European Danube Commission
The European Danube Commission (EDK) was a permanent authority in existence from 1856 to 1948 for the regulation and agreement of the shipping and current police regulations for the Danube .
No other European river flows through as many countries as the Danube. Regulations for unhindered and as simple as possible use were therefore made early on. The general regulations on river navigation regarding the congress act of the Congress of Vienna signed on June 8, 1815 also applied to the Danube. July 13th jul. / July 25, 1840 greg. Austria and Russia concluded a convention in St. Petersburg (...) on Danube shipping .
At the Third Peace of Paris , which ended the Crimean War , the creation of a European Danube Commission was agreed, which - with expanded powers - should take over the tasks of the already existing Commission of the Danube Bank States . For the first Danube Conference on November 4, 1856, in the (now) Romanian city of Galatz, delegates from the following seven countries met: Prussia , France , United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , Austrian Empire , Russian Empire , Kingdom of Sardinia and Ottoman Empire .
The Danube Riverside States Commission , which was also appointed under the Paris Treaty, consisted of representatives from Austria, Bavaria , Turkey and Württemberg as well as commissioners for Moldova , Wallachia and Serbia . The Danube Shipping Act comprising 47 articles , which was signed in Vienna on November 7th, 1857 , arose from the negotiations of the DUK . The London Treaty of March 13, 1871, the Treaty of Berlin of July 13, 1878 and the London Treaty of March 10, 1883 were also significant. The Commission had its seat in Sulina from 1856/57 . During the First World War the commission was suspended until the Peace of Bucharest, it was reinstated by the Treaty of Versailles , but initially limited to the victorious powers and had its seat in Galați . In addition, in 1921 an International Danube Commission was created with its seat in Bratislava . The Danube Shipping Act became law in the German Reich in 1922. All neighboring states were granted the same navigation rights on the Danube through additional agreements in 1921 and 1923.
As a result of the Convention on the Regulation of Shipping on the Danube , the so-called "Belgrade Act", of August 8, 1948, the European Danube Commission was dissolved. The successor to the EDK is the Danube Commission , which has its seat in Budapest .
- Franz Bittel: About the river navigation law of the mouths of the Danube with special consideration of the legal relationships of the European Danube Commission . Dissertation. University of Erlangen, Erlangen 1899, archive.org .
- Herbert Krause: The European Danube Commission . Legal and political dissertation, University of Breslau, Breslau 1927, DNB 570488079 .
- Herbert Steinke: The Danube as an international waterway . Nischkowsky, Breslau 1934. (At the same time dissertation, University of Breslau), OBV .
- Guido Thiemeyer : The integration of Danube shipping as a problem of contemporary European history . In: Archive for Social History , Vol. 49, 2009, pp. 303-318, Dietz, Bonn, ZDB -ID 505-8 .
- ^ Wiener Congreß-Acte , Art. 108–116.
^ Convention, concluded between Austria and Russia on the subject of Danube shipping, of which the ratification documents on the 22nd (10). September 1840 were changed to St. Petersburg. In: Official Gazette for the Oesterreichisch-Kaiserl (ichen) privileged Wiener Zeitung , No. 347/1840, December 15, 1840, p. 805 f. (Online at ANNO ). ;
The Danube Shipping Question in its development from the Vienna Congress to the conclusion of the Danube Shipping Act of November 7, 1857, presented in a collection of the relevant international law acts . With an introduction explaining some of the main points of the new Shipping Act. Metzler, Stuttgart 1858. pp. 54-59.
- ↑ Guido Thiemeyer: The integration of Danube shipping as a problem of contemporary European history . In: Archive for Social History , Vol. 49, 2009, pp. 303–318, here p. 307.
↑ Addendum. (…) The European Commission for Regulation (…). In: Oesterreichisch-Kaiserliche Wiener Zeitung , No. 267/1856, November 19, 1856, p. 3427, top right. (Online at ANNO ). ;
Herbert Steinke: The Danube as an international waterway . Nischkowsky, Breslau 1934. p. 25.
- ↑ Vienna. In: Abendblatt der Oesterreichisch-Kaiserliche Wiener Zeitung , No. 257/1856, November 6, 1856, p. 1028 middle. (Online at ANNO ). .
- ^ Danube Shipping Act between Austria, Bavaria, Turkey and Würtemberg, closed in Vienna on November 7, 1857 . Court and State Printing House, Vienna 1857, OBV .
- ^ The Danube Shipping Question in its development from the Vienna Congress to the conclusion of the Danube Shipping Act of November 7, 1857 . Metzler, Stuttgart 1858. p. 44.
- ^ Hans-Jürgen Schlochauer : Legal protection against international authorities . In: Ders .: (Ed.): Dictionary of international law . Volume 3: Rapallo Treaty to Cyprus , completely revised 2nd edition. de Gruyter, Berlin 1962, pp. 71–74, here p. 72.