|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Jihomoravský kraj|
|Area :||781 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||480 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||691 81|
|License plate :||B.|
|Street:||Hustopeče - Mikulov|
|Mayor :||Vladislav Moravčík (as of 2018)|
|Address:||Horní Věstonice 131
692 01 Horní Věstonice
Horní Věstonice is located west of Děvín ( Maidenberg , 549 m) at the foot of the Pollau Mountains and borders in the north on Dolní Věstonice ( Unter Wisternitz ), in the south on Perná ( mountains ), in the east on Pavlov ( Pollau ) and in the west on Dolní Dunajovice ( Unter Tannowitz ), and in the northwest at Mušov ( Muschau ). The place is laid out as a Breitstrasse village.
In the 11th to 13th centuries. there was a great movement of settlements from west to east. Moravia was ruled by the Přemyslid dynasty from 1031 to 1305 . In order to use larger areas for agriculture and thus achieve higher yields, the colonists advertised them with privileges such as ten years of tax exemption (German settler law). Up until 1150 the area around Mikulov (Nikolsburg) and Znojmo (Znaim) was settled by German immigrants from Lower Austria , including Horní Věstonice (Ober Wisternitz). The layout of the village and the ui dialect show that they originally came from the Bavarian areas of the dioceses of Regensburg and Passau. They brought new agricultural equipment with them and introduced the high-yield three-field economy .
In 1312 the first documentary mention took place when the Liechtenstein family was enfeoffed with the Maidenburg including the two Wisternitz (Oberwisternitz and Unterwisternitz) by King Johann . Subsequently, the places belonged to the rule Nikolsburg. What was then "Neu-Wisternitz" later became "Obern-Wistanicz", while the name form "Nieder-Wisternitz" prevailed for the original Wisternitz. The village is also mentioned in the Liechtenstein Urbar in 1414. In the 15th century there was a parish. In 1586 Ober-Wisternitz received a mining law, the basis of which is the existing old wine-growing regulation. During this time, some Reformation Anabaptists settled in the place. They were expelled from the country during the Thirty Years War in 1622. Most of the Anabaptists moved on to Transylvania .
In 1663 the Turks looted the place in the Turkish War of 1663/1664 . From 1671 to 1680 the plague killed 250 people in the village. All the vineyard owners are noted in a mountain book created in 1752. During the revolutionary wars in 1805 and 1809 there was looting by French troops. The landlord built a school in 1812. In 1855, 80 people died of cholera. On Trinity Day 1882, a fire broke out during mass, which cremated half the village. In 1886 a new school house was built. The community sold Die Klause, the valley between Maidenberg and Kesselberg, for financing . A volunteer fire brigade was established in 1885. Agriculture, fruit growing and viticulture were the main livelihoods of the residents. In addition to the usual small business, there was also a button shop, three quarries and a hairnet shop.
One of the successor states of Austria-Hungary after the First World War , 1914–1918, was Czechoslovakia , which claimed the German-speaking regions of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia that had been German Austria since the end of 1918 . The Treaty of St. Germain awarded the disputed territories against the will of the people of Czechoslovakia. The South Moravian village of Ober Wisternitz, whose inhabitants were exclusively German South Moravians in 1910 , then fell to the new state. During the interwar period , the high unemployment among the German population, measures such as land reform , the Language Act (1920) and the Language Ordinance (1926), but also the resettlement and replacement of civil servants by persons of Czech nationality, led to increased tensions within the ethnic groups. When the autonomy demanded by German speakers was not negotiated, the disagreements intensified. With the threat of armed conflict, the Western powers caused the Czech government to cede the peripheral areas, which were regulated in the Munich Agreement , to Germany. Thus, on October 1, 1938, Ober Wisternitz became part of the German Reichsgau Niederdonau . - During this time the war memorial was created in 1921, the water pipe in 1925, the electrification in 1929 and the community hall with stage in 1935.
Before the end of the Second World War , refugees from Transylvania and the Banat came to Ober-Wisternitz. On April 23, 1945, Soviet soldiers occupied the place. At times, 8,000 Russian soldiers were in the area, and there were many attacks against the civilian population. After the end of the Second World War , in which 55 Ober-Wisternitzers fell victim, the community came back to Czechoslovakia on May 8, 1945. Many German South Moravians fled across the nearby border to Austria before the excesses caused by militant Czechs. On October 12, 1945, some of the German citizens were brought to the estate near Groß-Meseritsch and the other part was driven wildly to Austria via Nikolsburg . There were 22 deaths among the German civilian population. The Beneš Decree 115/46 (Law on Exemption from Punishment) declares such actions to be unlawful until October 28, 1945 in the struggle to regain freedom ..., or which aimed at just retaliation for the acts of the occupiers or their accomplices ... . The victorious powers of World War II took on August 2, 1945 in the Potsdam Protocol , Article XIII, to the ongoing "wild" expulsions of the German population actually not position. However, they explicitly called for an "orderly and humane transfer" of the "German population segments" that "remained in Czechoslovakia". The remaining German citizens of Ober-Wisternitz were officially forcibly resettled to Germany between March 15 and September 17, 1946 . According to Francis E. Walter's report to the US House of Representatives, at no time were these transports carried out in a "proper and humane" manner. Due to the Beneš decrees 108, the entire property of the German residents as well as the public and church German property were confiscated and placed under state administration. The Czech Republic made no compensation for the confiscated assets. 15 people remained in the place.
According to the original transfer goals of the Potsdam Communiqué, all ethnic Germans from Austria had to be transferred to Germany. Nevertheless, 236 people from Unter-Wisternitz were able to stay in Austria. Two people each emigrated to England and the USA.
Coat of arms and seal
The place seal has been known since 1583. The seal shows a Renaissance shield, surrounded by a tape, with a vine. An original print is not available, the overall design should have been similar to the seals from Klentnitz and Pollau. The most famous seal dates from 1779 and shows a vine with three grapes.
|census||Houses||Total population||Ethnicity of the inhabitants|
|Source: 1793, 1836, 1850 from: South Moravia from A – Z. Frodl, Blaschka|
|Other: Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960. sv.9. 1984|
- In 1680 a small chapel in honor of St. Rosalia built.
- The local church was built in 1769 by master mason Rabl from Znojmo and the plan for it was probably made by Bartholomäus Zinner. It is dedicated to the plague saint Rosalia. It was renovated in 1853.
- Two statues, Rochus and Sebastian, were transferred from the chapel to the new church.
- In addition, there is the "Schwedenkreuz" tortoise by the pond, 5 iron crosses, a marterl (1866) and the "Prussian cross" near the acacia forest.
- The town's war memorial was erected in 1921.
- Burgstall Neuhaus , on the rock southeast of the village
Sons and daughters of the church
- Franz Kopetzky (1842–1901), educator, specialist writer
- Heinz Fischer (born March 4, 1932), local researcher
Say from the place
There were a multitude of myths among German local residents:
- The black dog
- Wilhelm Szegeda: Local history reading book of the Nikolsburg school district, 1935, approved teaching aid, teachers' association Pohrlitz Verlag, Ober-Wisternitz: p.92
- Felix Bornemann: Arts and Crafts in South Moravia. , Ober-Wisternitz: p.29; C. Maurer Verlag, Geislingen / Steige 1990, ISBN 3-927498-13-0
- Bruno Kaukal: The coats of arms and seals of the South Moravian communities. , Ober Wisternitz, p.174f, Josef Knee, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-927498-19-X
- Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia Bd. 3, Ober-Wisternitz: pp. 230, 406, 409, 423, 515, 573, C. Maurer Verlag, Geislingen / Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0
- Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from A to Z , Ober-Wisternitz, p.153f, South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen / Steige 2006
- Franz Josef Schwoy : Topography of the Markgrafthum Moravia. 1793, Oberwisternitz page 444
- Anton Schwetter, Siegfried Kern: The political district of Nikolsburg, Julius Nafe publishing house. 1884
- Anton Schwetter, Siegfried Kern: Local history for the political district of Nikolsburg. 1911
- Josef Matzura: Guide through Nikolsburg, Feldsberg, Eisgrub, Pollauer Berge. 1931
- Johann Zabel: Church handler for South Moravia 1941, Vicariate General Nikolsburg, Oberwisternitz page 35
- Georg Dehio , Karl Ginhart : Handbook of German art monuments in the Ostmark. 1941, Oberwisternitz page 363
- Ilse Tielsch -Felzmann: South Moravian Legends . 1969, Munich, Heimatwerk publishing house
- Wenzel Max: Thayaland, folk songs and dances from South Moravia , 1984, Geislingen / Steige
- Felix Bornemann: Arts and Crafts in South Moravia . 1990, Oberwisternitz page 29
- Felix Ermacora : The Sudeten German Questions . Legal opinion, Langen Müller. 1992, ISBN 3-7844-2412-0 .
- Heinz Fischer: Oberwisternitz, a village over the centuries . 1999.
- Alfred Schickel , Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia . Volume 3. The history of the German South Moravians from 1945 to the present. South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 .
- Oberwisternitz in "Old postcard motifs of the South Moravian communities"
- Cultural database of displaced persons
- History of the small monuments of Oberwisternitz
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Joachim Rogall: Germans and Czechs: History, Culture, Politics Verlag CH Beck, 2003. ISBN 3 406 45954 4 . Preface by Václav Havel. Chapter: The Přemyslids and the German Colonization S33 f.
- Leopold Kleindienst: The forms of settlement, rural building and material culture in South Moravia , 1989, p. 9
- Hans Zuckriegl: Dictionary of the South Moravian dialects . Their use in speech, song and writing. 25,000 dialect words, 620 pages self-published. 1999.
- Astrid von Schlachta : Hutterite Confession and Tradition (1578-1619) , 2003, p. 83
- Längin: Die Hutterer , 1968, p. 237
- Bad weather / Kern: The political district of Nikolsburg , 1884
- Acta Publica Online search in the historical registers of the Moravian Provincial Archives Brno (cz, dt). Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Felix Ermacora : The unreached peace: St. Germain and the consequences; 1919-1989 , Amalthea Verlag, Vienna, Munich, 1989, ISBN 3-85002-279-X
- Elisabeth Wiskemann: Czechs and Germans , London, 1938; P. 152
- Johann Wolfgang Brügel : Czechs and Germans 1918 - 1938 , Munich 1967
- O. Kimminich: The assessment of the Munich Agreement in the Prague Treaty and in the literature on international law published on it , Munich 1988
- Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from AZ, 2006
- Wilhelm Szegeda: Heimatkundliches Lesebuch des Schulbezirks Nikolsburg, approved teaching aid, teachers' association Pohrlitz Verlag, 1935, Ober Wisternitz p. 92f
- Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from AZ, Südmährischer Landschaftsrat, Geislingen an der Steige, 2006, p. 216
- Charles L. Mee : The Potsdam Conference 1945. The division of the booty . Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, Munich 1979. ISBN 3-453-48060-0 .
- Milan Churaň: Potsdam and Czechoslovakia. 2007, ISBN 978-3-9810491-7-6 .
- Mikulov Archives: Odsun Nĕmců - transport odeslaný dne 20. kvĕtna , 1946
- Walter, Francis E. (1950): Expellees and Refugees of German ethnic Origin. Report of a Special Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, HR 2nd Session, Report No. 1841, Washington, March 24, 1950.
- Ludislava Šuláková, translated by Wilhelm Jun: The problem of the deportation of Germans in the files of the Municipal People's Committee (MNV) and the District People's Committee (ONV) Nikolsburg: Südmährisches Jahrbuch 2001 p. 45f,
- Ignaz Seidl-Hohenveldern : International Confiscation and Expropriation Law. Series: Contributions to foreign and international private law. Volume 23. Berlin and Tübingen, 1952.
- Brunnhilde Scheuringer: 30 years later. The integration of ethnic German refugees and displaced persons in Austria, publisher: Braumüller, 1983, ISBN 3-7003-0507-9
- Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume 3. The history of the German South Moravians from 1945 to the present . South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , p. 230 f . (Oberwisternitz).
- Bruno Kaukal: The coats of arms and seals of the South Moravian communities, 1992, Ober Wisternitz, p. 170
- Oberleitner / Makura: Südmährische Sagen, 1921, p. 95