Cork ( Irish Corcaigh ) is a county ( County ) to the south of the province of Munster in the southwest of the Republic of Ireland .
Cork is the largest county in Ireland. It borders on County Waterford to the east, Tipperary to the northeast , Limerick to the north, Kerry to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest and west . Cork's 400-mile-long coastline has plenty of clean beaches and sheer cliffs, making the county a very maritime area. The mostly rocky coast is strongly structured by peninsulas and sea bays protruding deep into the land. The Bantry Bay , Dunmanus Bay , Roaringwater Bay and Clonakilty Bay are the most important bays in the southwest and south of Cork.
Flat mountain ridges and extensive valleys are typical of the interior. The Blackwater , Lee, and Bandon Rivers run roughly parallel to each other from west to east. The surface is hilly; only in the north of the Blackwater and in the eastern part of the county are larger fertile plains. Knockboy , a summit of the Shehy Mountains on the border with County Kerry , is Cork's highest mountain at 706 m. Hungry Hill , located on the Beara Peninsula in west Cork, is at 685 m the highest point in the Caha Mountains ; he owns a mountain lake from which a waterfall falls.
The city of Cork has one of the most important ports in Ireland in nearby Cobh , as it is the connection between Ireland and France ( Roscoff , Le Havre ) and the United Kingdom ( Swansea ).
In the early Middle Ages , the area of what is now County Cork belonged to the Kingdom of Munster . However, the territories changed quickly during this time. 1127 the area came to the principality of Desmond. In 1620 the county of Cork was established.
Since during the War of Independence (1919 to 1922) and the Civil War there were many rebellions from the county, Cork is also called the "Rebel County" (rebellious county). Terence MacSwiney , a Mayor of Cork, has been arrested for being part of the IRA. He died in prison after a 76 day hunger strike. The city's business district was burned down in 1920 by the Black and Tans in retaliation against the Irish Republicans .
In the 19th century there were more than three million emigrants from Cork for the New World.
The climate is strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream . Due to the very mild temperatures (especially in West Cork) there is a Mediterranean vegetation with palm trees , fuchsia hedges and other plants that are not hardy. In winter, the weather is humid and stormy, but usually free of frost and snow. Even in winter, temperatures rarely drop below 4 ° C. The maximum temperatures in summer are around 25 ° C, but the "felt" temperature is significantly higher when the sun is shining.
In agriculture, cattle and sheep are predominant. There is also the cultivation of sugar beet and brewing barley. The city of Cork is home to two large breweries , Murphy's Brewery in Lady's Well, founded in 1856, and Beamish & Crawford Brewery in the city center, which was bought by the namesake in 1791.
Renowned pharmaceutical and biotech companies have set up their production facilities in the Cork area and are an important economic factor and employer in the region.
The small town of Cobh near Cork is located on an important natural harbor, through which almost all maritime traffic in the Irish south and west is handled.
The distribution of seats in Cork County Council after the local elections on May 23, 2014:
The city of Cork itself has its own Cork City Council .
One of the most important industries in County Cork (especially on the West Cork coast) is tourism . The region is particularly popular with water sports enthusiasts (sailors, anglers), mountain bikers , backpackers and nature lovers. There are numerous marinas and golf courses as well as a partly untouched nature with species-rich vegetation and lonely beaches and bays. The infrastructure is not ideal for hikers because, unlike in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, there are almost no marked hiking trails. There are plenty of places to stay, especially bed and breakfasts and cottages, but also hotels, campsites and some youth hostels. The prices are on average higher than z. B. in Germany. In cities such as Skibbereen, Bantry, Kinsale or Glengariff, there are many tourist shops that offer gifts, souvenirs and local products (clothing made of new wool , handicrafts, items with Celtic motifs, culinary specialties). There are also many galleries and art studios that are run by the artist himself and some of which also function as a café. This has its origins in the fact that an unusually large number of " dropouts " have settled in this region (due to the climate and the favorable tax conditions for artists in Ireland) .
County Cork has two Gaeltacht districts in which the Irish language is the main daily language of speech. These are: Irish Múscraí ( English Muskerry ) in the north of the county, especially in the village of Irish Cúil Aodha ( English Coolea ) and Irish Oileán Chléire ( English Cape Clear Island ) an island in the west.
The city of Cork is now the county capital and, as the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland, the urban center of Southern Ireland. The settlement of Cork was founded by the Vikings in the 9th century .
- Ardgroom stone circles
- Bantry House
- Blarney Castle
- Cork Lough Lake near Greenhill
- Cape Clear Island
- Drombeg Stone Circle Stone circle near Glandore
- Garinish , the garden island in Bantry Bay
- Millstreet County Park
- Mizen Peninsula
There are megalithic sites and other ground monuments in County Cork , e. B .:
Coordinates: 51 ° 55 ′ N , 8 ° 49 ′ W