|Austria ( Vienna area )|
|speaker||about 3 million|
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
gem (other Germanic languages)
The Viennese is one of the East Central Bavarian dialects of the Bavarian-Austrian dialect group. It is spoken in and around Vienna . Like other dialects, it differs from standard German in terms of vocabulary , grammar and pronunciation, among other things .
From the first traces to Old and Middle High German
The Celtic left the oldest traces in Viennese, just as the name Vindobona came about during this period. Words originating from the Gothic were still described as "arbitrarily formed" in the dictionary published by S. Huegel in 1873, but could be assigned through other research (including by Eduard Pötzl and Berthold Sengschmitt ). For example, the word urassen (wasting) was formed from the Gothic ufarassus, which already appears in the Wulfilabibel . The Bavarian dialects emanating from the Agilolfingers begin with Old Bavarian, which was spoken in Vienna from the 8th to 11th centuries. In the 12th to 14th centuries, Old Bavarian expanded rapidly and became Bavarian. Characteristic for the individual phases are primarily sound shifts of the consonants along the Benrather and Speyer lines , but also vowel shifts such as diphthonging or the replacement of the Old High German ending vowels with the Middle High German ending -e. Old and Middle High German words are still part of the vocabulary of the Viennese today, so one can find the words semel and krapfen in Middle High German. The latter was already present in Old High German as crapho, the semel is said to have been formed from the Latin simila. From the end of the 15th to the beginning of the 16th century people speak of New High German.
Vienna as a multi-ethnic mix
As early as the late Middle Ages, the population of Vienna was a multi-ethnic mix, for example Baiern , Franconia and Alemanni immigrated from the west . The Franks also brought the monophthonging typical of Vienna , which strongly distinguishes Viennese from the other Bavarian dialects. In 1296, Duke Albrecht I granted Vienna city rights and a Latin school . The first Viennese dictionary was also created to make it easier for the Swiss Habsburgs and his followers to understand each other; In this case, however, it is not yet possible to speak of a dialect dictionary, as the written language necessary for delimitation was still missing. As a result of the city charter and the geographically favorable location of Vienna, there was a flourishing of Viennese trade; that mainly attracted Italians . Duke Rudolf IV had the university built from 1365 onwards , after which mainly Slavs , Magyars and French came and enriched the language over time. Immigrants from Lower Austria and Styria at that time kept those foreign peoples in balance. The expansion of the Habsburg Empire in 1526 to include Bohemian and Hungarian lands and the expansion of the court under Ferdinand I , who came from Spain, also had a direct foreign language influence on Viennese . The Turkish sieges in 1529 and 1683 also had an impact on the Viennese vocabulary. During the Reformation , not only was the Upper German written language, which had been developed in the meantime, replaced by the so-called Luther German, the early New High German , but 20 Protestant Latin schools were also established in Vienna.
It was also Wolfgang Schmeltzl from the Palatinate who founded the German-language school drama in Vienna during the Counter-Reformation . The Thirty Years' War as well as the War of the Spanish Succession and Coalition Wars in the 18th century , but also the progressive education of the population since the introduction of compulsory schooling in 1774 by Maria Theresa , gave Viennese an abundance of Italian, Latin and French expressions. During this phase the “Rococo-Viennese” changes into “Old Viennese” and in the time of Emperor Franz Joseph I into “New Viennese”. In the individual trades, the immigration of the individual peoples was always very different. In the 19th century it was mainly the Bohemian cooks, popular at the Habsburg court and in the upper class, who created a lot of new words in the kitchen. The English language, which until now had hardly played a role, penetrated common usage with the industrial revolution in the mid-19th century . Sports and men's fashion also brought English words. The Viennese pronounce most of them either as written (the “Tramway” as Dramwai), French (Kotaaschviertel for “Cottageviertel”) or Viennese (the Goi instead of “Goal”). A first lexicon was published in 1873 by Franz Seraph Huegel under the title Der Wiener Dialekt: Lexikon der Wiener Volkssprache. (Idioticon viennense) published.
The Viennese crooks language
From 12th to 13th In the 19th century, the Viennese crooks language developed among the lowest social classes excluded from society . In this “ secret language ”, words from a wide variety of languages, above all Yiddish , Romance languages and from the 15th century Romani , were absorbed and adapted to the Viennese sound. Mainly auxiliary, connecting, epithets and verbs were taken from Middle High German. In addition, new words were created through witty or poetic transfers of meaning. In 1443 the "Wiener Bettlerordnung" appeared, a collection of words from the Viennese crooks language, which should help the police and other authorities to understand beggars and the " traveling people " (traders, craftsmen, jugglers, crooks, minstrels, prostitutes etc.) more easily and control. Many of the terms used were replaced by new ones after their decryption and have passed into the Viennese dialect. Thus Rotwelsch has proven to be a rich source for Viennese.
Yiddish in Viennese
When the so-called Jewish Town 1421 dissolved, the inhabitants driven or killed were ( " Wiener Gesera "), it took a mainly Hebrew and Aramaic durchzogenes elements to 70-75% consisting of Medium High German and first as sociolect to be designated Yiddish with. On the way and in their new home countries in the east, they recorded parts of the Slavic languages Polish and Belarusian , the Baltic language Lithuanian and the sociolects of so-called traveling peoples. From the end of the 16th century they slowly came back, but had to emigrate again under Emperor Leopold I in 1670 . It was only through the patent of tolerance issued by Emperor Joseph II that they received rights and were able to gain a foothold in Vienna. However, they were not legally equal until the 19th century and many of them achieved significant social advancement. The mixture of different languages, Yiddish, which they had developed in the East, became jargon through German-Jewish abrasion in intonation and phonology , which was recognized as a literary language and the language of the first Viennese cabarets.
In 1912 an institution was founded within the Austrian Academy of Sciences , the "Dictionary Office", which was commissioned to create a Bavarian-Austrian dialect dictionary. On the basis of this dictionary it was possible to scientifically prove that Viennese words and sounds had also penetrated other Austrian dialects since the Middle Ages. From the 1920s onwards one speaks of "Young Viennese".
With the First World War and the collapse of the monarchy, the constant supply of words from the former hereditary countries ceased. With the burgeoning anti-Semitism, the first Jews left Vienna. When they were expelled under the Nazi regime and subsequently practically exterminated in World War II , many words from Yiddish were banned and forgotten in Viennese. However, the Nazis only recognized a part: those old expressions that had long since been honed and assimilated survived undetected. But even in a “Wiener Dialekt-Lexikon” published in 1905 - directly criticizing Franz Seraph Huegel's idioticon Viennense - Jewish words and those that originated from the crooks' language or sound too foreign were deleted from the vocabulary; and it was recorded as a reminder:
"" Beware of false Vienneseism, the real Viennese are not so easy to find these days. ""
Even Peter Wehle 1980 made a similar comment by distinguished between assimilated words and the Jewish jargon. About the latter words he wrote:
"They are missing - rightly - in the Viennese dictionaries because they were only used by medium-sized companies [...]."
Dieter Schmutzer finally devotes himself in 1993 in the chapter "Sehn S ', das is weanarisch" of his book about Viennese dialect poetry not only to the different origins of Viennese expressions, but also to the repeated expulsion and persecution of Jews. Finally, he specifically answers:
"This is just a reminder of all those who so like to speak up about keeping languages, races and nations clean."
Definition and differences
To this day, the perception of Viennese in the whole of Germany is shaped by the Viennese film , which experienced its climax in the 1930s . The phonetically hardly colored soundtracks of the Sissi films , the individual pronunciation of Hans Moser , the nasal Schönbrunn German of a (fictional) Count Bobby or the so-called Burgtheater German show parts of the spectrum of the Viennese dialect, but are not representative of the actual colloquial language.
The earlier microgeographical differences have in the meantime largely disappeared; The Meidlinger L, for example, has long since ceased to be restricted to this one district to which it is assigned. Nevertheless, there are still many variations, depending on social status, profession or occasion. A Viennese experienced in this can switch between the versions at any time, depending on which interlocutor he is confronted with.
“The Viennese” par excellence cannot therefore be precisely defined, as it is composed of a wide range of local, chronological and situational variants. Today it is essentially a stylized everyday language .
As with other dialects, the use of Viennese is on the wane. Media change, the progress of global information technology, is seen as the main cause of obsolescence . The media world of the language area ( advertising , literary translations, film dubbing ), which is dominated by Germans due to the much higher population , is pushing back older forms of expression in Austria as well as in Switzerland. In addition to the dialect, this development also affects the high-level Austrian language, from the choice of articles to the language melody . Stretching and articulation are gradually adopted, as are sentence positions and anglicisms .
Since the specific vocabulary is also changing, it is often feared that “genuine” Viennese will largely be assimilated into a standardized German colloquial language over the next few decades. However, this appearance can also be found in other variants of German. The standardization of the written and official language, as promoted by Joseph von Sonnenfels , initially deliberately suppressed dialectal differences before an awareness of regional identities and peculiarities developed again in the 19th century.
Like all Bavarian dialects, the Viennese dialect is derived directly from Middle High German, but has some peculiarities due to the Franconian influence.
- à for a light a
- å for a darkened a
- ã for a nasalized a
|Written language||Middle High German||Viennese dialect|
Beware of the hut
|believe in the
hay this year
The light, somewhat stretched Viennese “à” ( Viennese monophthonging ), which appears several times in the table above, is very characteristic of the pronunciation . On the one hand, it comes from the Middle High German egg, which has become "oa" in most Bavarian dialects, but in Vienna it has become "a". In the last few decades it has also spread to the East Central Bavarian dialect area. Stà (stone), I wààß (I know).
A distinction is made between words that are spelled with “ei” or “ai” in Standard German, but have different Middle High German origins. Example: “I know” (mhd weiz) and “The dress is white” (mhd wîz). The former is pronounced as "I wààß", the latter as "Des Klad'l is white". Likewise, “Laib” (mhd leip) is spoken in the same way as “Leib” (mhd lîp) in Standard German, but in Viennese as Làb or Leib.
Some other differences have not been clarified according to Wehle . In Vienna one says “zwàà” for “two”, but not “zwààter” (second), but “second”, as well as “both” instead of the expected “bààde” (as in Carinthia).
The light "a" is also used for the Middle High German long "ä", Schà (scissors), làà (empty) or Jàger (hunter).
If the written German “au” stands for the Middle High German “uo” and if “m” or “l” follows, it is also pronounced as a light a: Bàm (tree), Tràm (dream).
As in the Bavarian dialects, the Old High German "a" is darkened to "å" (only approximately "o"): Åff (monkey), Dåch (roof). This does not apply if this "a" is unstressed ("Gallop" is therefore not darkened, for example) and also not if it is a foreign word (one speaks of "Blechschåden", but says "Lackierer" and "Cash desk"); likewise when a certain distance is to be expressed, e.g. B. with personal and proper names. Another exception is the diminutive, which also removes the darkening.
If the “a” is followed by an “l”, oi is pronounced: Woid (forest), but only if there is no further vowel after it. "Knall" becomes Knåller. However, this rule applies to what is spoken and not to what is written. An example: In the word “paint”, the unstressed “e” before “n” is not spoken, so the “l” is no longer followed by a vowel, but by the “n”: This means that the word “paint” in Viennese is moin again .
With foreign words, “a” before “l” becomes äu: Kanäu (channel), Lineäu (ruler). The “au” before an “l” also becomes äu: Mäu (Maul), fäu (lazy). Outside of Vienna, this “au” before “b”, “p” and “f” becomes an a: kafn (buy) or lafn (run). Remnants of this have also been preserved in Vienna: rafn (scuffle) and Happl (main). Otherwise “au”, “äu” and “eu” always become ei: Freid (joy).
With “m” or “n” the previous, darkened “å” is nasalized somewhat : “Damm” becomes Dãmm, “ ajar ” becomes ãng'lahnt. Since the “n” is also omitted at the end of the word “an”, “man” becomes Mã and “railway” becomes “Eisenbã”.
If the "a" followed by a "r" is above spoken: Goaten (garden). If the "r" is between two vowels, it is retained, "Pfarrer" results in Pfoara.
The pronunciation of the (stressed) "e" before an "l" is also striking. Both become an open ö, z. B. Mö (flour), Hö (light) or Zöt (tent).
The written language only knows an "i", but in Middle High German there was a short "i" and a double "ie". This difference can be found in Viennese where the twilight became ia : Diab (thief), Fliagn (fly). Before “m” and “n” there is nasalation and to ea, ie Wean (Vienna) and Ream (belt). The short “i” remains ( i = I), but before the “l” it becomes a ü, whereby the “l” at the end of a syllable or before a consonant is omitted: vü (much), Müch (milk).
There are also these differences with the “u”, the short “u” remains u, as with Fuks (Fuchs), the Middle High German “uo”, on the other hand, is spoken with, among others , Muada (mother) or Bluad (blood). Before “l”, however, it becomes ui ( Schui = school) and strongly changed before “m” or “n”, where in Viennese it becomes a light, nasal a , tan (to do), while outside of Vienna it becomes the oa ( toa = to do) is spoken.
An “o” is pronounced as a closed o . In foreign words and before “m” or “n”, however, it becomes almost a nasalized ã and the “m” or “n” becomes almost inaudible: Perså n (person). For old foreign words, such as "trumpet", it becomes u: Trumpetn.
All dialects in the Central Bavarian language area share a lenization . “Hard” consonants like t, p, k become “d”, “b”, “g”, only the K in front of vowels is excluded: Dåg (day), broda (prater) or gråpfn (donut), but Kua (Cow).
A “b” between vowels is pronounced like w : liawer (dear), Lewer (liver).
An "l" is only retained in the initial sound or between vowels. At the end of a syllable after “a”, “o” or “u” it becomes an i: Toi (valley), Woid (forest). After the light "a", "ei", "e", "i" or "ü" it is dropped, but also changes the vowel:
- "A" + "l" and "ei" + "l" becomes äu [ ɶ ]: kräun (crawl, from "claw") or Pfäu (arrow)
- "E" + "l" becomes a closed ö, like in Ködn (cold) or open, like Mö (flour)
- "I" + "l" and "ü" + "l" becomes ü: fü (a lot), five (fill)
“N” at the end of the word is omitted, instead the vowel is nasalized (see above), but not with double nn.
"R" is absent or is a kind of a replaced.
" Rs " often becomes rsch, z. B. scht (first), thirst (thirst), but not when the verb is inflected , so “you drive” is spoken as you fårst .
An "h" in the head of ch: Zechn (toe)
The final “ch” is omitted: mi (me) di (you).
There are only a few examples of the prefix “be” in Viennese, it is either retained, as with companion (accompany), another word is used, such as with g'hoitn (to keep, actually: held) or, if a "S" follows, the "e" is left out: b'soffn (drunk), b'stöt (ordered). The same applies to “ent-”, but sometimes only the “t” is retained: t'schuldign (excuse).
“He-” always becomes da-: daschlogn ( struck ), dafongan (to catch) or dawischn (to catch). Here Schuster and Schikola point out that words in which the “er” has been retained indicate that they have been adopted from the written language: erfoan (experience), erlau'm (allow) or erhoin (recover).
The prefix “ge” disappears before “b”, “p”, “d”, “t”, “g” and “k”: bundn (bound), plåtzt (burst), wire (twisted), drunkenness (drunk ), poison (poisoned), sounded (sounded). If the prefix is in front of a vowel , the "e" is omitted: g'ärgert (angry), g'soff (drunk).
“Ver” and “Zer-” are regularly turned into fa- and za, as in faflixt (darn), fanudl't (noodled), zadruck (crushed) or zaletzt (dismantled).
The pronunciation also depends on the position in the sentence. “I will help you”, for example, would be spoken like “I wia da Hööfm!” , “I will help you”, on the other hand, as “Dia wia i Hööfm!” Here, depending on the speaker, a scion consonant can be inserted as a speaking aid: “Dia wia-ri Hööfm!” ( Euphony ).
As already indicated, there are often exceptions that cannot be explained. Even what is a foreign word seems to be more dependent on subjective perception: The word "tobacco", which is undoubtedly a foreign word, is nevertheless spoken as Dåwåg with a darkened "a". Schikola suspects that because of the everydayness, the word was to a certain extent "junked". With other exceptions ( spirit, flesh and emperor, spoken as written) he assumes that they are treated with a certain religious respect and that they are therefore not spoken in dialect.
As for the declension , the High German genitive is unknown in Viennese. But it can still appear in idioms: "Um Gotts Wüll'n" (For God's sake). Corresponding relations (possession, disposal) are formulated via dative plus possessive pronouns : August's companion is therefore "dem Gustl sei Oide" ("dem Gustl his old man") - commonly used in the form "in Gustl sei Oide". This (unstressed) “in” can also be used in the accusative : “in Gustl lod ma ei” (“we invite Gustl”). If it is not about people, "vom" is used and the sentence is rearranged: "Das End 'vom Liad'l".
In Viennese, “you” (3rd person plural) is often used instead of the polite form “you”: “Griaß micha” (“(I) greet you”). Often both in combination: "Kennan S 'micha vurstöll'n, that ..." ("Can you imagine that ..."). If this way of speaking is incorrectly translated into (supposed) High German, this can lead to statements such as: "Beware of them" (instead of "Beware of them").
Other linguistic specifics include the same as in the comparative ( “greßa wia” = greater than; “ois wia” = than ) or the often - in contrast to grammar - attached article ( money = “a Göd”, ie “a money "). The actual verb is also often prefixed with a “do”: “tuasd eh schaun” = “do you really pay attention to it”.
The middle word of the present is expressed in Viennese by the ending “-ert”, but pronounced “-at”, e.g. B. "rennat" (running), "spinnat" (spinning) or "singat" (singing).
In the middle word of the past , the prefix “ge” is only spoken as “g”; B. "g'söcht" (smelt), "g'spunnan" (spun) or "g'någ'lt" (nailed). The "g", however, does not apply if a plosive follows, that "trunk'n" for drinking.
In Viennese there is also no past , it always means “I bin gångan” (I went) for “I went”.
Use of language
Old expressions have been preserved in Viennese that have become foreign to the standard language. As with most dialects, there is no binding orthography . A characteristic of Viennese is a fluctuation between standard German and dialect, depending on the situation and social class (Julius Jakob wrote in 1929 about a “mixing of vernacular with written German”).
At the same time , Viennese always assimilated words from other languages. Such a word is, for example, the Tschick (cigarette), derived from the Italian “cicca”. It is used in Tschickarretierer ( butt collector ) and also used as a verb in the form of tschicken (to smoke). In this way, many words from the languages of the crown lands as well as from France and Italy have found their place in Viennese. There is also a large number of expressions from Yiddish and the language of the Roma and Sinti . Many of today's typical Viennese expressions have only been adopted into the Viennese crooks language since the Middle Ages and later imported into the Viennese dialect.
The preference for the diminutive is striking , with the syllable "-erl" being added in place of the high German -chen . However, this does not necessarily mean - in whatever respect - a smaller version of the main term. Often it is only an expression of sympathy, which is why this confidentiality is exclusively given to something that has historically been used for a long time or that is appropriate to one's status. A “Geigerl”, for example, does not differ externally from the “Geign” ( violin ); The instrument is given the first nickname when it sounds at the Heuriger . Other apparently reduced nouns have no “big” equivalent in Viennese, such as the “Stamperl” (schnapps glass) or the “Pantscherl” (amorous affair).
In the intonation of diminutiva, vowel dulling of the original word is reversed: The Bach is called "Boch", but its small - or family - counterpart is "Bacherl". The mere “-l” as a suffix, on the other hand, often serves less to reduce the size than to differentiate: “Glos” = glass in general, “Glasl” = drinking glass, “Glaserl” = familiar; "House" = house in general, "Heisl" = Abort (!), "Heiserl" = home .
It is noticeable that there are very many words with the prefix “Ge”, for example “G'stätt'n”, “G'spusi” or “G'Wirkst” (place, love, inconvenience). In Viennese, a lot of feminines already have an “-n” ending in the singular, such as “die Ratsch'n” instead of “die Ratsche” or “die Watsch'n” instead of “die Watsche” (slap in the face). Often the initial "f" becomes "pf": "pfuaz'n" instead of "farting".
Exaggeration and imagery
Issues are seldom presented in a dry, realistic form. Formal understatements and exaggerations are an integral part of descriptions, whereby they are “decoded” semantically exactly by the person addressed . The Viennese understands a distance description such as “do ned forever and three tog umahatschn, do foist dreimoi um and bist scho duat” as a - positive - message that the intended goal can be reached on foot in less than ten minutes (colloquial standard German roughly “ You don't have to lap around for three days, you fall over three times and you're already there ”, that is, the distance is exaggerated and, figuratively speaking,“ only three body lengths ”).
Another feature is the frequent use of parables , which can be as abstract as they are graphic: “schiach wia da interest” (“ugly like the rent”), “ågschitt wia a hydrant” (“poured on” = drunk) and so on.
The "Viennese Schmäh"
The central element of Viennese is the (self-) ironic ambiguity. The boundaries between seriousness and wit are fluid. This form of communication reflects an attitude to life that always retains a certain wink.
The Duden derives the word from the Middle High German smæhe and translates it with “Trick”, but also with “Sprüche” and “Scherze”. According to Peter Wehle, on the other hand, it comes from the Yiddish schemá (story, heard). For strangers, especially Germans, it is mostly impossible to recognize the fine nuances ; Since facial expressions and tone of voice are also integrated into the subtle interplay, ironic things are often taken seriously or friendly and joking things are misunderstood as mockery .
The Viennese shame can also show itself in very simple things, as Ludwig Hirsch calls them in his song about “Aunt Dorothee”, such as the “Beethoven death mask with earmuffs on”.
Poetry and prose
A Bavarian dialect literature , there is only since the standardization of High German in the late 18th century. Usually only single expressions are dialect, because the standard language was considered a literary language and a decent way of expression. Even in Peter Rosegger's work there are often only dialectal echoes. The folk singers towards the end of the 19th century combined the tailcoat in which they appeared with the unabashed use of dialect, which had the charm of indecent but unifying. The “ vernacular ” seemed to defy rules of propriety, understood as social boundaries. The violation of taboos and the common commitment to “simple” through increased dialect use were increasingly marketed and given the problematic rating “ healthy ”.
In 1935, Josef Weinheber published his successful volume of poems Vienna literally , which includes dialect verses (“Der Auflauf”); some of it later found its way into Austrian school books, not least because of its ethnic and national sentiments. In the same decade - under completely different circumstances - Peter Hammerschlag wrote his bizarre poems, some of them in Viennese (“Pülcherdialog ad infinitum” and also the “Krüppellied”) or at least with a Viennese touch; However, they were only published forty years later by Friedrich Torberg .
After the Second World War , the Viennese group ensured a renaissance of dialect poetry: In addition to relevant works by Gerhard Rühm or Konrad Bayer , the relevant oeuvre of H. C. Artmann (“med ana schwoazzn dintn” etc.) is still considered to be trend-setting today. In the 1970s the dialect poets Trude Marzik (“From the Kuchlkredenz”) and Anton Krutisch (“Viennese Lavender”) achieved a certain popularity. More recently, Hans Werner Sokop has published several volumes of poetry in Viennese.
Even in the extensive humorous work of Alexander Roda Roda one can find, among other things, Viennese dialogues (“How to hurt the Viennese heart”). In 1906, the notorious novel Josefine Mutzenbacher, attributed to Felix Salten , was published : The pornographic "Story of a Viennese Whore, told by herself" also makes use of the local sexual vocabulary in keeping with the community. In 1971, Wolfgang Teuschl published Da Jesus und seine Hawara , a translation of the Gospel into Viennese, which has since become a modern classic. Hans Werner Sokop also wrote several dialect books and translated Struwwelpeter , stories by Wilhelm Busch and The Little Prince into the local dialect. In collaboration with Karlheinz Hackl , Elfriede Ott , Günter Tolar , Gerald Pichowetz u. a. Gerhard Blaboll published several humorous and easy-to-read books from 2007 on, which are often read from.
Theater and cabaret
The old Viennese folk theater of the 18th and early 19th centuries had the “simple” social classes as its target audience and used their language. At the time of Joseph Anton Stranitzky there was no standard German , so his dialectal texts were not yet perceived as such. The censorship forced the theaters to write down everything that was spoken on stage beforehand, thereby making the difference between spoken and written language aware. Josef Alois Gleich , Karl Meisl and Adolf Bäuerle still used the dialect without seeing it as a violation of the standard language. A generation later Ferdinand Raimund and Johann Nepomuk Nestroy had to assert themselves with the dialect against an established literary language, which Raimund solved by poeticizing literary language through dialect and Nestroy by unmasking hollow formulations through dialect. In his last work, Chief Evening Wind (1862), he made Viennese the language of wild Indian chiefs , thus exaggerating the idea of dialect as a natural language.
After 1860, when such subtleties were no longer understood by a good part of the population due to the changes in the population structure and the expansion of the city by newcomers, the Volksstück was followed by the Viennese operetta , which contained few easily understandable and yet “Viennese” dialect elements. Many so-called Singspielhallen , in which a sub-bourgeois language was common, were built as copies of the English-French music halls . Most of the texts in popular theater came from Italy (opera), France and Great Britain ( farce and operetta) and were "disused" in their translation, for which there were specialists like Camillo Walzel . In a time of fear of foreign infiltration, as fueled by Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn , the Viennese became a symbol of originality. The appearances of the comedian Ludwig Gottsleben on the occasion of the Vienna Music and Theater Exhibition in 1892 , for example, had a great impact . A cabaret could not develop in the 19th century due to the strict censorship. Approaches to cabaret can already be seen in the plays by Ottokar Franz Ebersberg .
Ludwig Anzengruber tried to create a "true to life" dialect on the stage. At the beginning of the 20th century, the tradition of the folk piece was more cited than continued, for example by Jura Soyfer (Der Lechner Edi looks into paradise) or Ödön von Horváth ( stories from the Viennese forest ), who had no authenticity in mind, but rather invented an artificial language that sounds like dialect. In Karl Kraus ' satirical world war drama The Last Days of Mankind , written between 1915 and 1922, the linguistic habits of the protagonists illustrate the warlike madness of that time.
The Simpl cabaret was founded in 1912; In the interwar period , Fritz Grünbaum developed the double conference here . It became a legend under the artistic direction of Karl Farkas . In the programs he himself spoke mostly Viennese High German with a slight Yiddish tinge - the dialect part was reserved for Ernst Waldbrunn , his most famous stage partner. In the 1960s, two stages dominated the Viennese cabaret scene : the Simpl and the “competition” in the Neues Theater am Kärntnertor . Opened in 1959 by Gerhard Bronner , classics such as Travnicek and Der Herr Karl (both with Helmut Qualtinger ) were created here - in collaboration with greats like Georg Kreisler and Carl Merz . In Qualtinger's cabaret numbers, Viennese language showed its suitability for linguistic travesties : Qualtinger was also able to portray English through Viennese dialect, as in 1957 in Der Bundesbahn-Blues or Jedermann-Kollapso as a parody of Harry Belafonte's Banana Boat Song , which was also released on an LP in 1962.
Today the dialect can be heard on cabaret stages, for example by Lukas Resetarits , Andreas Vitásek , Alfred Dorfer , Josef Hader , Günther Paal or Thomas Maurer . However, the only cabaret artist who speaks his programs in unadulterated Viennese is Roland Düringer .
One of the most important features of the Wienerlied can already be found in the one written by the chronicler Jans Enenkel after the death of the singer-friendly Duke Leopold VI. Lamentation written in verse: the proverbial moaning (lamenting, lamenting), which is based on the constant longing for the past, the "good old days". When the Babenbergs were replaced by the Habsburgs , people grumbled again. Self-praise as another ingredient emerges at the same time. But others also praised Vienna for its musicality, according to Walther von der Vogelweide , who claims to have learned to “sing and say” here. The first drinking and traditional songs were written in the 13th century. From 1278/96 at the latest, the trade of minstrels and jugglers was governed by the guild under the Spielgrafen, a sovereign official with judicial powers. The "Nikolaibruderschaft" was the first musicians' guild where secular as well as church songs were sung. The first drinking and traditional songs were created and thus another theme of the Wienerlied was born: "Wine, women and song". In a song from the 16th century, the Viennese wine cellars are portrayed as mines in whose pits one fills one's “collar, stomach and stomach” with Easter wine. Roland Neuwirth writes about it:
"Already here, in the cheerful comparison of the wine cellar with an ore mine, we find that metaphor-shaped humor that later becomes a characteristic of the Viennese dialect and makes up a large part of the much-cited" abuse "."
In “Ein Praub-Spruch der Haubt-Stat Wien in Oesterreich” from 1567, Hans Sachs from Nuremberg gives a picture of the importance of wine at that time:
"The wine cellars are so big and wide,
that they are being marred at this time,
Stat Vienna, they have been found under the ground
The people made music with flutes, violas , violins and trombones , while the commoners mainly played the fiddle and harp . From the Renaissance onwards, the lute , lyre and theorbo were also played. Only very few sheet music has come down to us from this period, but the musicality of Vienna was praised in reports from foreign travelers as early as 1260. Wolfgang Schmeltzl wrote in his praise of the city of Vienna in 1548:
“You are vil singer, saytenspil,
Allerlay gsellschaff, strange vil.
definitely find more musicos and instruments at khainem end. "
The Renaissance also brought the polyphonic movement and thus the Wienerlied one step closer to the later typical austerity two-part. With the establishment of the Hofmusikkapelle , Vienna attracted many composers and musicians. From the end of the 15th century there were also more and more bailiff singers and "song women" who gave a wide variety of messages in morality-like songs and from the 16th century also in Schnaderhüpfeln ; some of these works were obtained through Abraham a Sancta Clara . According to an ordinance from 1552, Ferdinand I had the police intervene against "country drivers, singers and rhyming speakers" who sang "light-hearted and vnschampere songs", but this did not impress the Viennese singing joy. In the wine cellars, the singing went on happily, even songs of both Christian denominations were found, such as “Maria, die künigein”. During the Thirty Years 'War , instead of funny songs, soldiers' songs were sung that were not written in Vienna; morale sank and alcoholism increased among women and men. The situation was finally artistically processed in satirical, humorous moral songs in the style of early wine and heurigen songs, such as in the song "Von drey drunkennessy women". A large part of the moral songs probably came from the pen of the Jesuit Andreas Knechtl . The 16th and 17th centuries also brought folk songs for almost all professions and also songs of derision about them, in which irregular business practices were often taken up. At the same time, singing in dialect became more and more common. In 1656 it is Ferdinand III. who intervenes in an “infection ordinance” against the universally popular “newspaper singers, whom a mange Volcks usually gets together”. With the victory over the Turks in 1683, songs of victory and joy were heard again, but it was the acclaimed Prince Eugene himself who made another attempt in 1703 to drive away the street musicians who belonged to the beggars' class and who mainly played on dulcimer and bagpipes . In the “Narrenkalender” from 1712 Johann Valentin Neiner wrote the polemic directed against the singers “The song fools or the composers who are inconsistent at all times”:
"Hardly will a thief go to the gallows.
So a song is already devised over it.
The drunk song that rhymes with
As how often Ar ... and Friederich."
But the street musicians also withstood these attacks. They continued to entertain the people of the city and did not pay any taxes, like their highly respected colleagues organized in the brotherhoods. At the end of the 18th century, printed texts by harpists and bank singers appeared for the first time. One of the petty singers of the 17th century, dear Augustin , is now considered the first “real” and most legendary Viennese song singer . But he is also considered to be the forefather of the mentality of the cozy Viennese who does not go under. A motif that is initially often sung to Johann Strauss' death songs, but can also be found in Viennese songs to this day. Melodies by Joseph Lanner were also set to music in Viennese style, which meant that the two composers became Wienerlied composers without any conscious effort.
With dear Augustine, the bagpipes soon disappeared from the ears of the Viennese; the harp was the most popular accompanying instrument of the 18th and 19th centuries. It was also not uncommon for the blind to be found among the singers and harpists. Well-known writers, like Ignaz Franz Castelli, often wrote their texts for one of the most popular, the “blind Poldl”. Even Franz von Schober , Anastasius Green , Ferdinand Sauter , Nikolaus Lenau , Alois Blumauerplatz and not least Ferdinand Raimund belonged to the Viennese song text circle. The Spittelberg songs sung around 1800 are a little less literary . In the entertainment district at the gates of the city there was a hustle and bustle: 58 of the 138 houses were licensed.
"A person wants to powder me,
I don't trust me, I have
on the bam."
Johann Baptist Moser made it his business to raise the level of the Wienerlied texts and wrote numerous couplets in which he ironically viewed the Viennese. As a reformer of the Wienerlied he is credited with introducing the recurring lines of the refrain, and he also exchanged the harp for the piano. The Viennese, saturated by the deep texts, gladly accepted his works, the reputation of the folk singers was raised. They put the predicate "salon" in front of their name and were now salon bands, orchestras, violinists, etc. Moser was also responsible for the performance permits and had a censoring effect in his function by forbidding the performance of songs he did not like. The songs, which have now been cleared of spontaneity, criticism and rebellion, were performed in front of the entrance fee, instead of being rewarded by collecting them as before. He was eventually ousted by Josef Modl and Johann Fürst , and professional groups such as the Fiaker and the Viennese laundry girls also come to the fore. Josef Bratfisch , bodyfiaker of Crown Prince Rudolf , became a famous folk singer with often crude, dirty songs as well as a Viennese original. Another important Viennese song singer was Edmund Guschelbauer , best known for the song "Weil ia alter Drahrer bin" composed by Josef Sioly, but also for the song composed by Engelbert Herzog with the following refrain:
"I'm a real Weana
like an old school
likes a ferme Gaude and aa Wein'l."
The Ringstrasse era became the heyday of the Wienerlied. Josef Sioly composed over 1000 Viennese songs, for which Wilhelm Wiesberg often provided the lyrics. The lyricist and composer Ignaz Nagel , who also wrote more than 1000 songs , is considered the founder of the political song , which polemically targets the grievances of the time . Karl Föderl also registered 1,000 Viennese songs. Carl Lorens composed more than 2000 songs, most of which he wrote himself. Ludwig Gruber composed 3,000 songs, some of which he also wrote the lyrics for, such as “Mei Muatterl was a Weanerin” and “It will be a wine”. They were set to music by the famous Maly Nagl, among others . An example of powerful originality is Rudolf Kronegger , who also wrote many songs for Maly Nagl. In addition to Maly Nagl, the time produced a large number of folk singers. Antonie Mansfeld appeared as a frivolous diva singing songs before she died at the age of almost forty in the “madhouse”. Luise Montag , who had a vocal range of four octaves, performed in a duet with Edmund Guschlbauer and became famous as "Lercherl von Hernals". She also died impoverished in the “madhouse”. Fanny Hornischer had it better, although she did not have a good voice; their texts, u. a. "Halt di z'ruck, Schackerl", were all the more peppery. Emilie Turecek was known as "Fiakermilli". She belonged to Johann Bratfisch's circle and also to the Schrammel brothers. “I'm still so inexperienced!” Was one of her most popular couplet songs. The brothers Josef and Johann Schrammel , Heurigen musicians with classical violin training at the conservatory, founded a trio together with Anton Strohmayer on the double guitar in 1878 and expanded this to a quartet in 1884 with the clarinetist Georg Dänzer . Later the clarinet was replaced by the harmonica . The "Schrammeln", as they called themselves, were present at all festivities and also found their way into the circles of the nobility. The march “Vienna stays Vienna” became world famous. Johann Schrammel was also the savior of old folk melodies with a collection of old dances that he had created (name for the melodies of the old Viennese songs). With the collapse of the monarchy, the Viennese sing about individual districts of the city that has become too big for them and conjure up their suburbs that have risen in Greater Vienna, they feel uprooted and find themselves at the Heuriger, the home of Schrammel music .
When the Nazis came to power, numerous copywriters emigrated, especially those who had written for Robert Stolz , who also left the country. These included Walter Reisch , Kurt Robitschek , Alfred Grünwald and Arthur Rebner . Even Peter Herz , who for Hermann Leopoldi u. a. "In a small café in Hernals" and "It is so beautiful a ringing game" wrote, had to spend the time in exile. The Fiakerlied , composed by Gustav Pick , who died in 1921, was banned under the Nazis. Fritz Löhner-Beda , Jura Soyfer and Fritz Grünbaum were killed in concentration camps. Before that, Fritz Löhner-Beda wrote the Buchenwald song with Hermann Leopoldi . The Dachaulied is a work by Herbert Zipper and Jura Soyfer. To the melody of the brisk march "Today, d 'angels on vacation to Wean" by Franz Josef Hub and Ferry Wunsch , a new text was composed underground in Vienna as a form of gentle resistance:
“What's going on today,
what's going on today?
It was so overcrowded the German Panzerwagn!
A Weaner, whom I ask, he says out of sheer nuisance,
I will tell you the same reason for this day of invasion:
Today d 'Piefke come on vacation to Wean,
there is something to eat and they like!
There is the Schrammeln, a little wine in addition,
de eat and drink until morning in da Fruah!
Goering stands behind Bam and laughs:
Adolf has already done that very cleverly!
Peter in heaven claps his hands together:
Weanaleit, Weanaleit, you've got it! "
In the post-war period , the need for local entertainment grew. This was u. a. satisfied by Trude Mally , who is said to have created a good mood during the state treaty negotiations . The “Austrian soul”, characterized by a new beginning, forgetting and good mood, challenged the “New Theater am Kärntnertor” to (see above) Gerhard Bronner (“The old angel maker”) or Georg Kreisler (“Tauberl poison”) to parodies and in the 1950s Persiflage out. With cynicism and accuracy, they addressed the dark side of the Viennese soul. The Wienerlied itself was almost forgotten during the 1950s and 1960s due to the influence of German hits . Exceptions were the record "Helmut Qualtinger singt Schwarze Lieder", produced in 1966, which, with texts by H. C. Artmann and Gerhard Rühm, is a special example of the depths of Viennese humor.
In the 1970s the genre u. a. revived by Horst Chmela (“Ana hot always des Bummerl”), Karl Hodina (“ Herrgott aus Sta ”) and Kurt Sowinetz (“Alle Menschen san ma zwider”). Roland Neuwirth , recognized innovator of the Wienerlied, merged blues and Schrammel music with his Extremeschrammeln from the 1980s . Neuwirth's “Ein Echtes Wienerlied”, whose text is composed exclusively of Viennese expressions for dying, is remarkable in terms of language. Heli Deinboek et al. Showed in 1978 that the blues harmonizes well with the Viennese dialect . a. with the "care blues" in the Folk Club Atlantis . The tradition of folk music influences from immigrants can be heard at the Wiener Tschuschenkapelle (“Only when it will be over”, “Wiesmather Watschentanz”). Celebrities from the opera and stage also paid tribute to (and honor) the Wienerlied with their lectures, including Alexander Girardi , Hans Moser , Paul Hörbiger , Fritz Imhoff , Erich Kunz , Heinz Holecek and Walter Berry .
From the time of the First World War until his death in the late 1950s, Hermann Leopoldi (“In der Barnabitengassn”, “Schnucki, ach Schnucki”) was probably more popular in the tradition of the bar and variety scene; During his emigration during the Nazi era, he adapted his repertoire to the realities of the German-speaking New York exile cafés. In the 1950s / 60s, the cabaret songs by Pirron and Knapp (“Tröpferlbad”, “Hausmastarock”) reflected the Viennese way of life and were known to almost everyone.
Parallel to the development of the actual Viennese song, another musical style was created under the influence of American musical styles - and promoted by the spread of radio - that made use of the Viennese dialect: The 1970s by Marianne Mendt with "Wie a Glock'n ..." (Text by Gerhard Bronner) heralded the era of Austropop . Among the best-known representatives are Ludwig Hirsch with his sad and profound songs, Arik Brauer , who in addition to the morbidity that is said to be Vienna also deals with Jewish humor (“Dschiribim-Dschiribam”), Wolfgang Ambros (“ Da Hofa ”, text: Joesi Prokopetz ), Georg Danzer (“ Jö schau ”) and Rainhard Fendrich (“topless”). In the latter case, the local dialect has already been greatly weakened. In the course of the decades, many other representatives relied on an artificial pseudo-dialect in order to be able to sell their records nationwide in German-speaking countries; Among the recently successful musicians (Croatian-born) Willi Resetarits - better known as Ostbahn-Kurti ("Nochtschicht"; text: Günter Brödl ) - once again uses a down-to-earth Viennese language.
At the beginning of the 21st century, rap and hip-hop bands and solo artists emerged who read their texts in the Viennese dialect. Some how A. go really? , Adem Delon or Funky Cottleti , joined together as a rooftop clique and performed together in various cooperations. Viennese texts are perceived as more authentic - analogous to American slang. Musicians from other federal states also discovered the Viennese, such as the Linz group Texta , who played the title song in the 2008 film Echte Wiener .
Movie and TV
The broadcast image was still black and white when the former Simpl conférencier Heinz Conrads first addressed the television audience in the late 1950s with the words “Kiss the hand of the ladies, good evening the gentlemen; Greet the girls, what the boys! " greeted. The weekly program Good Evening on Saturday - a harmless entertainment program, primarily for older viewers - became a fixture on ORF for almost three decades , with unmatched audience ratings . The Viennese dialect remained a conservative, atmospheric ornament on local TV for a long time.
That only changed in 1975 with A true Viennese does not go under . The series about the worker Edmund “Mundl” Sackbauer (congenially portrayed by Karl Merkatz ) showed - in a comedic way - in 24 episodes the everyday life of a typical Viennese family from a simple background. Although the dialogues mostly follow a television-appropriate art diction, there are many real language interpretations. The author Ernst Hinterberger was able to build on his success in the 1990s with the similarly structured Kaisermühlen Blues (64 episodes).
Only Helmut Zenker's crime story (initially broadcast as a radio play ) about the fictional Viennese police major Adolf Kottan was comparable. Kottan determined (director: Peter Patzak ), created 1976–1983, enjoyed great popularity as a satire on popular crime series. In addition to actors like Kurt Weinzierl or Gusti Wolf , it was above all the cabaret artist Lukas Resetarits (brother of Willi Resetarits, see above) who shaped the series. In 1998 MA 2412 came out: a situation comedy in 34 episodes, which the Austrian bureaucracy had based on a fictional "Vienna Office for Christmas Decoration" as its content; The protagonists were Roland Düringer and Alfred Dorfer . The never-extinct glorification of the k & k monarchy was ironized in 2007-2010 in the satirical talk show Wir sind Kaiser (with Robert Palfrader as "Emperor Robert Heinrich I").
The Austrian-German-Czech production Freud (2020) on Netflix by Marvin Kren with Robert Finster as Sigmund Freud , Ella Rumpf and Georg Friedrich makes extensive use of the dialect and is often only understandable for non-Viennese with subtitles.
In the case of cinema films, care has always been taken not to use the dialect too heavily in order to have the entire German-speaking area available as a sales market. Some films in which at least some Viennese are spoken are:
- Exit ... just don't panic (Austria / Germany 1980; D: Franz Novotny ; with Hanno Pöschl , Paulus Manker , Isolde Barth )
- Der Bockerer (D / Ö 1981; D: Franz Antel ; with Karl Merkatz , Ida Krottendorf , Georg Schuchter )
- Malaria (Austria 1982; D: Niki List ; with Christian Schmidt , Andreas Vitásek , Sabine Platzer)
- India (Austria 1993; D: Paul Harather ; with Josef Hader , Alfred Dorfer , Maria Hofstätter )
- Blutrausch (Austria 1997; D: Thomas Roth ; with Willi Resetarits , Lukas Resetarits , Uschi Obermaier )
- Hinterholz 8 (Austria 1998; D: Harald Sicherheitsitz ; with Roland Düringer , Nina Proll , Rudolf Rohaczek )
- Come on, sweet death (Austria 2000; D: Wolfgang Murnberger ; with Josef Hader , Karl Markovics , Nina Proll , Michael Schönborn , Simon Schwarz )
- Dog Days (Austria 2001; D: Ulrich Seidl ; with Maria Hofstätter , Franziska Weisz , Viktor Hennemann)
- Echte Wiener - Die Sackbauer-Saga (Austria 2008; D: Kurt Ockermüller ; with Karl Merkatz , Franz Buchrieser , Ingrid Burkhard )
Apart from individual cartoons - for example in regional daily newspapers - the Viennese language is hardly present in this sector. An exception is the dialect series of the comic series " Asterix ", in which four relevant volumes have been published so far, while a fifth is in preparation:
- Da Große Grobn (1997, Günter Brödl ; German title: " Der große Graben ")
- Da Woasoga (1998, Günter Brödl; German title: " Der Seher ")
- Da Legionäa Asterix (1999, HC Artmann ; German title: " Asterix als Legionär ")
- Kööch uman Asterix (2018, Ernst Molden ; German title: " Streit um Asterix ")
- Es Brojeggd (2020, Ernst Molden; German title: " Die Trabantenstadt ")
to eat and drink
In the vocabulary of Viennese cuisine there are numerous location-specific special expressions; the main centers of gastronomic culture here have also left their own formulations in the usage of the language. In the coffee house you order z. B. no cappuccino , but a " Melåusch ". There are no waiters there: “Herr Ober” is the correct salutation, or - if you have already been a guest - including your first name, for example “Herr Franz”.
At the Heuriger or in the tavern, on the other hand, the serving ladies are (only) addressed as "Fräulein". Pay attention to the intonation: Anyone who says “Froij-laihn” is immediately recognized as a foreigner ( “Fräuleein” - with Meidlinger L - would be approximately correct). The same applies to orders such as spritzers instead of “Gsprizta” or halves instead of “Kriagl”. The extensive repertoire of terms at the sausage stand even varies from district to district , which is why it is practically impossible to learn for non-residents.
The well-known dishes Schnitzl (schnitzel), Hend'l (chicken) and Schmarr'n (pastry) were, as a dialect lexicon from 1873 shows, the starting point for idioms about 150 years ago, even if they themselves no longer correspond to the Food had to do:
- I pick up carvings.
- There is a lot of rubbish all over the place.
- What kind of Schmar'n did you buy?
With this formulation one only hears the last of these sentences in Vienna today.
Sport and play
In the jargon, Viennese preserves expressions from the original English language, such as kicker (soccer player), match (game) or corner (corner ball), but also knows many word creations, also from more recent times.
- The soccer shoes are often called the Bock , whereby there are G'schraufte (with screw studs) and Gummla (with rubber studs) .
- The gate is also known as Buttn (butte), Hitten (hut), Kistn (box) and Tirl (door / gate).
- Kicker is the general expression for a footballer, there are Antikicker (untalented), Bådkicker ( sedate like in an outdoor pool) or respectful Wöödkicker (world soccer).
- There are different types of footballers:
- Bank printer (banker pusher), usually located on the reserve bench
- Blind people with no overview
- Bare feet, from a developing country or an Austrian federal state ( G'scherte )
- Dribblanski (from dribbling ), tech- savvy, but inefficient
- Iron foot, playing very hard
- Heisl (the house), playing badly
- Wood-carved, coarse, clumsy
- Rambo, athletic (also nickname of the former Austria player Anton Pfeffer )
- Rastelli (name of a well-known juggler ), particularly tech-savvy
- Depending on the playing position:
- Outside pracker , left / right outside deck, from prackn (to hit)
- Whiz (from whiz), left or right winger
- Furrow puller, left / right midfielder
- Burdock or calf bite is a man-dog
- The goalie stands in the goal , while the one -shot goalie is the regular goalie, an egg goalie is e.g. B. a bad goalkeeper
- D'rübersteiger: The player indicates to step over the ball, but pulls his foot back and outplayed the opponent.
- si'drahn ( twist yourself in), cover the ball with your body and turn around your own axis
- Railroad man sham: The player fakes a shift in weight and plays over the opponent if he reflexively steps along and is therefore on the "wrong foot".
- Bread shot, a shot so weak that you have to toss a piece of bread to prevent the ball from "starving"
- Guakerl (Gurkerl), with this shot the ball rolls between the legs of the opponent
In any case, the aim of a game is to clean the opponent , to send him home with a screw; that is, inflicting a severe and severe defeat on him. Missed scoring chances have been wasted, gurgled, cobbled or messed up. To keep a score, you can also water down ( water down) by deliberately delaying the game.
The radio report by Edi Finger from 1978 during the match between Austria and Germany became famous : his cheering exclamation "I who foolish!" Is even available as a mobile phone ringtone . It is not so much the exclamation itself that is unusual, because it is also understandable for non-Viennese, but the fact that a sports commentator on public broadcasting (with a “cultural mandate”) is more and more excited afterwards in the Viennese dialect slides off.
In addition to chess and billiards (preferably carom , but more recently pool billiards has also been widespread), the card game is very popular in Vienna . The most commonly played types are tarot , préférence and schnapps . Accordingly, many technical terms have found their way into common usage. The G'schdis ( Sküs ) as the highest card in the tarot is also synonymous with rejection: Mei Oide håd ma in G'schdis give, that means something like "My old woman (partner) has ended our relationship". From Schnapsen u. a. s'Bummerl håm (to lose sight of it) or ausn Schneida sei (to be rescued from a difficult situation): In the game a Bummerl denotes a lost individual game, the Schneiderbummerl denotes an overall game lost without a single point.
“Viennese is much more than just an East Central Bavarian dialect. It is a rhythmic philosophy with a sense of humor. "
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