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Zaječí coat of arms
Zaječí (Czech Republic)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Region : Jihomoravský kraj
District : Břeclav
Area : 1586 ha
Geographic location : 48 ° 52 '  N , 16 ° 46'  E Coordinates: 48 ° 52 '23 "  N , 16 ° 45' 59"  E
Height: 187  m nm
Residents : 1,432 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 691 05
License plate : B.
Street: Hustopeče - Mikulov
Railway connection: Brno – Břeclav
Zaječí – Hodonín
Status: local community
Districts: 1
Mayor : Jana Hasilíková (as of 2018)
Address: Školní 401
691 05 Zaječí
Municipality number: 585050
Website :

Zaječí (German Saitz ) is a municipality in Okres Břeclav ( Lundenburg district ) in Jihomoravský kraj ( South Moravia ) in the Czech Republic . The place is laid out as a Linsenangerdorf .


The neighboring villages are in the west Nové Mlýny ( Neumühl ), in the south Přítluky ( Prittlach ), in the southeast Rakvice ( Rakwitz ), in the east Velké Pavlovice ( Groß Pawlowitz ) and in the north Starovičky ( Klein Steurowitz ).


In the 11th to 13th centuries there was a great movement of settlements from west to east. Moravia was ruled by the Přemyslid dynasty from 1031 to 1305 . In order to use larger areas for agriculture and thus achieve higher yields, the colonists advertised them, for example, with ten years of tax exemption (German settler law). By 1150, the area around Mikulov (Nikolsburg) and Znojmo (Znaim) was settled by German immigrants from Lower Austria . The layout of the village and the ui dialect show that they originally came from the Bavarian areas of the dioceses of Regensburg and Passau. They brought new agricultural equipment with them and introduced the high-yield three-field economy .

In 1252 the first documentary mention was made in the "Weinzehnt von Saitz", which is part of the initial equipment of the Saar monastery. The monastery took on both pastoral care and fortification of the place. In 1385 part of Saitz belonged to the rule of the House of Liechtenstein. Another part came under the rule of Göding from 1594. At the time of the Reformation, around 1550, members of the Reformation Anabaptist movement ( Hutterites ) settled in the village. The Hutterites confessed, among other things, to the baptism of faith and community of property and had to emigrate again in 1622 due to the beginning of the Counter Reformation during the Thirty Years' War . Most of the Anabaptists moved on to Transylvania . Registries have been kept since 1653. Online search via the Brno State Archives. Land registers have been kept since 1652.

In 1691 25 houses with 46 inhabitants belonged to the Eisgruber dominion, 77 houses with 82 inhabitants to the dominion of Göding. Until 1850 Saitz remained divided into two communities. In 1760 a school was built in the village, before that lessons were held in the community inn. The school was renovated twice more (1828 and 1895) and eventually housed four classes. In 1839 the place received a train station. From 1868 the street lighting was done with oil lamps, which were later replaced by kerosene lamps. A volunteer fire brigade was established in 1886. A further development of the place took place in 1898 with the connection to the telegraph network. The place was supplied with water from five public wells. Most of the locals lived from agriculture. In addition to arable and vegetable cultivation, there was also viticulture, which has been cultivated for centuries. However, the phylloxera plague of 1910 destroyed almost all of the vines . Viticulture recovered, but by 1945 the area under viniculture had been reduced to 55 hectares. In the village itself there was not only small businesses such as craftsmen, but also a Raiffeisenkassa and a milk cooperative. Between 1912 and 1922 the fields were drained.

Interwar period

One of the successor states of Austria-Hungary after the First World War (1914-1918) was Czechoslovakia , which claimed the German-speaking areas of Bohemia , Moravia and Austrian-Silesia that had been German Austria since the end of 1918 . In spite of Woodrow Wilson's proclaimed right of peoples to self-determination, the new state also laid claim to the German-settled parts of the countries of the Bohemian crown and created a fait accompli when troops of the Czechoslovak Republic occupied South Moravia in November 1918 . The Treaty of St. Germain awarded these disputed territories to Czechoslovakia against the will of the German population there. The South Moravian village of Saitz, whose inhabitants were 99.7% German South Moravians in 1910 , also fell to the new state. During the interwar period , high unemployment among the German population, measures such as the land reform in 1919, the language ordinance in 1926, resettlements and new appointments to civil servants by people of Czech nationality led to increased tensions within the ethnic groups. The Czech population of Saitz increased more than 40-fold between 1910 and 1930. A minority school was established in 1919 for the children of immigrant Czech families. In 1930 the secondary German schools in Auspitz attended by the Saitz children were closed. When the autonomy demanded by the German-speaking people was not negotiated, the disagreements between the German and Czech populations intensified until the Sudeten crisis . With the threat of armed conflict, the Western powers caused the Czech government to cede the peripheral areas, which were regulated in the Munich Agreement , to Germany. Thus Saitz became part of the German Reichsgau Niederdonau on October 1st, 1938 .

On September 10, 1928, the Paris-Bucharest Express drove into the end of a freight train near Saitz. 21 people died and 29 were seriously injured.

post war period

After the end of the Second World War (May 8, 1945), the request of the ČSR government Beneš was complied with by the victorious powers and the territories transferred to Germany in the Munich Agreement (1938), including the town of Saitz, based on the Treaty of Saint- Germain (1919) reassigned to Czechoslovakia . Soon after the end of the war, many German local residents were wildly driven across the border into Austria by militant Czechs and national militias . Others fled from the post-war excesses. This resulted in 12 deaths among the German civilian population. A legal processing of the events did not take place. The Beneš Decree  115/46 (Law on Exemption from Punishment ) declares actions up to October 28, 1945 in the struggle to regain freedom ... , or that aimed at just retribution for the acts of the occupiers or their accomplices, ... not unlawful. The victorious powers of World War II took on August 2, 1945 in the Potsdam Protocol , Article XIII, to the ongoing "wild" expulsions of the German population actually not position. However, they explicitly called for an "orderly and humane transfer" of the "German population segments" that "remained in Czechoslovakia". On May 7, 1946, 88 Saitzers were forcibly relocated to West Germany . According to Francis E. Walter's report to the US House of Representatives, at no time were these transports carried out in a "proper and humane" manner. 56 citizens could stay in the place. All private and public property of the German local residents was confiscated by the Beneš decree 108 , the assets of the Protestant church were liquidated by the Beneš decree 131 and the Catholic Church was expropriated in the communist era . There was no compensation from the Czech Republic.

In accordance with the original transfer modalities of the Potsdam Communique, the Red Army demanded the deportation of all ethnic Germans from Austria to West Germany. Nevertheless, around 18% of the Saitzer could stay in Austria, the rest were transferred to Germany.

Coat of arms and seal

Due to the different rulers, the place had two local seals in 1749. The seal of the place under the administration of Eisgrub showed a hare running to the right, while the other district in the seal shows a hare running to the left. From 1848 on, Saitz only used an image-free stamp. After 1918, the old municipal seal was reintroduced together with a new bilingual inscription.

Population development

census Houses Total population Ethnicity of the inhabitants
year German Czechs Other
1793 220 1.110 - - -
1836 282 1,330 - - -
1869 337 1,428 - - -
1880 339 1,523 1,475 39 9
1890 341 1,543 1,487 52 14th
1900 344 1,500 1,463 34 1
1910 332 1,630 1,625 5 0
1921 336 1,481 1,319 118 36
1930 371 1,506 1,282 202 22nd
1939 391 1,357 - - -
Source: 1793, 1836, 1850 from: South Moravia from A – Z. Frodl, Blaschka.
Other: Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960. sv.9. 1984.


  • Parish church of St. John the Baptist, late Gothic in 1508, originally fortified church, rebuilt in 1912 after a fire, tower raised to 43 m
  • Florian Chapel (1710)
  • Trinity Chapel
  • Statue of St. John of Nepomuk.
  • War memorial (1921)

Sons and daughters of the church

  • Josef Koch (1915–1986), professor of theology


  • Gregor Wolny : The Anabaptists in Moravia, Vienna 1850
  • Rudolf Wolkan : History book of the Hutterite Brothers , in collaboration with the Hutterite Brothers in America and Canada, Standoff Colony near Macleod ( Alberta ), Vienna 1923.
  • Anton Schwetter, Anton Kern: Local history for the political district of Nikolsburg. 1911
  • Gustav Gregor: home book of the community Saitz. 1969
  • Franz Tunkl: Saitzer Heimatbuch. 1980
  • Ilse Tielsch -Felzmann: South Moravian Legends . 1969, Munich, Heimatwerk publishing house
  • Wenzel Max: Thayaland, folk songs and dances from South Moravia , 1984, Geislingen / Steige
  • Felix Bornemann: Arts and Crafts in South Moravia. Maurer, Geislingen / Steige 1990, ISBN 3-927498-13-0 ,
  • Bruno Kaukal: The coats of arms and seals of the South Moravian communities. Knee, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-927498-19-X ,
  • Leopold Kleindienst: The forms of settlement, rural building and material culture in South Moravia , 1989, ISBN 3-927498-092
  • Felix Ermacora : The Sudeten German Questions. Legal opinion. Langen Müller Verlag, 1992. ISBN 3-7844-2412-0
  • Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume 3. The history of the German South Moravians from 1945 to the present . South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 .

Web links

Commons : Zaječí  - collection of images, videos and audio files

supporting documents

  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  4. Joachim Rogall: Germans and Czechs: History, Culture, Politics Verlag CH Beck, 2003. ISBN 3 406 45954 4 . Preface by Václav Havel. Chapter: The Přemyslids and the German Colonization S33 f.
  5. ^ Leopold Kleindienst: The forms of settlement, rural building and material culture in South Moravia , 1989, p. 9
  6. Hans Zuckriegl: Dictionary of the South Moravian dialects . Their use in speech, song and writing. 25,000 dialect words, 620 pages self-published. 1999.
  7. Bernd G. Längin : The Hutterites. 1986, p. 237.
  8. ^ Acta Publica. Online search in the historical registers of the Moravian Provincial Archives Brno (cz, dt). Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  9. ^ Felix Ermacora : The unreached peace: St. Germain and the consequences; 1919-1989. Amalthea Verlag, Vienna, Munich, 1989, ISBN 3-85002-279-X .
  10. ^ Fritz Peter Habel: Documents on the Sudeten Question , Langen Müller, 1984, ISBN 3-7844-2038-9 , land reform in the ČSR, 1919 to 1938. P. 471
  11. ^ Maximilian Obauer: Constitutional amendments in the Czechoslovak Republic . 2007. Dissertation, University of Vienna. Language Ordinance 1926.
  12. ^ Johann Wolfgang Brügel : Czechs and Germans 1918–1938. Munich 1967.
  13. ^ O. Kimminich: The assessment of the Munich Agreement in the Prague Treaty and in the literature on international law published on it. Munich 1988.
  14. ^ Peter WB Semmens: Catastrophes on rails. A worldwide documentation. Transpress, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-344-71030-3 , p. 83.
  15. ^ Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from AZ. South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige, 2006, p. 216.
  16. ^ Charles L. Mee : The Potsdam Conference 1945. The division of the booty . Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, Munich 1979. ISBN 3-453-48060-0 .
  17. Milan Churaň: Potsdam and Czechoslovakia. 2007, ISBN 978-3-9810491-7-6 .
  18. ^ Francis E. Walter (1950): Expellees and Refugees of German Ethnic Origin. Report of a Special Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, HR 2nd Session, Report No. 1841, Washington, March 24, 1950.
  19. ^ Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume III. Maurer, Geislingen / Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , pp. 204, 210, 406, 412, 422-425, 540, 573, 577.
  20. Cornelia Znoy: The expulsion of the Sudeten Germans to Austria in 1945/46. Diploma thesis to obtain the master’s degree in philosophy, Faculty of Humanities at the University of Vienna, 1995.
  21. ^ Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume III. Maurer, Geislingen / Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 .
  22. Emilia Hrabovec: Expulsion and Deportation. Germans in Moravia 1945–1947. Frankfurt am Main / Bern / New York / Vienna (= Vienna Eastern European Studies. Series of publications by the Austrian Institute for Eastern and South Eastern Europe), 1995 and 1996.
  23. Bruno Kaukal: The coats of arms and seals of the South Moravian communities, 1992, Saitz p. 207