National soccer team of the GDR
|Association||German Football Association|
|Record scorer||Joachim Streich (55)|
|Record player||Joachim Streich (102)|
First international match Poland 3-0 GDR ( Warsaw , Poland ; September 21, 1952)
Last game Belgium 0-2 DDR ( Brussels , Belgium ; September 12, 1990)
Highest victory Ceylon 1:12 DDR ( Colombo , Ceylon ; January 12, 1964)
Biggest defeats Wales 4: 1 GDR ( Cardiff , Wales ; September 25, 1957) GDR 1: 4 Czechoslovakia ( Leipzig , GDR ; October 27, 1957) Denmark 4: 1 GDR ( Copenhagen , Denmark ; May 8, 1985)
|Successes in tournaments|
|Participation in the finals||1 ( first : 1974 )|
|Best results||Intermediate round 1974|
|(As of: DFV joined the DFB on November 20, 1990. )|
The national soccer team of the GDR was the selection team of the German Football Association , which represented the GDR in the A-international matches . In addition to the A national team, the DFV also maintained a B national team, junior and junior national teams and, at times, a soccer Olympic team .
The senior national team played their first international match in 1952 against Poland , against which they also played the most international matches (19). Participation in the 1974 World Cup is considered the team's greatest success . The games to win the gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal are not counted as official A internationals in FIFA 's international match statistics.
The DFV dissolved in November 1990 as a result of German reunification ; before that, the national team was stopped. In total, the team completed 293 international matches, in which they scored 501 goals and conceded 345 goals (excluding goals scored on penalties). There were 273 players, 138 games won, 86 defeats and 69 games drawn.
1949 to 1957: beginnings
The GDR's first official A international match took place in 1952; the history of the selection goes back to 1949. At that time, Helmut Schön was commissioned to look after a selection of the eastern zone . However, official international matches could not be held because the GDR was not yet a member of the world football association FIFA .
The admission of the GDR into FIFA was controversial; The GDR's application for membership of February 6, 1951 met with outrage , especially among the German Football Association . The then DFB President Peco Bauwens stated that it was the Federal Republic's wish to "keep the sport free from political tendencies" and that this would be difficult if FIFA would take up the "clearly politically led football sports movement of the Eastern Zone" . The GDR received provisional membership on October 6, 1951 and became a full member on July 24, 1952.
The emigration of the selection coach Helmut Schön, his successor Fred Schulz and many players to the West made the beginnings of the national team difficult. After Alfred Kunze, the third coach in the selection, resigned before the first international match, Willi Oelgardt took over the team. The national coach got to know his players a month and a half before their first international match at the training camp. When nominating the national team, Oelgardt didn't just have to consider sporting aspects. The SED regime expected by the internationals including "patriotic thought and action."
The first international match took place in Poland , which was occupied by Germany during World War II . In this game, which the GDR lost 3-0, the team should present itself as the “new Germany” according to politicians. The GDR population showed great interest in the national team, whose first home game against Bulgaria on June 14, 1953 , which ended 0-0, took place in front of 55,000 spectators in the Heinz-Steyer Stadium in Dresden. After the popular uprising caused political unrest only three days later, an international match could not take place again until May 8, 1954, in which the GDR lost to Romania 1-0.
Initially, the best players were still not necessarily nominated. For example, on September 26, 1954, only players from the Oberliga , the top division, played in the B national team , while on the same day the A selection with two players from the second-rate GDR league (Buschner and Schnieke from SC Motor Jena) defeated the Polish national team. There were no regular places in the senior national team at that time, so a total of 37 different players were used in the first six international matches. The opponents of the selection, however, were not so diverse, in the first eleven international matches up to and including 1956, the GDR had only four different teams as opponents with Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Indonesia . The required "exemplary representation" of the young GDR could only be practiced in a very limited geographical area when it came to football.
Under the Hungarian coach János Gyarmati , who was hired in 1955, two to three-day training camps were held in Bad Blankenburg almost every month . When he took office, Gyarmati identified three problems: "There are too many uninformed officials who believe they know better, there are no prerequisites for cooperation between clubs, players and coaches, and the players have severe physical deficits" . The Hungarian declared that he did not want to be influenced by politics and only used sporting criteria when nominating the national team. The GDR achieved their first victory in the seventh game and the first under Gyarmati when the team beat Romania 3-2 away. The continuing international isolation of the GDR turned out to be an obstacle to further development of the national team. So there were no comparisons against experienced national teams from the “ non-socialist economic area ”. With the selection of Luxembourg , the GDR played at least for the first time against a Western European team on March 10, 1957 (3-0).
1957 to 1970: First competitive games
After the euphoria from the Federal Republic after winning the World Cup in 1954 had spread to the football fans from the GDR, the GDR leadership was forced to agree to participate in the 1958 World Cup qualification . Czechoslovakia and Wales were drawn as opponents of the GDR selection . For the opening game against Wales on May 19, 1957 in the central stadium , there were around 500,000 ticket requests. In the end, officially 100,000 spectators attended the hosts' 2-1 victory. Although the following two away games were clearly lost, at home the interest in the games of the GDR selection remained unbroken. For the game against Czechoslovakia on October 27, 1957, a total of 640,000 ticket orders were recorded. 110,000 visitors in the overcrowded central stadium - other sources assume 120,000 spectators - meant an all-German attendance record for football matches that is still in place today. For the GDR team, however, the 4-1 home defeat sealed third and last place in the qualification group.
János Gyarmati , who no longer wanted the permanent intervention of the sports officials, resigned after failing in the qualifying games. Fritz Gödicke then became the new national coach. Under him, the national team did not win a single international match in 1959, and the two qualifying games for the 1960 European Championship against Portugal were lost. Gödicke, who was accused of "antique football", had to take the consequences and clear the field for Heinz Krügel . Under Krügel, an upward trend emerged when the GDR, among other things , only narrowly lost 1-0 to the Soviet Union , which had recently become European champions, in August 1960 .
According to many experts, the most attractive football was played by the GDR selection between 1961 and 1966 under the direction of the Hungarian coach Károly Sós , who had replaced Heinz Krügel after many GDR functionaries were not satisfied with his record despite some respectable successes. The team played convincing games under Sós against the USSR (1962 - 1: 2 in Moscow), against England (1963 - 1: 2 in Leipzig), Uruguay (1965 - 2: 0 in Montevideo), Sweden (1966 - 4: 1 in Leipzig), Chile (1966 - 5: 2 in Leipzig) and the Netherlands (1967 - 4: 3 in Leipzig). The system was shaped by technically experienced players such as Peter Ducke , Manfred Kaiser , Dieter Erler , Roland Ducke and Jürgen Nöldner . However, the way of playing in the GDR was often referred to as "breadless art".
In qualifying for the 1962 World Cup , the national team won only one point in a group with Hungary and the Netherlands , although a GDR game in the Netherlands that was canceled due to visa problems (the team was banned from entering the country) was not made up after it was no longer relevant for qualification would have. In qualifying for the European Championship in 1964 , the GDR eliminated the reigning vice world champion ČSSR in the preliminary round . (2: 1 at home - 1: 1 away). Peter Ducke scored the decisive goal for the 1-1 equalizer shortly before the end with a shot from an acute angle. In the second round, however, they just failed to Hungary (1: 2 at home - 3: 3 away). In the decisive game in Budapest, the GDR-Elf was brought to success by blatant mistakes by the referee Nedelkovski. The Yugoslav was later banned internationally by FIFA for this game.
In qualifying for the 1966 World Cup , the national team failed in a group with Hungary and Austria as runners-up to the Hungarians. In qualifying for the European Championship in 1968 , the team was again only second in the group behind Hungary and again did not qualify for the tournament, although the GDR had left the Netherlands and Denmark behind. After that, national coach Sós decided not to renew his contract. Like his compatriot Gyarmati before, he too criticized the interference of the officials. This criticism was interpreted politically by them, which made the work for Sós more and more difficult.
National coach Harald Seeger , who won the forerunner tournament of the U-19 European football championship with the GDR junior national team in 1965, integrated more younger players into the senior national team. However , the GDR failed again in qualifying for the 1970 World Cup . There were two wins against Wales , but in the home game against Italy the Swedish referee Boström prevented the Seeger-Elf from winning by acknowledging an offside goal from the Italians and refusing a penalty for the GDR. It was only in the 83rd minute that the southerners managed to equalize to make it 2-2. The second leg in front of 90,000 spectators in Naples was then clearly lost 3-0, all goals had been scored by the 37th minute.
1970 to 1976: only participation in the World Cup
After Harald Seeger worked for two years, Georg Buschner took over the position of selection trainer in 1970 . He increasingly relied on safety football, and so the GDR did not concede a goal in four international matches in a row in 1970. The style of play was no longer as attractive as under Sós, but the national team achieved the greatest successes under Buschner's leadership. This was due, among other things, to the implementation of the DFV football resolutions of 1970 and the establishment of football clubs as performance centers in 1965/66, because the players from this era mostly came from these cadre schools.
Buschner also had to fight against a lot of resistance during his tenure. For many officials, football was not predictable enough, and so football continued to be promoted only because of its popularity with football fans and was not pushed into insignificance like ice hockey. Buschner later explained: "Without the power of the street, the thugs would have done the same thing with football as they did with ice hockey" . Players from company sports associations that were ranked well behind a football club in the football hierarchy had little chance of being nominated for the national team. Nevertheless, Buschner stuck to Jürgen Croy from BSG Sachsenring Zwickau as the goalkeeper of the national team. “I never let myself be persuaded. Nobody dared to do it at all, ” said Buschner after his time as national coach.
In qualifying for the European Championship in 1972 , the GDR failed as third in the group behind Yugoslavia and the Netherlands , leaving only Luxembourg behind. After winning the bronze medal at the 1972 Olympic Games through the Olympic selection identical to the senior national team, Buschner was the first GDR national coach to publicly announce qualification for the world championship as the new highest goal. With this, Buschner once again contradicted the ideas of many officials who saw success against amateur national teams from the West with the Olympic selection being more important than experience from duels against the best national teams in the world, which, according to Buschner, were the only things that could really help the team. The fact that the German Gymnastics and Sports Association decided at that time to concentrate only on medal-laden sports that did not include football, nevertheless had positive effects on the national soccer team, as the national team now had more freedom due to the reduced political awareness.
In qualifying for the 1974 World Cup , the GDR was the first in a group with Romania , Finland and Albania to take part in a World Cup final for the first time. The group draw for the final round resulted in Australia and Chile as well as the host selection of the Federal Republic of Germany as opponents. In addition to the first comparison against the German senior national team, the upcoming encounter against Chile contained political explosiveness, which made the GDR's participation appear uncertain for a while. In the World Cup qualification, the USSR prematurely canceled the relegation against the South Americans due to the military coup against the local socialist government supported by the CIA the year before , whereupon the Soviet team was disqualified by FIFA. Just two weeks earlier, in September 1973, opposition members were arrested in the national stadium in Santiago de Chile , where the second leg was to take place. Later they learned of the tortures and murders that had taken place there. Nevertheless, the game was kicked off, but canceled after the 1-0 win, as no restart was possible due to the lack of Soviet players. The game was rated 2-0 for Chile. It was only thanks to the euphoria due to the first successful qualification that the GDR did not also withdraw.
During the preliminary round of the tournament , the national team met Australia first and won 2-0, four days later a 1-1 draw against Chile in the Berlin Olympic Stadium. The subsequent German-German duel against the DFB selection on the last preliminary round match day had no sporting value for the GDR. With a goalless draw in the previous encounter between Chile and Australia, both German teams were already qualified for the next round. In the subsequent battle for group victory, the GDR finally managed a 1-0 victory against the favored hosts and eventual tournament winners. In the Hamburg Volksparkstadion , which was sold out with 62,000 spectators , Jürgen Sparwasser scored the golden goal, which made the Magdeburg man well-known in the Federal Republic.
The victory in the prestige duel brought the GDR team into the intermediate round group A, where they met not only the reigning world champion Brazil but also the World Cup favorites Netherlands and Argentina . After two defeats against Brazil and the Netherlands (0-1 and 0-2 respectively) and a 1-1 draw against Argentina, the expected end of this World Cup came for the GDR.
After the GDR was drawn into a group with Iceland , Belgium and France in qualifying for the European Championship in 1976 , the national team figured it had a good chance of qualifying. However, the team had to give way to the Belgians as a disappointing second in the group. The GDR had carelessly gambled away the qualification, especially in the games against Iceland (1: 1 in Magdeburg and 1: 2 in Reykjavík ).
Olympic selection games
The games of the GDR national team in connection with the Olympic Games represent a special chapter . Of these 65 games, 55 were played by a team that was held under the designation "Football Olympic Selection". Initially, these games were rated as official A internationals, but were later removed from the lists of international matches by FIFA ( FIFA rules on international matches ). The GDR had always ignored this, and the DFB also continues to play these games as A-internationals in conflict with FIFA. The controversial games also included the final of 1976 , in which the GDR selection defeated Poland 3-1, won the gold medal and thus celebrated the greatest success in their history. Among other players, Joachim Streich , who, according to the DFB , is represented in the Club of Hundreds with 102 internationals , but has only played 98 A internationals according to the FIFA version, is the most victim of the FIFA stance .
1976 to 1990: Political Influences and Reunification
In qualifying for the 1978 World Cup , the GDR failed behind Austria as second in the group, ahead of Turkey and Malta . The economic and political situation in the GDR was now unsatisfactory for an increasing number of national players. For this reason, more and more players tried to escape, some of which were successful, as in 1976 with Norbert Nachtweih and Jürgen Pahl at the junior international match in Turkey, but also often failed. In 1983, the former national player Lutz Eigendorf died in a car accident three years after fleeing to Germany. After this incident, rumors arose that the Ministry of State Security was involved in the Eigendorf accident. At the beginning of 2011, the responsible public prosecutor announced that there was no objective evidence of external negligence in the Eigendorf case. More and more officials tried to avoid that the players used the trips of the selection teams to try to escape. In 1981 the national players Gerd Weber , Peter Kotte and Matthias Müller were arrested shortly before their departure with the national team for Argentina on suspicion of having escaped the republic and banned from playing football.
But politics also had a negative impact on the national team in other ways. The team was increasingly forced to "increase the fame of the GDR". The DFV accepted every offer for an international match, even if this meant that the dates with point games in the GDR league overlapped. "The DFV lived on balance sheets and results," said sports journalists Uwe Karte and Jörg Röhrig later. The popularity of the national team with football fans also fell increasingly. The team was now even referred to as the “docile representative” of the increasingly hated GDR regime.
“In public we always had to emphasize our role as representatives of the GDR. We knew very well that this would reduce our reputation with the audience. We were an unloved national team. "
In qualifying for the 1980 European Championship , the GDR failed again when the national team was third behind the Netherlands and Poland, ahead of Switzerland and Iceland . The term of office of the national coach Buschner, plagued by heart problems, finally ended in October 1981 after eleven years. After a home defeat in the qualification for the 1982 World Cup against eventual group winners Poland and thus missed qualification for the 1982 World Cup, Buschner was given leave of absence at the end of 1981 for "health reasons".
The situation improved for the time being when Karl Zimmermann took over the office of DFV General Secretary in 1983 . Zimmermann succeeded in reducing the state's influence on football. The new national coach was Rudolf Krause , who had previously trained the new Olympic team. But even he did not prevent the failure in qualifying for the European Championship 1984 . After Belgium and Switzerland, the GDR was only able to place itself ahead of Scotland . The Belgian player Jan Ceulemans described the style of play in the GDR: "The GDR team looks downright old-fashioned in its approach to the game" . After only one year, Krause was replaced by Bernd Stange .
In qualifying for the 1986 World Cup , the GDR narrowly failed again when the team behind European champions France and Bulgaria, third in the group, did not reach the second place required for qualification and only left Yugoslavia and Luxembourg behind. In qualifying for the European Championship in 1988 , the GDR managed at least a respectable success when the team in their group missed the first place necessary for the finals participation, but ended up second in front of defending champions France. The USSR won the group .
With Wolfgang Spitzner , the successor of the DFV general secretary Zimmermann, who died in 1987, national coach Stange made an enemy when he refused to do without players from the BFC Dynamo "so that they could spare themselves for the club" . After Stange had claimed in November 1988 before an international game that was later lost against Turkey that his team would definitely win the game, he was dismissed by the football association. Stange's successor was Manfred Zapf , who was unpopular with most players. The players lost the desire to appear for the national team. So it happened more and more often that many players called in sick. For example, the then national player Matthias Döschner said: “He spoke to us as a comrade. For us he was an anti-trainer who hardly fit into a tracksuit himself. "
The last coach of the GDR national team was Eduard Geyer , who took up his post in 1989 during the ongoing qualification for the 1990 World Cup in Italy . Before the last matchday, which was already overshadowed by the social upheavals in the GDR , the team was tied behind Turkey and ahead of Austria in third place. With the help of the already qualified USSR in the game against Turkey, they had to win against hosts Austria in Vienna in order to reach the second qualifying place. In the end, the team lost 3-0 and in fourth place missed their second World Cup participation after 1974. Due to the opening of the inner-German border a week earlier and the decision of the Austrian government to only allow visa-free entry on November 15, 1989 (and also only with identity card ), numerous GDR citizens, for whom special trains were also used, were able to watch this encounter for the first time directly in the stadium.
After the failed qualification, seven more senior national team games took place. Meanwhile, numerous national players were already playing in the West. The national team played their last game on September 12, 1990 in Brussels against Belgium and won 2-0, both goals scored by captain Matthias Sammer . This encounter was originally intended as a European Championship qualifier (by the way, the GDR would have met the West German team in the same group on November 21, 1990); but since the German unification process took place faster than expected, the DFV announced its team from the qualification. This first group game, which had already been scheduled, was nevertheless played as a friendly game in order to avert claims for damages from the Belgian Football Association. The meeting of the national teams of the GDR and the Federal Republic, which was also planned for November 1990 as a friendly game in Leipzig, was canceled not least because of feared crowd riots.
2010: 20 years of football unity
As part of the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the admission of the German Football Association to the German Football Association , a selection of former GDR national players defeated the German World Cup team from 1990 2: 1 (0: 1) on November 20, 2010 in the central stadium .
The figures in brackets include data from international A matches at the Olympic Games that were not rated by FIFA . See also: List of national soccer players of the GDR , list of soccer players with at least 100 international matches
|98 (102)||Joachim Streich||1969-1984||53 (55)|
|96 (100)||Hans-Jürgen Dörner||1969-1985||8 (9)|
|78(86)||Konrad way||1970-1981||1 (2)|
|69(74)||Eberhard Vogel||1962-1976||24 (25)|
|62(66)||Martin Hoffmann||1973-1981||15 (16)|
|59(66)||Lothar Kurbjuweit||1970-1981||3 (4)|
|53 (55)||Joachim Streich||1969-1984||98 (102)|
|24 (25)||Eberhard Vogel||1962-1976||69(74)|
|22 (25)||Hans-Jürgen Kreische||1968-1975||46(50)|
|15 (16)||Martin Hoffmann||1973-1981||62(66)|
|14 (15)||Jürgen Sparwasser||1969-1977||48(53)|
(The data refer to the first or last international match)
|Surname||from||to||Number of games|
|Willi Oelgardt||September 21, 1952||June 14, 1953||3|
|Hans Siegert||May 8, 1954||October 24, 1954||3|
|Janos Gyarmati||September 18, 1955||October 27, 1957||10|
|Fritz Godicke||May 1, 1958||June 28, 1959||15th|
|Heinz Krügel||August 12, 1959||April 16, 1961||3|
|Károly Sós||May 14, 1961||November 18, 1967||42 (43)|
|Harald Seeger||December 6, 1967||19th December 1969||11 (12)|
|Georg Buschner||May 16, 1970||October 10, 1981||104 (112)|
|Rudolf Krause||May 7, 1980||May 7, 1980||1|
|Bernd Stange||November 11, 1981||November 11, 1981||1|
|Rudolf Krause||January 26, 1982||August 24, 1983||19th|
|Bernd Stange||October 12, 1983||November 30, 1988||53|
|Manfred Zapf||February 13, 1989||May 20, 1989||6th|
|Eduard Geyer||23rd August 1989||September 12, 1990||12|
International match record
The GDR national team played a total of 283 international matches from 1952 to 1990 and played against 52 different teams. She won 133 games, drawn 66 times and left the field as a loser 84 times. In addition, the team played 10 international matches at the Olympic Games (5 wins, 3 draws, 2 defeats), which FIFA has no longer classified as A-internationals since 1999 .
The record against national teams, which the GDR selection met at least five times, reads as follows:
|balanced balance sheet|
The GDR did not have a national stadium, but more than a third of all home games were played in the Leipzig Central Stadium , the largest stadium in the country. In addition, home games were often played in Berlin, Dresden, Magdeburg and Rostock. For games that expected less audience interest, stadiums in smaller cities were also used.
The national team's 130 home games took place in the following cities and stadiums:
|Berlin||Walter Ulbricht Stadium / World Youth Stadium||13||1954-1988|
|Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sports Park||10||1971-1990|
|Dresden||Heinz Steyer Stadium||4th||1953-1969|
|Rudolf Harbig / Dynamo Stadium||6th||1970-1989|
|Karl Marx City||Ernst Thälmann Stadium||9||1956-1990|
|Magdeburg||Ernst Grube Stadium||8th||1963-1989|
|Erfurt||Georgi Dimitrov Stadium||5||1961-1989|
|Halle (Saale)||Kurt Wabbel Stadium||5||1975-1988|
|Jena||Ernst Abbe sports field||2||1970, 1981|
|Frankfurt (Oder)||Friendship Stadium||2||1974, 1985|
|cottbus||Friendship Stadium||2||1976, 1988|
|Potsdam||Karl Liebknecht Stadium||2||1977, 1985|
|Zwickau||Georgi Dimitrov Stadium||1||1984|
|Aue||Otto Grotewohl Stadium||1||1984|
- Querengässer, Klaus: Football in the GDR 1945–1989, Part 2, National Team , Verlag Agon, 1995 ( ISBN 3-89784-037-5 )
- Schulze-Marmeling, Dietrich: The history of the national soccer team , Verlag Die Werkstatt, April 2004 ( ISBN 3-89533-443-X )
- Altendorfer, Otto, The GDR national soccer coach between SED and State Security - A biographical documentation, Leipzig 2014, ISBN 978-3-86583-848-3
- Special about GDR football
- All games of the GDR national team
- The record players and goal scorers of the GDR senior national team (including the FIFA regulations on international matches in 1999)
- Hardy Grüne : "Risen from the ruins" from The History of the National Football Team, p. 390
- Hardy Grüne: "Risen from the ruins" from The History of the National Football Team, p. 391
- Hardy Greens: First Progress from The History of the National Football Team, p. 392
- Hardy Greens: First Progress from The History of the National Football Team, p. 393
- Andreas Debski, Michael Kraske, Ingolf Rackwitz: Central Stadium Leipzig - From the Stadium of the Hundred Thousand to the Football Temple , Das Neue Berlin, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-360-01280-1 .
- Werner Skrentny: The big book of the German football stadiums . Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2000, ISBN 978-3-89533-668-3 .
- Hardy Greens: Nice, but unsuccessful from The History of the National Football Team, p. 397
- Hardy Greens: Nice, but unsuccessful from The history of the national soccer team, p. 398
- RSSSF.com: UEFA Youth Tournament Under 18, 1965
- Hardy Greens: Nice but unsuccessful from The history of the national soccer team, p. 399
- Hardy Greens: Buschner comes from The history of the national soccer team p. 400
- Hardy Greens: Buschner comes from The history of the national soccer team p. 401
- spiegel.de: Chile against USSR 1973: The most absurd game in football history
- Paul Doyle: The Joy of Six: football fiascos , Guardian article, Jan. 17, 2014
- Hardy Greens: Olympic Gold 1976 from The History of the National Football Team p. 406
- Eigendorf's death record remains closed
- Hardy Greens: Buschner must go from The history of the national soccer team p. 408
- Hardy Greens: Buschner must go out The history of the national soccer team p. 409
- Hardy Greens: Buschner must go out The history of the national soccer team p. 410
- Hardy Greens: The End from The History of the National Football Team, p. 411
- Sven Goldmann: With a delay of 20 years: DDR-Elf competes against BRD selection. Sports. Der Tagesspiegel , November 10, 2010, accessed on November 21, 2010 .