Moravian Parliament

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Session of the Moravian Parliament in the 17th century

The Moravian Landtag was the Landtag of the Margraviate of Moravia until 1918 .


The state parliament

Estates in Brno, today the New Town Hall

The Moravian Parliament started in the 13th century. In 1288 high nobility, knights, the ambassadors of the royal cities and the clergy gathered for a colloquium generale, headed by the Bishop of Olomouc . The order of the estates was strengthened by King John's inauguration diplomas in 1311, in which he guaranteed numerous rights to the Moravian nobility. At the beginning, the Landtag met alternately in Brno and Olomouc, later Brno established itself as a permanent seat. With the establishment of the Moravian Regional Court in 1348, Emperor Charles IV outsourced the jurisdiction.

With the Renewed Land Order for Moravia in 1628 , Emperor Ferdinand II curtailed the rights of the Landtag and abolished the elective monarchy . Legislation in the state parliament became more or less a formal act.

Revolution of 1848

In the course of the March Revolution in 1848, the old state parliament in Moravia had met in Brno between March 30, 1848 and May 13, 1848. As in other Crown Lands, a new, provisional Landtag was elected in agreement with the resolutions that emerged from the April meetings of the Central Committee of Estates in Vienna. If the state parliament consisted of the highest state officials, the members of the gentry and knighthood as well as 11 clerical dignitaries and the delegates of the royal cities, the state parliament decided in the meetings on March 30 and 31, 1848 a reform of the distribution of votes . On March 30, the royal cities were each granted a virile vote (they had previously only had one vote together); on April 14, their number of votes was increased to 30. A representative from Olomouc University should also attend the upcoming meetings. The participation of the peasant class in the decisions of the state parliament, however, was transferred to a commission. At the same time, the most important organ of the state parliament, the state parliament committee, which was responsible for drafting new rules of procedure and resolving current issues, was expanded to 24 members, with half of the members being provided by the cities.

In its last eight sessions, the state parliament decided on a number of reform projects. On April 27, 1848, the members passed a new electoral code that provided for one representative for every 3,000 inhabitants in all cities. In the rural communities, however, there was only one MP for every 15,000 inhabitants. The representation of the nobility was decoupled from individuals and linked to the large estates. In addition, the state parliament decided on equal rights for the two national languages, prepared the ground for the abolition of robots and tithe and discussed a reform of the city and municipal constitution.

The provisional state parliament

The provisional Moravian Landtag met between May 31, 1848 and January 24, 1849 and consisted of 58 landowners and large landowners as well as monastery heads, 18 representatives for the land ownership of the cities, five representatives of the Olomouc University, 77 representatives of the cities and 108 representatives of the Rural communities together. The meetings were initially chaired by Hugo Salm and subsequently by Johann Koppel . In a total of 130 sessions, the state parliament decided, among other things, the abolition of tithe and robot as well as a modern state constitution. In the interests of fairer electoral regulations, the state parliament, with the exception of a representative of the Olomouc University, spoke out against a representation of interests and interests and advocated one member for every 10,000 inhabitants of the cities or rural communities for the next state parliament. In addition, the provisional state parliament dealt with current social, economic and Austrian issues.

On January 24th, 1849, the Landtag voluntarily interrupted its session for an indefinite period of time and was subsequently not convened.

Elected state parliament 1861–1918

Seal of the Provincial Committee of the Margraviate of Moravia
Parliament building in Brno, today the Constitutional Court

The October diploma issued in 1860 had promised the Crown Lands diets, the introduction of which was regulated in detail in the February Constitution of February 28, 1861: Each crown land, including Moravia, had its own provisions.

The state parliament then consisted of 100 members

Since the state house in Brno increasingly proved to be inadequate, a new state parliament building was built from 1875 to 1878 according to plans by Anton Hefft and Robert Raschka .

The Moravian Compensation

As part of the Moravian Compromise on November 22, 1905, the state and state election regulations were changed to the effect that a German and a Czech curia were introduced in the Moravian state parliament .

As a result, the number of MPs rose from 100 to 151. Three curiae were formed within the Moravian Parliament:

  1. The curia of large estates with two subgroups, as before with 30 members (mostly German)
  2. The curia of Czech delegates outside the large estates with 73 delegates
  3. The curia of German delegates outside of large estates with 46 delegates





Individual evidence

  1. ^ State order and state parliament election order for the Margraviate of Moravia , RGBl. No. 20/1861, supplement II, l (= p. 249)
  2. Election regulations with proof of changes on
  3. ^ State handbooks