Adam Wandruszka (as Adam Wandruszka von Wanstetten * August 6, 1914 in Lemberg , Galicia , Austria-Hungary , † July 9, 1997 in Vienna ) was an Austrian historian and journalist . He was a full professor at the universities in Cologne and Vienna . Professionally and privately he had a close relationship with Italy . His publications on the House of Habsburg and Leopold II are considered standard works .
The son of an Austro-Hungarian officer († 1916) and an academic painter, b. Steindl von Plessenet, attended a grammar school in Vienna and after graduating from high school in 1932 studied history, German and art history at the University of Vienna . From 1935 to 1938 he also completed the course at the Vienna Institute for Austrian Historical Research as a full member (thesis topic: Imperial Patriotism and Imperial Politics at the Time of the Peace of Prague in 1635 ); In 1938 he received a scholarship from the German research community. In 1936 he was with Heinrich von Srbik with the dissertation Karl Moering . A soldier and politician for Dr. phil. PhD; he passed the rigorous exams with Heinrich von Srbik, Hans Hirsch and Hans Sedlmayr . As his "honored" teacher Srbik u. a. he stood in the "Greater German" historian tradition. In 1938 he was - released from military service - briefly research assistant at the German Historical Institute in Rome .
He also became an illegal member of the SA because of personal friendships . In April 1938, Wandruszka emerged as SA-Obertruppführer on behalf of the National Socialist audience with an address of thanks and an answer to Srbik's big speech on the occasion of the " Anschluss ". In an interview given in 1988, Adam Wandruszka countered the rumor that he had arrested the Benedictine priest and historian Hugo Hantsch after the Anschluss in 1938 : he had arrested not Hantsch, but the historian Arnold Winkler . Adam Wandruszka and his brother Mario Wandruszka applied for membership in the NSDAP on May 28, 1938, but received no notification for about a year. The Gauleiter of Vienna finally approved the request on the grounds that the brothers had been "in the movement since March 1933" and that one could not look at the eighth of Jewish blood that ran in their veins. The appeal to the "grace of the Führer" was successful, the brothers were admitted to the party on May 1, 1941 retroactively to May 1, 1938.
From 1939 he took part in the western campaign in France, where he was wounded; he later served with the Africa Corps , was wounded again there and was taken prisoner by the US in the spring of 1943 . In the Concordia camp in Kansas he influenced a. a. Karl Dietrich Bracher . Hartmut Lehmann , who later became a pupil of Wandruszka in Cologne, identified a change of attitude there: “[There] in the prison camp in the USA he began to think and change his mind.” According to Fritz Fellner, “he was one of the few Austrians who did theirs after 1945 Did not gloss over the past or even deny it, but openly admit that they were National Socialists ”.
After his release in 1946, he lived with his sister in Innsbruck and then worked as a journalist: employed by the newspapers Furche (from 1946) and the press (from 1948 as an editor), he became the foreign policy editor. He was also a correspondent for Italian newspapers.
He then qualified as a professor - Michael Pfliegler is his teacher and “mentor” - for modern history and in 1955 became a university lecturer in modern history at the University of Vienna. In 1959 he accepted a professorship for the history of the Middle Ages and modern times at the University of Cologne , where he also served as head of the international office on an honorary basis . In 1963/64 he was dean. From 1969 to 1984 he taught as the successor to Alphons Lhotsky as a full professor for Austrian history at the University of Vienna . In 1986 he was visiting professor at the University of Pavia . Wandruszka devoted himself above all to the research of lesser-known aspects of the history of the Danube Monarchy , such as the life of Leopold II. His works on the House of Habsburg (7th edition, 1989) and Leopold II. (2 volumes, 1963/65) are considered standard works . His essay Austria's political structure in the Benedict volume History of the Republic of Austria is considered a “classic of Austrian party history” (Fellner).
In 1969 he became a corresponding and in 1970 a full member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences . From 1972 to 1995 he was chairman of the Commission for the History of the Habsburg Monarchy 1848–1918 and the Commission for the History of Austria. He also became a member of the historical commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences . From 1971 to 1985 he was chairman of the Southeast German Historical Commission .
He was regarded as a respected representative of his subject by "all camps of Italian historical science". He cultivated friendships with historians such as Franco Valsecchi and others. He was a founding member and honorary president of the Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento, honorary member of the Deputazione di Storia Patria per le Venezie and the Società Storica Pisana, foreign member of the Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti , the Deputazione di storia patria per la Toscana , the Accademia Selinuntina di scienze lettere ed arti in Mazara del Vallo and the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome, corresponding member of the Accademia degli Agiati di scienze, lettere ed arti , the Accademico ordinario per la Classe di Scienze morali dell ' Accademia Virgiliana di scienze, lettere ed arti in Mantua.
Wandruszka wrote articles and a. for the New German Biography and the Propylaea World History . He was co-editor a. a. the Cologne historical treatises , the history of technology , the Austrian university newspaper , the Southeast German Archive , the publications of the Commission for the History of Austria , the studies and sources on contemporary Austrian history and the sources and studies on Austrian intellectual history .
As a teacher and researcher, he did not want to “judge” but rather “understand” and be “tolerant”. For Fellner, he was “a highly respected representative of Austrian history and the greatness of Austrian history, both abroad and at home”.
He was initially married to an Italian English student whom he had met in Salzburg, and then to a musicologist after her death. He was the father of three children, including the Germanist Maria Luisa Wandruszka (* 1950) and the actress Marina Wandruszka (* 1954).
Adam Wandruszka was buried in 1997 at the Neustifter Friedhof in Vienna. His widow bequeathed his library of over 7000 books and some bundles of other documents to the Istituto per gli Incontri Culturali Central Europe in Gorizia as the Wandruszka Fund .
- 1973 Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- 1974 Austrian Cross of Honor for Science and Art, 1st class
- 1974 Great Cross of Merit of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 1976 Commander's Cross of the French National Order of Merit
- 1977 Grand Officer's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- 1977 Richard Meister Medal from the University Association Alma Mater Rudolphina
- 1979 Gold Medal of Honor of the Federal Capital Vienna
- 1981 Large Commander's Cross with the Star of Honor for Services to the Province of Lower Austria
- 1984 Big Culture Prize of the State of Lower Austria for Science
- 1984 City of Vienna Prize for the Humanities
- 1987 Honorary doctorate from Facoltä di Lingue e Letterature straniere, University of Venice
- 1990 Wilhelm Hartel Prize from the Austrian Academy of Sciences
- (Selected and imported): Ernst Molden : Austria has the floor. Contributions to the history of the 2nd republic . Press publishing house, Vienna 1953.
- Imperial patriotism and imperial politics at the time of the Peace of Prague of 1635. A study on the history of German national consciousness (= publications by the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . Volume 17). Böhlau, Graz a. a. 1955.
- Otto Schulmeister (Ed. With the assistance of Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck and Adam Wandruszka): Spectrum Austriae. Herder-Verlag, Vienna 1957 (revised new edition, Molden, Vienna et al. 1980, ISBN 3-217-01087-6 ).
- The House of Habsburg. The story of a European dynasty. Vorwerk, Vienna 1956 (2nd edition 1959; English translation 1964 by Cathleen and Hans Epstein; license Herder 1968; Italian translation 1974 by Wanda Peroni Bauer; 4th edition 1982; 5th edition 1985; 6th edition 1987; 7th edition 1989 ).
- Story of a newspaper. The fate of the “press” and the “new free press” from 1848 to the Second Republic . Neue Wiener Presse, Vienna 1958.
- Leopold II Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Roman Emperor . 2 volumes. Herold-Verlag, Vienna a. a. 1963/65.
- Volume 1: 1747-1780 . 1963.
- Volume 2: 1780-1792 . 1965.
- Austria and Italy in the 18th century. Publishing house for history and politics, Vienna 1963 (license Oldenburg 1963).
- Fateful year 1866 . Publishing house Styria, Graz u. a. 1966.
- (Ed. From the estate): Friedrich Walter : Austrian constitution and administrative history from 1500–1955. (= Publications of the Commission for Modern History of Austria . 59). Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 1972, ISBN 3-205-08562-0 .
- with Silvio Furlani: Austria and Italy. A bilateral history book . Youth and People, Vienna a. a. 1973, ISBN 3-7141-6516-9 (2nd revised edition, öbv and hpt, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-209-03742-6 ).
- with Peter Urbanitsch (ed.): The Habsburg Monarchy, 1848–1918 . On behalf of the Commission for the History of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1848–1918). 2 volumes. Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1973/75.
- Volume 1: Economic Development . 1973.
- Volume 2: Administration and Legal . 1975, ISBN 3-7001-0081-7 .
- with Ludwig Jedlicka (ed.): Innsbruck, Venice [Austrian-Italian historians' meeting 1971 and 1972] (= publications of the commission for [the] history of Austria . Volume 6). Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1975.
- with Richard G. Plaschka , Anna M. Drabek (ed.): The Donaumonarchie and the South Slavic question. From 1848–1918. Texts from the 1st Austrian-Yugoslavian Historians' Meeting, Gösing 1976 (= publications of the Commission for the History of Austria . Volume 8). Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1978, ISBN 3-7001-0244-5 .
- Maria Theresa. The great empress (= personality and history . Volume 110). Muster-Schmidt, Göttingen a. a. 1980, ISBN 3-7881-0110-5 .
- with Mariella Reininghaus: The Ballhausplatz (= Viennese history books . Volume 33). Zsolnay, Vienna a. a. 1984, ISBN 3-552-03608-3 .
- with Peter Urbanitsch (ed.): The Habsburg Monarchy in the System of International Relations (= The Habsburg Monarchy . Volume 6). On behalf of the Commission for the History of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1848–1918). 2 volumes. Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1990/93.
- Volume 1, 1990, ISBN 3-7001-1682-9 .
- Volume 2, 1993, ISBN 3-7001-2084-2 .
- Subject in: Annali dell'Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento. 33, 2007.
- Angelo Ara : In memoriam di Adam Wandruszka. In: Roman historical communications . 40, 1998, pp. 21-27.
- Erna Appelt, Albert F. Reiterer: A thorn in the side. Adam Wandruszka catches up with his past. In: Austrian Journal of History. 1/1990/3, pp. 99-101.
- Fritz Fellner : Adam Wandruszka †. In: Communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . 106, 1998, pp. 443-450.
- Wandruszka, Adam. In: Fritz Fellner, Doris A. Corradini (Ed.): Austrian History in the 20th Century. A biographical-bibliographical lexicon (= publications of the Commission for Modern History of Austria. Volume 99). Böhlau, Vienna et al. 2006, ISBN 3-205-77476-0 , p. 438 f.
- Heinrich Fichtenau , Erich Zöllner (Hrsg.): Contributions to the recent history of Austria. [Adam Wandruszka on the completion of the 60th year of life] (= publications by the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . Volume 20). Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 1974.
- Friedrich Gottas : Prof. Dr. Dr. hc Adam Wandruszka (obituary). In: Southeast German Archive. Volume 40/41, 1997/98, p. 194 f.
- Wolfgang Häusler : Adam Wandruszka for his 70th birthday. In: Austria in history and literature. 28, 1984, pp. 87-89.
- Wolfgang Häusler, Karl Vocelka (Ed.): Bibliography Adam Wandruszka 1936–1995. In: Annali dell'Istituto storico italo-germanico in Trento. 21, 1995, pp. 591-610 (with additions by Helga Haupt Wandruszka).
- Brigitte Mazohl-Wallnig : laudation for Univ.Prof. Dr. Adam Wandruszka. In: Roman historical communications. 37, 1995, pp. 271-287.
- Richard G. Plaschka : Adam Wandruszka. In: Almanach OeAW. 147, 1996/97, pp. 587-602.
- Festschrift for Adam Wandruszka on the completion of the 75th year of life (= Roman historical messages. Volume 31). 1989.
- Wandruszka, Adam. In: Rudolf Vierhaus (Ed.): German Biographical Encyclopedia . Volume 10: Thies - Zymalkowski . 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Saur, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-598-25040-8 , p. 406.
- Peter Melichar : Poisoned atmosphere, dirty tricks ... Conversation with Adam Wandruszka. In: Falter . No. 2, 1988.
- Literature by and about Adam Wandruszka in the catalog of the German National Library
- Publications by Adam Wandruszka in the Opac der Regesta Imperii
- Entry on Adam Wandruszka in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Fondo Wandruszka at the Istituto per gli Incontri Culturali Central Europe (Italian)
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i Fritz Fellner : Adam Wandruszka †. In: Communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . 106, 1998, pp. 443-450, here: p. 445.
- ↑ a b c d e Fritz Fellner: Adam Wandruszka †. In: Communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . 106, 1998, pp. 443-450, here: p. 446.
- ↑ Helmut Rumpler : The redemption of the world through the "invisible church of free spirits". A story of encounter between enthusiasm and alienation. In: Richard Faber , Sigurd Paul Scheichl (ed.): The spiritual world of the Friedrich Heer . Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 2008, ISBN 978-3-205-77554-6 , p. 246.
- ^ A b Fritz Fellner: Adam Wandruszka †. In: Communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . 106, 1998, pp. 443-450, here: p. 444.
- ↑ Neues Wiener Tagblatt . April 28, 1938.
- ↑ Peter Melichar : Poisoned atmosphere, dirty tricks ... Conversation with Adam Wandruszka. In: Falter . No. 2, 1988.
- ↑ Hans Weiss , Krista Federspiel : Who? Kremayr et al. Scheriau, Vienna 1988, ISBN 3-218-00475-6 , p. 207.
- ↑ Interview with Hartmut Lehmann on the topic: "New beginning and development of German historical studies in the 1950 / 60s" . In: HSozKult. April 27, 1999, accessed April 11, 2012.
- ^ Fritz Fellner: Adam Wandruszka †. In: Communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . 106, 1998, pp. 443-450, here: p. 443.
- ↑ a b c Fritz Fellner: Adam Wandruszka †. In: Communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . 106, 1998, pp. 443-450, here: p. 447.
- ↑ a b c d Chronicle of the institute. In: Mitteilungen des Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 94, 3–4, 1986, p. 530.
- ^ Johannes Kunisch : The House of Habsburg. The story of a European dynasty by Adam Wandruszka. In: Historische Zeitschrift 232, 1981, 3, pp. 630–631, here: p. 631; Peter Vodosek : Erbe, Michael: The Habsburgs 1493-1918 . Library Service Center Baden-Württemberg, accessed on September 4, 2016.
- ^ Nina Knieling: On the role model function of the private library of Pietro Leopoldo and Maria Luisa. Acquisition strategies and book reading at the Florentine court (NK). In: Thomas Huber-frischis, Nina Knieling, Rainer Valenta: The private library of Emperor Franz I of Austria 1784–1835. Library and cultural history of a princely collection between the Enlightenment and Vormärz (= publications of the Commission for Modern History of Austria . Volume 111.1). Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 2015, ISBN 978-3-205-79672-5 , p. 28, fn. 43; Lorenz Mikoletzky : Annotated bibliography: Leopold II. In: Anton Schindling , Walter Ziegler (Ed.): Die Kaiser der Neuzeit, 1519–1918. Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Germany . Beck, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-406-34395-3 , p. 491.
- ^ Fritz Fellner: Adam Wandruszka †. In: Communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research. 106, 1998, pp. 443-450, here: p. 450.
- ↑ https://www.fondazionecarigo.it/it/16233/004545
- ↑ a b c Chronicle of the institute. In: Mitteilungen des Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 82, 3–4, 1974, p. 542.
- ↑ a b c Chronicle of the institute. In: Mitteilungen des Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 85, 1977, p. 411.
- ^ Chronicle of the institute. In: Mitteilungen des Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 88, 1980, p. 427.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Wandruszka von Wanstetten, Adam (maiden name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian historian and journalist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 6, 1914|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Lviv , Galicia , Austria-Hungary|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 9, 1997|
|Place of death||Vienna|