Wolfgang Brügel : Czechs and Germans 1918–1938. Munich 1967.
  8. Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: Der Kreis Nikolsburg from A to Z. 2006, p. 71
  9. ^ Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from A to Z. Südmährischer Landschaftsrat, Geislingen an der Steige, 2006, p. 216.
  10. Mikulov Archives: Odsun Nĕmců - transport odeslaný dne 20. kvĕtna (1946).
  11. Ludislava Šuláková: The problem of the deportation of Germans in the files of the Municipal People's Committee (MNV) and the District People's Committee (ONV) Nikolsburg. South Moravian Yearbook 2001, ISSN  0562-5262 , p. 45 f.
  12. ^ Walter, Francis E. (1950): Expellees and Refugees of German ethnic Origin. Report of a Special Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, HR 2nd Session, Report No. 1841. Washington, March 24, 1950.
  13. ^ Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume 3. The history of the German South Moravians from 1945 to the present . South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , p. 218 .
  14. http://www.uir.cz/casti-obce-obec/584631/Obec-Lednice
  15. http://www.uir.cz/katastralni-uzemi-obec/584631/Obec-Lednice
  16. Liechtenstein Archive Vienna / Vaduz (1244 and others); Codex diplomaticus et epistolaris regni Bohemiae II / 237, IV / 56; Codex diplomaticus et epistolaris Moraviae II / 137, VI / 438; Codex diplomaticus et epistolaris regni Bohemiae I // 10, IV / 78, VI / 28, 114, 324, XI / 283, 473; Statní oblastní archiv, Brno D / 928, D7 / 161, G10 / 1066-124, G / 125/1116; District archive Lundenburg (holdings Eisgrub).
  17. ^ Adalbert Oberleitner, Josef Matzura: South Moravian legends from the Pollauer mountains. A. Bartosch, Nikolsburg 1921, p. 103 f.
  18. Oberleitner / Matzura: Südmährische Sagen , 1921, p. 116 f.
  19. Oberleitner / Matzura: Südmährische Sagen , 1921, p. 158 f.