|coat of arms||map|
|Area :||38.68 km²|
|Residents :||77,937 (December 31, 2017)|
|Population density :||1,996 inhabitants / km²|
|Postcodes :||47226, 47228, 47229, 47239|
|Telephone code :||+49 2065… (Rheinhausen),
+49 2151… (Rumeln-Kaldenhausen)
|Distribution of seats for the district council (2014)|
Rheinhausen , until 1974 a city in the district of Moers , is now a district of the city of Duisburg with 77,937 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2017) and an area of 38.68 km² . Rheinhausen is located on the left bank of the Rhine between 23 m and 36 m in the middle Lower Rhine plain west of the Rhine dike , in front of which lies a foreland several 100 m wide to the north. Rheinhausen has 10.5 km Rhine front (of current kilometers from 767 to 777.5). Neighboring cities are Moers and Krefeld . The area lies within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the administrative district of Düsseldorf. Responsible local court is Duisburg, competent Regional Association of the Rhineland and competent tax office Duisburg-West. The borough has a partnership with the community of Sedgefield Borough in County Durham in northern England .
The district includes the districts of Rheinhausen-Mitte with the districts Atrop and Schwarzenberg, Hochemmerich with the districts Asterlagen and Werthausen, Bergheim with the districts Oestrum , Trompet and Winkelhausen, Friemersheim with the districts Bliersheim , Hohenbudberg and Mühlenberg as well as the formerly independent municipality Rumeln-Kaldenhausen .
|number||Surname||Residents||Area in ha||Inhabitants per km²||Foreigner %||Post Code||prefix|
Population figures as of December 31, 2017
Traces of settlement can be found in Rheinhausen until Roman times . During sewer work in the Diergardt colliery settlement at the end of the Green Trail, the remains of a Roman guard station were found that had been built there to protect the Limes . A bronze plaque and road markings remind of this. The old Roman road on the left Lower Rhine (partly as the B 57) runs on the edge of Rheinhausen. At the city limits to the Asberg district of Moers , partly in the Rheinhausen area, are the remains of a Roman satellite camp, called the Asciburgium . Also made to Ireland originating Bishop Ludger including in the area of Rheinhausen as a missionary to have worked.
- For more on Rheinhausen's Roman past, see the separate articles Small fort Werthausen and Asciburgium .
Development from the Middle Ages
The districts of Hochemmerich and Friemersheim were mentioned in documents as early as 900 as "Kirchdorf Hochemmerich" and "Herrlichkeit Friemersheim". In the Vita Hludovici , the biography of Ludwig the Pious , there is an account of an imperial assembly in Friemersheim, which is said to have taken place in 799. Even Charlemagne to one here Reichstag have held and at the beginning of the 9th century he gave Friemersheim the Werden Abbey . While the parish of Hochemmerich had long belonged to the county of Moers , the glory of Friemersheim changed hands in the 14th century. Rheinhausen is the first time in lifting register the pin Gerresheim (12-13 century..) Mentioned; Count Vincenz von Moers received the Rheinhausen court from the abbot as a fief in 1481 . However, the development of the town did not originate from this farm, whose name only emerged with the economic and transport development in the 19th century, but from the mayorships of Hochemmerich and Friemersheim.
The inhabitants of the county of Moers became Protestant (Lutheran, later Calvinist, also called Reformed) in the middle of the 16th century . In 1702 the county of Moers fell to the Kingdom of Prussia as part of a succession . In 1706 the county of Moers was raised to a principality by the "German Emperor" at the request of the Prussians . The area of the city of Rheinhausen belonged to the Franconian royal house until the 9th century (Friemersheim Königshof), was donated to Werden Abbey , in the 14th century it came to the Counts of Moers, then to Nassau-Orange in 1601, and to Prussia in 1702. Before that, Louis XIV set up his field quarters at Borgschenhof in 1672 during a campaign against Holland.
Between 1794 and 1814, the region was under Napoleon French territory, u. a. the Civil Code was introduced here. Occupation by Prussian troops on December 6, 1813. When the left bank of the Rhine was again passed to Prussia as a result of the Congress of Vienna (1815), the canton of Moers and Hochemmerich came to the administrative district of Kleve of the Cologne provincial administration . Hochemmerich came to the Rheinberg district in 1816 and after its dissolution in 1823 to the Geldern district . Friemersheim belonged to the Krefeld district and came with Hochemmerich in 1857 to the newly formed Moers district. To this day, relics from the Napoleonic Code civil are valid in the Rheinhausen and Homberg districts on the left bank of the Rhine . B. the notary-only system .
Court courts existed in Hochemmerich, Friemersheim (castle) and Asterlagen around 1324; the Hochemmerich jury is mentioned in 1343. The former Herrlichkeit Friemersheim had its own court and the Friemersheim jury kept the Friemersheim roses from the coat of arms of the Lords of Friemersheim in their seal for centuries. In the Moers count time, Friemersheim had a regional court under the chairmanship of the Moerser Schultheiss , against whose decisions there was an appeal to the higher court in Moers. In 1624 it says: "The glory of Friemersheim consists in a court bank, which court is held on the Culue (Kölve)"; Apart from Friemersheim, his district also included Capellen, Schwafheim, Rumeln, Kaldenhausen, Bergheim, Oestrum, Bliersheim, Rheinheim (must be called Rheinhausen), Atrop, Werthausen and Asterlagen. In Friemersheim, court was held every 14 days. In 1755 the Prussian government dissolved the old jury courts, so Friemersheim lost its own court.
Becoming a city
The later urban area belonged to the mayor offices of Hochemmerich and Friemersheim since 1794 , which were subdivided as follows:
- Mayor's office Hochemmerich with the rural communities Bergheim, Hochemmerich and Oestrum, together around 1,704 ha. 1885:
- Rural community Bergheim 288 ha (of which 221 ha arable, 36 ha meadow, 6 ha wood),
- Rural community Hochemmerich 1,143 ha (of which 657 ha arable, 248 ha meadow, 17 ha wood),
- Rural community of Oestrum 273 ha (of which 196 ha arable, 41 ha meadow, 12 ha wood).
- as well as the farming communities Atrop, Rheinhausen, Werthausen, Asterlagen and Winkelhausen
- Mayor's office Friemersheim with the rural communities Bliersheim, Friemersheim, Hohenbudberg-Kaldenhausen and Rumeln, together about 2,700 ha. 1885:
- Rural community Bliersheim 272 ha (of which 175 ha arable, 42 ha meadow, 12 ha wood),
- Rural community Friemersheim 778 ha (of which 467 ha arable, 131 ha meadow, 39 ha timber),
- Rural community Hohenbudberg-Kaldenhausen 942 ha (of which 694 ha arable, 65 ha meadow, 31 ha wood),
- Rural community Rumeln 699 ha (of which 507 ha arable, 99 ha meadow, 48 ha wood).
In the French Département de la Roer , Friemersheim belonged to the canton of Uerdingen in the Arrondissement de Crévelt (Krefeld) from 1798/1801 to 1814 . Under the Prussians , the mayor's office of Friemersheim was formed on May 1, 1816 in the Krefeld district in the Prussian province of Jülich-Cleve-Berg, district of Düsseldorf. In 1823 the Rheinberg district was dissolved. Until 1857 his area belonged to the district of Geldern. The mayor's office in Friemersheim initially remained in the Krefeld district. After another restructuring, the district of Moers was separated from the district of Geldern in 1857 , into which the mayor's office of Friemersheim was now incorporated.
With the settlement of the Krupp company in 1895, the problem arose that some of the factories were located in the municipality of Bliersheim, e.g. T. extended over the municipality of Hochemmerich. Several attempts to change the municipality boundaries failed due to resistance from the district administrator of the Moers district (one suggestion was to close the Hochemmerich factory premises or to redraw the municipality boundary on the railway line). An intended personal union of the mayor's office of Hochemmerich and Friemersheim also failed. A unification proposal for both mayorships from January 17, 1909 was rejected by the citizens of Friemersheim in a general assembly on March 7, 1909.
In the 1920s, the industrialized south of the Moers district was restructured. First, on July 1, 1920, the community of Bliersheim was incorporated into Friemersheim. Bergheim and Oestrum were incorporated into the municipality of Hochemmerich on April 1, 1921.
At the instigation of the Moers District Administrator, to prepare for the merger, incorporation committees were set up, which on February 21, 1922 agreed in principle on a community merger, which was contractually sealed on October 21, 1922. At the same time, agreements were made for school, water and electricity supplies and for the establishment of joint facilities in what will later be the city center. Only Rumeln and Hohenbudberg-Kaldenhausen insisted on their independence, but agreed to a joint mayor's office.
The communities Hochemmerich and Friemersheim were amalgamated on April 6, 1923 by ministerial decree to form the new rural community Rheinhausen . The eponymous Rheinhausen, now the largest rural community in Prussia , was until then a small peasantry that joined the village of Werthausen to the east. Both belonged to the mayor's office of Hochemmerich. The name goes back to the medieval name of the "curia rynhusen" (Hof Rheinhausen), which was mentioned as early as 1218 in the register of Abbess Gula von Gerresheim .
At the same time, the mayorships of Hochemmerich and Friemersheim were merged to form the mayor's office of Rheinhausen , which in addition to the municipality of Rheinhausen included the municipalities of Hohenbudberg-Kaldenhausen and Rumeln. The southern part of the community Hohenbudberg-Kaldenhausen was umgemeindet in 1927 in the city of Uerdingen in the district of Krefeld . The rest of the community Hohenbudberg-Kaldenhausen remained as community Kaldenhausen in the mayor's office Rheinhausen. The mayor's office in Rheinhausen has been known as the Rheinhausen office since January 1, 1928 .
On the basis of a decree of the Prussian Minister of the Interior of June 20, 1934, the municipality of Rheinhausen received city rights on July 1, 1934 . This means that the Prussian Minister of the Interior only approved the application for city charter nine years after the municipality's application; there were reservations on the part of the district of Moers. The provincial parliament of the Rhineland had already given its approval in 1930. On June 1, 1934, most of Kaldenhausen was incorporated into Rumeln. Parts of the area of Kaldenhausen in the area of the marshalling yard and the Hohenbudberg railway settlement came to Rheinhausen. The Rheinhausen office was abolished, which meant that Rumeln, which was enlarged by Kaldenhausen, became an office-free municipality. The municipality of Rumeln was renamed Rumeln-Kaldenhausen in 1950 .
In the agricultural area of the later town of Rheinhausen, there was for a long time only one brewery (Rheingold brewery, from 1827 to 1986) and a vat factory in addition to the Schrooten steam brickworks founded in 1857 (which worked until 1963). A number of other brickworks were added at the beginning of the 20th century.
On the initiative of Friedrich Alfred Krupp , the planning for the Rheinhausen ironworks was started in 1896 by the engineer Gisbert Gillhausen , which was finally named "Friedrich-Alfred-Hütte". The first blast furnaces were blown on as early as December 18, 1897 . In the years before the First World War , the plant was considered the largest in Europe and had its own Rhine port . The products included rails, bars and sections , semi-finished products , sleepers and wire rod.
With the settlement of the Krupp company at the end of the 19th century, a period of economic prosperity began for the city and its predecessor communities, accompanied by severe environmental pollution . With the exception of the civil servants' settlement , the village of Bliersheim disappeared completely under the industrial site of the Krupp company. From 1907 onwards, the steelworks were supplemented by Krupp Stahlbau .
The Krupp company played an important role in the urban development of Rheinhausen for a long time: Krupp had a model settlement built for the steel workers ( Margarethensiedlung ), a small station at Werkstor I ( Rheinhausen-Ost station ) and a hospital that bears the name of the Krupp- Daughter and sole heiress Bertha also carried numerous other social facilities, such as a library, kindergartens and their own consumer establishments .
There were two mines in the area of the city of Rheinhausen . When looking for a possible coal mine, they found it on August 8, 1855 at a depth of 313 feet. In 1857 the Diergardt mine field was awarded . This was divided into three fields in 1872. These were Diergardt in Rheinhausen-Asterlagen, Wilhelmine Mevissen in Bergheim-Oestrum and Fritz in Rumeln-Kaldenhausen . The mining area developed from 1910 extended on one side under the Rhine to the right bank of the river, on the other side beyond Rumeln. The Diergardt colliery in Asterlagen was operated from December 14, 1911 to October 31, 1967, and the Wilhelmine Mevissen colliery in Bergheim from 1914 to June 30, 1973 . Rheinhausen also had to pay a tribute in a large mine fire from December 9th to 10th, 1928 with the death of 10 miners . On May 14, 1951, a shaft fire claimed another person dead. There are now industrial areas on both colliery areas .
Beginning of the 20th century until the 1930s
In the period after the Krupp company settled in the area, what would later become Rheinhausen experienced rapid development. In 1897 the factory's own port was laid out, and since 1928 the Diergardt-Mevissen colliery near Essenberg . The infrastructure was completed: 1908 water and electricity works, sewer works carried out 1921 to 1924 (with separate sewage and rainwater drainage), gas works built in 1934/35, sewage treatment plant built in 1951, three-phase current from the Rheinisch-Westfälische Elektrizitätsgesellschaft 1954. Bertha-Hospital of the ironworks since 1914. A savings bank was founded in Friemersheim in 1902 and in Hochemmerich in 1905; 1924 Merger to form Sparkasse Rheinhausen. In 1919 the two savings and construction associations Friemersheim and Rheinhausen were founded.
On December 9, 1918, Belgian occupation troops advanced. Since 1922 there was a Belgian troop camp on Schwarzenberger Strasse as part of the Allied occupation of the Rhineland . In 1923 the dispute with the Allies intensified. On January 27, a customs line was set up by them, and the military authorities declared the state of occupation on January 30, 1923, both because of backward repairs. On June 23, 1923, eight Belgian soldiers were murdered in an assassination attempt on the railway bridge between Hochfeld and Rheinhausen. The resistance against the occupation of the Rhineland is declared ended on September 23, 1923. On January 26, 1926, the 1st Battalion of the 1st Jägerregiment of the Belgian Army withdrew from the troop camp on Schwarzenberger Strasse. German families then live in the empty barracks, and the main building will later be converted into the city theater.
Between 1928 and 1930, the Hindenburgpark with an area of five hectares was created on Gartenstrasse. In the geographic center of the city , the later town hall was built as a secondary school between 1915 and 1918, and was used as town hall from the mid-1930s.
time of the nationalsocialism
The celebrations for the city becoming a city were heavily riddled with Nazi propaganda ; the city was celebrated as the “youngest city in the Third Reich”. How far the population of Rheinhausen supported the system during the Hitler dictatorship is not clear. However, the following facts are known: A local branch of the NSDAP was founded in July 1926. The NSDAP's share of the vote in Rheinhausen in the 1928 Reichstag election was 4.8%. In the Reichstag elections in July 1932 , however, the NSDAP achieved 36.6% ( SPD / KPD : 38.5% - DNVP : 7.1% - center : 18.1%). In the local elections on March 12, 1933, the NSDAP achieved 16 seats with 49.7%, the front four and the other parties ten seats.
Evidence shows that the SA moved on Friedrich-Alfred-Strasse in mid-1934 and Joseph Goebbels visited Rheinhausen for the inauguration of the bridge in 1936 . A HJ home was inaugurated on Werthauser Strasse in 1939. Further planned HJ homes in Friemersheim and Bergheim (an der Bergheimer Mühle) were not implemented, nor was the redesign of the city center based on a plan by the former government architect . D. Walter Corinth († 1942) from 1941. According to this, for example, a party forum for mass events was planned instead of the city theater. The Nazi era in Rheinhausen is remembered mainly through the numerous bunker buildings in the Reich's "bunker city" (see below).
Although the Rheinhaus city history was described in detail by the then city archivist Friedrich Albert Meyer (1883–1967) in several volumes in the 50s and 60s (see under literature), all information on Aryanization , persecution of dissenters and the employment of forced laborers is missing . That the latter took place is only general, e.g. B. for the Krupp company known. In 1944, 474 female forced laborers are said to have been employed there. A total of around 250 people were killed. On May 22, 1944, 35 Russian female forced laborers and one small child were burned to death in an air raid on the barracks on Friedrich-Alfred-Strasse at the gates of Krupp. The bunkers were not available to them. A memorial stone can be found on the Trumpeter Cemetery, which was inaugurated on May 22, 1994 in the presence of nine survivors. Furthermore, the death of 57 Soviet prisoners of war is recorded in the registry office. On March 5, 1945, the National Socialist rule in Rheinhausen ended when American troops marched in as part of Operation Grenade .
In October 1932, 73 residents of the Jewish faith lived in Rheinhausen, mainly in Friemersheim and Hochemmerich. By October 1938, the number had fallen to 30. Jewish business owners were expropriated by the end of the 1930s, including the Eser department store, the Nathan butcher and the Wallach fashion store. Only Wallach was returned to the former owners after the war. Some Rheinhaus Jews went abroad, where most of them are lost. The majority of those who remained, however, perished in ghettos or extermination camps, at least 17 can be proven.
post war period
Rheinhausen became part of the British zone of occupation . On February 13, 1946, the city council meeting, which was still installed by the Allied occupiers, met for the first time. In 1947 the Krupp steelworks was struck off the dismantling list by the occupying powers and separated from the Krupp Group . It was then called "Hüttenwerk Rheinhausen". Around 1950 the Rheinuferpark was landscaped, between 1955 and 1957 the Volkspark, Rheinhausen's green lung, was planted. As a result, the former Hindenburg Park on Gartenstrasse was expanded ten times to 52 hectares and redesigned. In the vacant lots between Hochemmerich and Friemersheim, new residential areas (so-called city center development ) were built in 1950–54 when a total of 3,600 residential units were built throughout the city . Further housing estates in the center of Rheinhausen were built in the 1960s.
1960s and 1970s
Up to 16,000 people found work at Krupp in the 1960s, many of them came from the hinterland of the Lower Rhine. This is why line 31 ("Der Niederrheiner"), which runs from Kleve , Xanten , via Rheinberg and Moers to Rheinhausen, is still traditionally called the "Hippeland Express". Because at that time this line transported industrial workers from the agricultural district of Kleve with their traditional goat breeding to the iron and steel works.
Thanks to the business tax revenue from Krupp, many social facilities, such as six youth centers, five day-care centers for the elderly , 19 kindergartens, two outdoor pools and an indoor pool , as well as an internationally recognized sports hall (on Krefelder Strasse) and a large event hall , could be set up in the 1960s and early 1970s (Rheinhausenhalle). Furthermore, there were two new school buildings: The mathematical and natural science high school (now Krupp-Gymnasium), inaugurated in 1964 and later the Heinrich-Heine-Gymnasium (now Heinrich-Heine-Gesamtschule), both also for students from less academic backgrounds; today's Krupp grammar school as one of the first four grammar schools with a college level. The driving force behind this development in the social area was the then First Alderman of the City of Rheinhausen, Dr. Wilhelm Weber. On the border with Rumeln-Kaldenhausen was Toeppersee set up as a recreational area and many roads avenue trees were planted, which procured the district especially from the 1980s, a park-like appearance. In 1961 the indoor swimming pool on Schwarzenberger Straße in the center of Rheinhausen was opened and in 1974 the outdoor swimming pool near the Toeppersee lake. Both facilities and another indoor pool in Rumeln closed in favor of a new indoor pool built in 2010 at the Toepperseefreibad.
With the decline of coal and steel, Rheinhausen's economic decline began. The two mines were closed in 1967 and 1973, respectively, but the employees mostly found work at the Krupp company.
Path to incorporation
Plans to incorporate the Rheinhauser area into Duisburg already existed at the beginning of the 20th century. Already in a study by Karl Jarres (1914–1933 Lord Mayor of Duisburg ), written in the 1920s, he proposed the establishment of a Ruhr estuary with the involvement of Rheinhausen and other communities on the left bank of the Rhine. Despite the barrier that the Rhine formed, there had been close relationships between the two sides of the Rhine for centuries. But the district council of the district of Moers , to which Rheinhausen belonged, voted with a slim majority against the incorporation into Duisburg.
The village of Hohenbudberg with the church was incorporated into Uerdingen in 1927, with the exception of the large marshalling yard of the Federal Railway and the railway settlement, which have been part of the city of Rheinhausen since 1954, and merged with Krefeld in 1929.
Rheinhauser politicians were entirely in agreement with an incorporation, but not in the way that came about later. Since the 1960s there were plans in Rheinhausen for a so-called "Südstadt" (southern part of the former Moers district ), sometimes with, sometimes without the city of Moers , but always with the neighboring town of Homberg and the municipality of Rumeln-Kaldenhausen , but with different ideas had. The Kapellen district (from what was then Kapellen-Vennikel, now part of Moers) should also be added. The disagreement about this was certainly also a reason that other interests, here those of the city of Duisburg, finally prevailed.
With the municipal reorganization regulated by the Lower Rhine Act , which came into effect on January 1, 1975, Rheinhausen became a Duisburg district, together with the municipality of Rumeln-Kaldenhausen in a new urban district and the cities of Homberg and Walsum .
The last mayor of Rheinhausen was Johann Asch , after whom a square in Rheinhausen-Mitte is named. Politicians and the population resisted this incorporation for years, but ultimately in vain. Rheinhausen was one of the initiators of the citizens' initiative " Aktion Bürgerwille ", whose referendum , in which around 75% of Rheinhausen's eligible voters took part in February 1974, remained unsuccessful at the state level, especially since almost only the residents of smaller, from incorporation are interested in preventing local reorganization threatened, communities had and the necessary quorum of 20% was clearly missed with around 6%. A constitutional complaint regarding the violation of the communal right of self-determination was ultimately rejected by the Constitutional Court for the State of North Rhine-Westphalia .
Even after the municipal reorganization, the district policy was long concerned with maintaining a relative independence, especially with urban institutions. Library branches, baths, youth centers and old people's meeting places nevertheless had to be partially closed in the following decades, as the municipal finances of the city of Duisburg deteriorated and the city had to put in place budget security concepts since 1977 .
1980s and 1990s
In 1987 the district received great media coverage due to the resistance to the closure of the steelworks . In this context, the Rheinhausen – Hochfeld (Graf-Spee-Brücke) bridge over the Rhine was also renamed “ Bridge of Solidarity ”, a name that was later officially adopted by the city of Duisburg. In the winter of 1987/1988 there were large demonstrations against the closure of the remaining iron and steel works under the motto “AufRuhr” and on February 20, 1988 in the old Krupp rolling mill, the largest indoor festival in Europe with over 40,000 participants. In this context, the above-mentioned Rhine bridge and the motorway were also blocked and the Krupp headquarters in Essen occupied. Month-long vigils accompanied the clashes.
Despite all the protests, almost a hundred years of industrial history ended on August 15, 1993 with the final closure of the Krupp steelworks . On the former premises are still the long time under monument protection standing villas of former officers and the casino with the charm of the 1950s.
On the site of the former steel works, a center for logistics companies was created under the name “Logport”.
Population of the mayor's offices in Friemersheim and Hochemmerich
Population of the place Rheinhausen
- around 1845: 88
- 1861: 98
- 1871: 156, plus Rheinhausen train station: 93
Population of the community (from 1934 city) Rheinhausen
The large population growth resulted from several large surges, especially from the Upper Silesian mining area. The residents there had moved here to find work in the Diergardt and Mevissen collieries , but above all in the Krupp ironworks.
In 1949 the 50,000. Resident registered, on May 15, 1954 saw the 60,000. Rheinhauser citizens the light of day. In mid-1966, the population peaked at 73,424 and fell to around 68,500 by 1974 (always excluding Rumeln-Kaldenhausen). The population grew especially after the Second World War . The growing heavy industry attracted many people first from the old eastern regions of Germany and later guest workers from southern Europe, especially Turkey . Above all, the Rumeln-Kaldenhausen district with a relatively large amount of building land ensured that the Rheinhausen district had a very good population balance (compared to the city of Duisburg as a whole).
Rheinhausen and Rumeln-Kaldenhausen have been part of Duisburg as the Rheinhausen district since 1975. The population of the districts can be found in the corresponding Wikipedia articles.
In October 1946, the first free local elections after the Nazi era took place in Rheinhausen. After the Second World War, Rheinhausen was an SPD stronghold; in its prime, the party achieved more than 65% of the vote.
Mayors of the community or city of Rheinhausen were:
- 1901 to 1923 (Hochemmerich): Leberecht Graeßner (* 1864, † 1939)
- 1919 (?) To 1923 (Friemersheim): Emil Heynen (* 1862, † 1929)
- 1923 (rural community Rheinhausen) to November 24, 1933: Dr. Eduard Foller (* July 12, 1880 in Soest, † May 26, 1965 in Wuppertal)
- October 1, 1933 to July 19, 1945: Arthur Kleinert (* May 9, 1894 in Elberfeld, † March 13, 1970 in Oberhausen)
- March 7, 1945 to February 12, 1946 (thereafter city director until 1953): Wilhelm Weinstock (* December 31, 1887 in Elten, † June 30, 1972 in Bad Honnef)
- February 13, 1946 to March 18, 1961: Otto Schulenberg, SPD (born October 17, 1889 in Engter, † January 8, 1962 in Rheinhausen)
- March 29, 1961 to December 31, 1974: Johann Asch , SPD (born January 5, 1911 in Duisburg-Hochfeld, † January 8, 1990 in Duisburg-Rheinhausen)
District chiefs (district mayors) of the Rheinhausen district were or are:
- 1975–1984: Siegfried Schlicht, SPD (born October 2, 1926, † April 29, 2009)
- 1984–1994: Hans Kleer, SPD (born August 19, 1922, † January 20, 2009)
- 1994-2004: Günter Heiser, SPD (born October 31, 1929, † October 30, 2006)
- 2004–2009: Katharina Gottschling, CDU
- 2009 - January 31, 2018: Winfried Boeckhorst, SPD (born February 28, 1938)
- since February 1, 2018: Astrid Hanske, SPD
coat of arms
Blazon: Shield divided in gold (yellow) over blue, above a red lion striding to the right, holding a red bucket in its paws and below three silver (white) five-petalled roses. The design comes from Prof. Richard Schwarzkopf from Düsseldorf.
After the right to use a city coat of arms granted by the Prussian Ministry of the Interior on February 20, 1935, the details of the use of the Rheinhaus city coat of arms by the mayor Arthur Kleinert (formerly Hüttenbeamter), who was enthroned by the National Socialists in 1933, were specified in his guidelines of June 24, 1935, which - as was customary at the time - “with the consent of the NSDAP representative” were issued. The Rheinhausen City Council adopted the old coat of arms in its main statute of January 27, 1948. Further details were regulated in the “Local Statute for the Use of the Rheinhauser Stadtwappen” of March 13, 1951. The coat of arms was also integrated into the official seal and it was a natural part of the Rheinhauser city flag introduced in 1954 in the colors yellow-blue.
Today it is the coat of arms of the Rheinhausen district and adorns the glass porch of the Rheinhausen town hall as a glass mosaic, the district library and the roundabout on the Rheinhauser side of the Rhine bridge and a roundabout in the corner. Until it was demolished in 1979, it was also featured on the gable wall of the Rheinhauser Stadttheater. Many Rheinhauser associations have it in their emblems and letterheads. The city arms (along with that of other cities) is also shown as a glass painting in the Lower Rhine window of the Duisburg town hall. The coat of arms is also on a plaque in the partner community Sedgefield Borough in County Durham in northern England.
The Catholic churches in Hochemmerich, Friemersheim and Hohenbudberg belonged from time immemorial to the Archdiocese of Cologne, Archdeaconate Xanten, Deanery Duisburg. Next to it a house chapel at Haus Asterlagen, the abbot of Werden's lodging quarters, who until the Reformation was the patron of Friemersheim, Hochemmerich and Asterlagen. With the Thirty Years' War the inhabitants of the Rheinhauser predecessor parishes became Protestant, whereby not the Lutheran , but the Calvinist-Protestant religion had priority. Heinrich Bommel became pastor in Friemersheim in 1560 and introduced the Reformation there in 1561 on the orders of the sovereign. In 1563 Martin Hovius became the first Protestant pastor in Hochemmerich. Under Count Hermann von Moers (1519–78, ruled 1553–1578) transition to Calvinism.
In the Rumeln area there are a few relics of the former Marienfeld monastery in the area of Klosterstrasse and Marienstraße. It was founded in 1472, was destroyed in 1642 during the Thirty Years' War by ardent French and Hessian troops, but was rebuilt a few years later. The monastery continued until the French occupation troops secularized it in 1803. The building was demolished in 1891.
Only Kaldenhausen and Hohenbudberg, which belonged to the Archdiocese of Cologne , remained Catholic; the denominational boundary ran approximately at the level of the Rumeln town hall in an east-west direction. The Catholic churches of the former county of Moers were united with the diocese of Münster in 1821 , Hochemmerich came to the mother church Homberg, Friemersheim zu Hohenbudberg.
With the immigrants from the Upper Silesian area, many Catholics came . In 1906 the Catholic parishes of Hochemmerich and Friemersheim were re-established and the first Catholic service was celebrated on March 30, 1906, still in an emergency church on today's Friedrich-Ebert-Straße. The first Catholic churches were on July 18, 1909 (St. Joseph) and on December 19, 1915 (St. Peter) inaugurated . The first Corpus Christi procession took place in June 1916 in Hochemmerich. Today Protestants and Catholics are in balance in Rheinhausen , plus around 10% Muslims , with the Alevis in Rheinhausen being a main focus. The latter have had their own parish hall near the former Krupp-Tor 1 since 1989.
Oldest church building in Rheinhausen
- Evangelical Christ Church in Hochemmerich, the original building first mentioned in 893, today's building built in 1447, at that time as St. Peter; Converted into the Reformed Christ Church in 1563
- Protestant village church in Friemersheim, first mentioned in 1147, reformed in 1547
- Catholic Church St. Joseph, Kronprinzenstrasse, Friemersheim, inauguration July 18, 1909
- Catholic Church of St. Peter, Schwarzenberg, built in 1914
Churches in the municipality
- Protestant churches:
- Christ Church, Im Kirling 17, Hochemmerich (inaugurated in 1447, renovation 1968)
- Erlöserkirche, Beethovenstr. 18, Hochemmerich (inaugurated April 29, 1962)
- Friedenskirche, Peschmannstr. 2, Bergheim (inaugurated in 1929)
- Village church, Friemersheim-Dorf (consecrated 1447, new building 1756–1770)
- Kreuzkirche, in volumes 57, Friemersheim (inaugurated September 13, 1964)
- Ev. Parish Rumeln-Kaldenhausen, Friedhofsallee 11 (opened in 1934)
- New Apostolic Church, Gerh.-Hauptmann-Str. 25a, Hochemmerich (inaugurated in 1928, remodeled in 1970)
- Free ev. Community, Krefelder Str. 243, Hochemmerich
- Evangelical Free Church Congregation, Schmiedestr. 10 (since 1935)
- catholic churches:
- Christ-King, Lange Str. 16, Bergheim (inaugurated September 12, 1929, renovated in 1972)
- St. Barbara, Klausstr. 1a, Hochemmerich (inaugurated June 20, 1964, profaned in 2011)
- St. Joseph, Kronprinzenstraße, Friemersheim (construction started in 1907, inauguration on July 18, 1909, church tower built in 1916, bells attached in 1924)
- St. Klara, Düsseldorfer Str. 129, Kaldenhausen (inaugurated in 1912)
- St. Laurentius, Turmstr. 14, Friemersheim (railway settlement, inaugurated 1932)
- St. Ludger, Bergheimer Str. 166, Asterlagen (inaugurated June 7, 1925, new building in 1971, derelict July 11, 2010)
- St. Marien, Lindenallee 29, Friemersheim
- St. Marien, Marienstrasse 2, Rumeln (inaugurated October 5, 1968, renovation 2008)
- St. Peter, Paulstr. 25, Hochemmerich (construction started March 29, 1914, inauguration December 19, 1915, renovation 1984)
- other religious communities
- Jehovah's Witnesses, Behringstr. 27, Hochemmerich
- Alevi Congregation, Fr-Alfred-Str. 182, Hochemmerich
- Eyup Sultan Camii
- Turkish Islamic Association
- IGMG mosque
- Yunus Emre Camii
Education and culture
Most of the children attended the predominantly denominational elementary schools . In Asterlagen there was a village school with only two classrooms for a long time: one classroom for the 1st to 4th grade and the second classroom for the 5th to 8th grade. Until 1900 there were only Protestant schools, after which the first Catholic schools were built; since 1923 the first non-denominational collecting school. After the Second World War, mainly community elementary and secondary schools were built or the church schools were converted into such.
The predecessor communities in Rheinhausen were initially unable to establish and maintain their own higher schools. Only Hochemmerich owed it to a private initiative of the Protestant parish that a private girls' school was founded there in a very modest setting in 1904.
With the five-fold increase in the population after the founding of the iron and steel works (from 1895 to 1913), the municipal councils considered it necessary to turn to the further development of the school system beyond the elementary school in order for the talented youth to successfully enter the higher positions of the modern, to enable industrial working life. For this purpose, the Zweckverband Hochemmerich-Friemersheim was set up on April 1, 1913 to establish and maintain an equal middle school for boys and girls . The generous participation of Fr.-Alfred-Hütte, which bore a third of the maintenance costs, made this project possible. The remaining costs were mainly covered by parental school fees.
From the outset, the intention was to expand this middle school into a nine-level higher educational institution in due course. This new school was called after approval by the Provinzialschulkollegium Realschule of the Zweckverband Hochemmerich-Friemersheim i. E. At the same time, with the approval of the government, a girls' secondary school was founded in Düsseldorf for girls in middle school . With the school year 1916/17, both schools started work in the later town hall building on Körnerplatz. At Easter 1919, 13 sub-secondary students took the first secondary school certificate, which meant that the school was finally recognized as a secondary school. The school committee of the now founded community Rheinhausen decided on September 30, 1924 to expand the secondary school into a secondary secondary school. The final recognition took place through the first Abitur examination in 1928. In the same year the girls' school also achieved recognition as a lyceum. The Lyceum was assigned the building on Körnerplatz as its own school building, while the Oberrealschule moved into the new school building on Schwarzenberger Straße on January 8, 1929 (built around 1925 as a high school based on a design by the architect Ernst Vetterlein ). After the summer vacation of 1931, the high school, which had shrunk in number of pupils, had to move into the secondary school building, following the motto: the entrance for boys is on the left and the entrance for girls on the right.
In 1967, the company moved to Flutweg, initially under the name of mathematical and natural science high school, which was later renamed Krupp high school. In this tradition, the 100th school anniversary was celebrated in 2012.
Before it was incorporated into Duisburg, in Rheinhausen there was a gymnasium for girls (initially a lyceum , then a modern-language high school), which from 1971 also moved to new premises in Rheinhausen, which was then only open to boys (formerly a natural science high school, now Europaschule Krupp-Gymnasium) Flutweg moved and after renaming it to Heinrich-Heine-Gymnasium in mid-1981 it was converted into Heinrich-Heinrich-Heine- Gesamtschule .
There is now another grammar school (Albert Einstein grammar school) and another comprehensive school (Lise Meitner comprehensive school) in Rumeln-Kaldenhausen, as well as two secondary schools , the Rheinhausen I secondary school (Körnerplatz) and secondary school II (Ulmenstrasse ) , which was built in the early 1960s ), which were merged a few years ago under the name Willi-Fährmann-Realschule. There are also several primary and secondary schools and a special needs school for the learning disabled (Dahlingstraße).
The Willy-Brandt-Berufskolleg, a bundle school of the upper secondary level with a commercial and industrial-technical focus on Krefelder Straße, stands for vocational training in Rheinhausen . The first vocational school opened in 1907, the current building on Krefelder Straße was put into operation in 2 construction phases in 1953 and 1957.
The adult education center of the city of Duisburg has an office in the courtyard building behind the town hall on Körnerplatz and uses classrooms in numerous schools, including in the former high school building on Schwarzenberger Straße. There has also been a Catholic family education center on Handelstrasse since the 1970s.
Education is also provided by the city library , the headquarters of which were housed in an old air raid shelter on Bertastraße from 1949 and moved to their existing domicile on Handelstraße in May 1971. The book inventory of the Krupp library on Friedrich-Alfred-Straße, which was closed in this context, was also included. Since 1975, under the name Rheinhausen District Library, the City Library has been the largest district library alongside the Duisburg Central Library with 3200 square meters of floor space and 22,000 non-fiction books, 13,000 children's titles and 13,000 novels; there is a 400-square-meter inner courtyard, which has held outdoor court concerts in the summer for many years. Both the Rheinhausen art collection and the city archive were temporarily housed in the new building. Less than a year and a half after the move, the music library was also ready, which held 2000 records, sheet music, two listening booths, various record players and stereo equipment. The 4 district libraries from Rheinhauser times unfortunately had to be closed for cost reasons. T. continue as school libraries. In Rumeln there is currently a district library in the building complex of the Albert Einstein High School.
Theaters and cinemas
The Stadttheater am Glückaufplatz also ensured culture in Rheinhausen. From a building used as a cinema by the Belgian occupation troops, it opened in April 1939 and again in 1947 after the war-related damage had been repaired; it was fundamentally rebuilt in 1952. In 1979 the city theater was demolished after the Rheinhausenhalle, planned since 1972 with up to 900 seats, was opened not far from it on Beethovenstrasse. In the old school building on Schwarzenberger Straße, which was used as an administration building after the two grammar schools moved out, there are now numerous clubs, the Komma children's theater and a branch of the municipal music and art school and classrooms of the adult education center and the Rudolf-Römer- Observatory . In the Volkspark there is a music pavilion, which was opened in 1973.
Numerous cinemas offered entertainment in Rheinhausen:
- Bambi (formerly Schauburg-Lichtspiele), Jägerstr. 2, Bergheim, between 1950 and approx. 1960
- Capitol, Fr.-Alfred-Str. 49, Hochemmerich, between 1929 and approx. 1980
- Castell-Filmbühne, Geeststr. 12, Friemersheim, between 1952 and approx. 1971
- Corso, Rheingoldstr. 16, Friemersheim, approx. 1953 to approx. 1971
- Georg-Palast, Georgstrasse 6, Hochemmerich, approx. 1952 to the 1960s
- Gloria-Theater (formerly Rheinhausener Lichtspiele), Fr.-Alfred-Str. 62/82, Hochemmerich, approx. 1924 to approx. 1971 (building demolished in 1972)
- Lichtburg, Fr.-Alfred-Str. 103, Hochemmerich, approx. 1953 to approx. 1980
- Lichtspielhaus Rumeln-Kaldenhausen, Dorfstraße 19a
- Modernes Theater Rheinhausen, Moerser Str. 1, Hochemmerich, approx. 1921–1931
Part of the seating in the Capitol Theater was used by the landlord of the Dorfschenke (Friemersheim) between 1980 and 2004 for Germany's smallest arthouse cinema (32 seats).
Museums and exhibitions
There is no museum of its own in Rheinhausen. Since 1971, a separate wing for the Rheinhausen municipal art collection was planned in the newly built library on Handelstrasse. This area has been looked after by the Lehmbruck Museum since the municipal reorganization . Temporary exhibitions are also held in the foyer of the Rheinhaus town hall. In the 1960s there was also the Hehl collection with utility ceramics by the artist Josef Hehl (1883–1953), which he had created during his professional life in Rheinhausen. In 2003, the city of Duisburg donated the collection to the city of Xanten , the artist's place of death; it is now on display in a museum in Sonsbeck on the Lower Rhine.
The Rheinhauser mining collection , which is housed in a former daycare center in Bergheim, Auf dem Berg (next to the Bergheim water tower ) and represents the history of the Rheinhauser colliery, goes back to a private initiative . The history of the Krupp company in Rheinhausen and the labor dispute in 1987/1988 is available as an archive in the district library. In the teacher's house in the village of Friemersheim, the Freundeskreis lively Grafschaft runs a local history and school museum.
Dialect and colloquial language
Rheinhausen, with its districts and settlements scattered over a large area, is located in the Lower Franconian dialect north of the so-called Uerdinger line , which stretches from the Rhine via Kempen to Venlo. This dialect line (also called ek-ech border) delimits the southern Lower Franconian (which is spoken in Uerdingen and Krefeld, for example, with the pronunciation of "esch" for the personal pronoun "I") from the northern Lower Franconian Platt, which is in the Krefeld district Hüls (see Hölsch Plott ) begins and is (or was) spoken in local variants on both sides of the northern Lower Rhine - with the pronunciation of "ek" instead of "I" ("ek bön enen Friemershe-imsche").
The Rheinhausen dialects are very much influenced by the Moers "Grafschafter Platt", but differ in the individual districts: Hochemmericher, Bergheimer and Friemersheimer Plattsprecher can recognize each other's origins by their tone of voice, even between the dialects of Rumeln and Kaldenhausen (which already points towards " Oedingsch Platt “tends) there are clear differences.
However, the dialect is rapidly disappearing and is hardly understood by the younger generation. Instead, a “new” colloquial language prevails, the so-called “Lower Rhine German”, called “Regiolekt” by linguists. Although it is based on Standard German, it has special characteristics due to the inclusion of expressions from immigrants or words of youth language. The miner's language has also left its mark on everyday language. Many know the saying of: "..da hate abber Futtsack off" (the term. Futtsack indicates that something "went wrong" It comes from the time when still working pit pony underground that in. Difficult conditions with have been immobilized in the feed bag .)
The Bertha Hospital in Friemersheim on Maiblumenstrasse was the only such facility on site until the post-war period. It was opened on February 1, 1914 and until 1969 had the status of a factory hospital for the Krupp employees, and later also for their families. The growing population later made it necessary to build another hospital. The Johanniter Hospital with a tumor center was built on the edge of Rheinhausen's Volkspark from 1959 (opened in February 1962) .
Today the Bertha Hospital belongs to the Klinikum Duisburg gGmbH and is mainly a community-based psychiatry .
In Rheinhausen, at the end of 2009, against the will of many residents, a forensic facility was set up on the site of the former Hohenbudberg marshalling yard , where mentally ill offenders are treated as part of the penal system. A referendum against forensics failed due to a lack of interest from the entire Duisburg population, who mostly live on the opposite side of the Rhine on the right bank of the Rhine and were therefore not confronted with the establishment of forensics.
Nursing homes were built in the 2000s . Such facilities exist on Lindenallee (urban nursing home), Protestant facilities are located at the Johanniter Hospital, in Bergheim (Bodelschwinghhaus) and in the former Rumeln town hall. The Catholic institution is the Veronikaheim in Kaldenhausen, the AWO operates a nursing home (Lene-Reklat-Haus) on Friederich-Ebert-Straße, privately operated houses are on Flutweg and in the railway settlement (house on the water tower) and another is on the market square Hochemmerich (Duisburger Strasse) under construction. A home for the disabled (Heinrich Tellem Heim) is located in Asterlagen, as is a workshop for disabled people , both operated by Caritas. The parish of St. Josef runs a children's home in Friemersheim.
There is also a veterinary clinic located in the Asterlagen Business Park.
In the post-war years, the Rheinhausen field handball team was known nationwide and played in the top leagues. In the 1990s, OSC 04 Rheinhausen played in the German handball league. The club, which had to retire from professional handball for financial reasons (bankruptcy of the main sponsor), produced the later world handball player and national handball player Daniel Stephan during this time .
At the Kruppsee you could try another sport since 1913: water polo. Rheinhausen himself played in the 1st Bundesliga for a while but currently in the regional league.
The Martial Arts School Lopez achieved first places with some participants in national, German, international German, European and world championships.
The AKS Rheinhausen-Hochemmerich 1918/30 e. V. was founded on May 10, 1974 from the traditional associations ASV Rheinhausen and KSV Hochemmerich. The aim of the merger was to promote top-class wrestling in Rheinhausen again. After all, with the Krefelder Strasse sports hall, the gyms on Schwarzenberger and Ulmenstrasse and at Borgschenhof, there were enough suitable sports facilities to offer a home to the wide range of popular and competitive sports. The heyday of the AKS began when Heinz Eickelbaum became active as a coach and wrestler: From 1975 to 1991 the Rheinhausers were in the 2nd Bundesliga. The main sport of the club, which has approx. 380 members, wrestling, is supplemented by the departments aerobics, Shaolin Kempo, Luta Livre and recreational sports. The trend sport parkour has been represented as a separate department at the AKS Rheinhausen-Hochemmerich since January 2013.
The Rhine and leisure culture
As everywhere on the Lower Rhine, the Rhine did not roll through its current bed in earlier times, but changed it frequently and formed side arms that serve to extract sand, gravel and clay. These sand and gravel pits, popularly known as “digger holes”, were a popular local recreation area for young and old in summer . You could swim there for free - but not without risk. What prompted the local organization of the German Life Rescue Society ( DLRG ) to set up rescue guards on the most popular bathing beaches. At the beginning of the 20th century there was also a Rheinbadeanstalt. But the Rhine meadows were also popular, despite the phenol odor that was clearly audible in the past and was caused by chemical plants upstream from the Rhine. The Rheinaue Friemersheim nature reserve is of particular importance .
Regionally particularly known was z. B. the Toeppersee . And Rheinhausen's only official outdoor pool uses a former gravel pit, the so-called Kruppsee . It emerged from a dredging hole that the Krupp company dug to extract gravel and sand . There is also the fishing club Kruppsee Rheinhausen 1924 e. V.
The entry in the commercial register took place on June 29, 1908 under the name " Tram Company Homberg Limited Liability Company " . The share capital was 900,000 marks, of which Homberg raised 540,000, Hochemmerich 180,000, Baerl 90,000, Friemersheim and Bliersheim each raised 45,000 Reichsmarks.
During construction, the tram in Hochemmerich was run via Atroper and Schwarzenberger Strasse and then in a northerly direction via Friedrich-Alfred - Asterlager - Essenberger - Emmericherstrasse and Duisburger Strasse. On July 3, 1909, the railway ran for the first time on the route from Homberg to Rheinhausen Ost station. It was extended southwards on July 12, 1913 via Kruppstraße to Rheinhausen station and in 1914 via Kaiserstraße - Marktplatz - Wilhelmstraße to the cemetery on Dahlingstraße. At first the train ran every hour, from June 22, 1909 every 30 minutes. In 1928, at the suggestion of the municipality of Rheinhausen, the railway laid the tracks of the connection, now known as Line 2, from Schwarzenberger and Atroper Strasse over the southern part of the extended Friedrich-Alfred-Strasse directly to Rheinhausen Ostbahnhof.
The railway existed as an independent company until January 1, 1925, after which the Moers - Homberg GmbH tram took over management. This began in 1930 with an extension of the line in Friemersheim to the tracks of the Krefeld tram , but this construction project was never completed. On October 1, 1933, both companies merged under the name Straßenbahn Moers - Homberg GmbH. On March 4, 1945, the network was so badly damaged by the war that all trips had to be stopped.
The line was rebuilt in 1945 after the Second World War in the following sections:
- July 15, 1945: Homberg Bismarckplatz - Rheinhausen Ostbahnhof
- September 26, 1945: to Friemersheim train station
- October 5, 1945: Friemersheim Post
- The remaining line to Friemersheim Ende was not put back into operation until October 20, 1947.
On September 25, 1954, the last trip of the "Crooked Line" took place; the tram was replaced by electrically operated trolleybuses that connected Rheinhausen to Moers via Homberg . The operation of the overhead line buses was given up on September 28, 1968. Many stop names were coined by the vernacular , such as the rhubarb station, a bus stop on the edge of a huge rhubarb field that was cultivated there by the farm of the hospital in Homberg. The NIAG and Krefeld transport company buses ran to Duisburg and Krefeld . Today most of the lines are operated by DVG . The most important bus lines in Rheinhausen have the route numbers 912, 914, 921, 923, 924 and 927 and SB 42.
Rheinhausen received the first railway connection in 1849 with the Ruhrort-Homberg-Uerdingen railway, etc. with the Trompet station. The first rail link across the Rhine was put into operation in 1866 with a ferry service between Duisburg-Hochfeld and the current urban area.
The second stop fell within the boundaries of the mayor's office in Hochemmerich and was officially called Rheinhausen station . It was located south of the railway bridge on what is now the Logport site , the former iron and steel works site and opposite the cultural port on the Duisburg side. The approval process had been operated by the Rheinische Eisenbahngesellschaft for the Osterrath-Essener Eisenbahn , as was the expansion of this station. With the completion of the first railway bridge in 1873, the station was relocated to Friemersheim , but kept the name Rheinhausen. In the course of the following years, the volume of traffic on the railway line increased so much that the station was no longer sufficient in its capacity. The Prussian State Railways therefore carried out extensions from 1894.
The station building called Rheinhausen , erected in 1877 on Kruppstrasse in Friemersheim, was demolished again in 1904. The new construction of the reception building was mainly related to the construction of the Trompet-Kleve and Trompet-Rheinhausen railway lines . The new station was built on Windmühlenstrasse, not far from the former station building. He received the station name Friemersheim . This name was changed back to the original name Rheinhausen after the merger of the mayorships of Hochemmerich and Friemersheim to form the greater municipality of Rheinhausen and has been retained until today. Simultaneously with the construction of the station building on Windmühlenstrasse, the Rheinhausen (Friemersheim) -West signal box was also rebuilt . On October 1, 1907, the Rheinhausen Ost stop at Gate 1 to Friedrich-Alfred-Hütte was opened for passenger train traffic. This stop was set up at the request of the Krupp company and has one directional platform each for the trains to Krefeld with access from Friedrich-Alfred-Strasse and with access from Kruppstrasse for trains to Duisburg. The rail traffic between Duisburg and Mönchengladbach has been electrified since 1964, the direction Xanten to Rheinberg since 1970.
In Rheinhausen there are currently
- the rheinhausen station (built in the district Friemersheim, present building in 1903, but is no longer being used and this is empty)
- the Rheinhausen Ost stop (since 1906, across from what was then Gate 1 of the Krupp'schen Hüttenwerke, built on the occasion of an imperial visit to the ironworks), both on the Duisburg – Mönchengladbach line ,
- the Rumeln stop (opened in 1921; a Kaldenhausen stop existed from 1880 to 1961)
- the Trompet station (oldest station, opened in 1849, current building erected in 1928), both on the Rheinhausen – Kleve railway line .
Local rail passenger transport (SPNV) runs between Duisburg and Krefeld or Moers every hour, sometimes every half hour
- the RB 31 Der Niederrheiner (Mon – Sun) Duisburg Hbf - Moers Bf - Xanten Bf
- the RB 31 Der Niederrheiner (Sat, Sun and public holidays) Duisburg Hbf - Moers Bf - Kamp-Lintfort Süd Landesgartenschau 2020
- the RB 33 Rhein-Niers-Bahn .
- the RB 35 Emscher-Niederrhein-Bahn
- the RE 42 Niers-Haard-Express
- the RE 44 Fossa-Emscher-Express (Mon – Fri) Moers Bf - Bottrop Hbf
On the outskirts of Krefeld there was the marshalling yard Hohenbudberg once one of the largest marshalling yards in Germany. It was put into operation in 1901 after a forerunner called the Budberg-Friemersheim installation station existed as early as 1896 and dismantled at the end of the 1990s after operations had ceased in 1986. An industrial park (Logport 3) has now been built here.
At the Werthausen landing stage, Rhine kilometer 775.69, there was regular ferry traffic to the other side of the Rhine to Hochfeld for many centuries . The exact point in time is not documented, but it may have been around 1250. It ended in May 1936 with the inauguration of the car bridge and was reopened between 1945 and July 3, 1950 after it was destroyed during the war. The old ferry house built in 1791 on Deichstrasse and Werthauser Strasse in Hochfeld are still reminiscent of the ferry connection.
A Rhine ferry also operated between Bliersheim and Wanheim-Angerhausen. The operation is first guaranteed for 1573 and ended in 1876 3 years after the inauguration of the railway bridge. The Clever government issued a temporary prohibition order from 1737. Until the middle of the 18th century, the connection was known as the "half Rhine and Anger ferry" because two companies operated the ferry connection from their banks. In 1912 a new ferry service was started, but ended again soon (1915). Another attempt was made in 1925. A motorized ferry boat owned by Wilhelm Hucks from Wanheimer, which was used to cross the Rhine between Friemersheim and Wanheim between 1925 and 1936, was mainly used by workers from the right bank of the Rhine who were employed by Krupp in Rheinhausen. At the weekend, many families with children from the south of Duisburg made trips to idyllic Friemersheim. In 1936 the ferry service was stopped because it was no longer profitable.
A Rhine ferry has also operated between Essenberg and Ruhrort since 1569. A ferry set up by the British occupation forces operated from 1945 to August 31, 1950, and a privately operated passenger ferry from July 23, 1945 to December 18, 1954.
Since the standardization of the license plates in Germany on July 1, 1956, the license plate MO (for the district of Moers) was mandatory in Rheinhausen. On January 1, 1975 this changed as part of the incorporation to Duisburg in DU. Vehicles that were registered before the date continued to have the MO license plate unless the owner changed .
A small part of the road network in Rheinhausen dates back to Roman times. This applies in particular to Düsseldorfer Straße, which cuts through Rumeln-Kaldenhausen in a north-south direction and, from Trompet, briefly named Römerstraße , just before the Moers city limits, joins Moerser Straße. Another part of today's road network has existed at least since the late Middle Ages. Maps from around 1670 show several roads, probably rather dirt roads. The following essentially correspond to the old course of the road:
- Essenberger Strasse / Asterlager Strasse to the Stüning intersection (Moerser Strasse), Gartenstrasse, Krefelder Strasse, Schelmenweg, Hohenbudberger Strasse to Uerdingen
- Coming from Moers on Burgfeld Street, crossing Moerser Strasse (old Roman street there), Paschacker, In den Peschen
- Coming from Moers on Moerser Straße, continue on Lange Straße, Jägerstraße, Am Buchenbusch, Rheingoldstraße, Reichsstraße in Friemersheim
- Bergheimer Straße, Schauenstraße, Grabenacker, Trompeter Straße, An der Cölve to the junction Düsseldorfer Straße ( B 57 )
- a main path seems to have had its course directly along the Rhine, roughly on Deichstrasse, which now ends at the Krupp / Logport site, there on to Bliersheimer Strasse and on the dam towards Hohenbudberg.
Many of today's main streets were built at the beginning of the 20th century as part of the development of new residential areas. Smaller residential streets were usually built as part of the residential development, for example in the Margarethensiedlung , the colliery settlements in the area of Hüttenstraße and in Bergheim am Steinacker, the new Friemersheim village center or in the musicians' quarter (city center development). This went on well into the 1960s.
Some street names changed their namesake over time: Friemersheimer Straße in Hochemmerich was renamed Friedrich-Alfred-Straße in honor of the Krupp owner at the beginning of the 20th century. Other streets (e.g. Eisenstrasse, Kruppstrasse, Gillhausenstrasse) and a square (Krupp-Platz with a bust of Friedrich Alfred Krupp) are reminiscent of the industrial past. During the Nazi era there was also Hermann-Göring-Straße (today Friedrich-Ebert-Straße) and in Friemersheim there was Adolf-Hitler-Straße (today Walther-Rathenau-Straße). The street renaming announced after the municipal reorganization, in order to avoid several streets with the same name within Duisburg, was not carried out due to large public protests. Therefore, there are some street names up to five times in Duisburg.
Larger main roads and bypasses were built and widened in the 1960s and 1970s: Friedrich-Ebert-Straße (partly as a replacement for Bahnhofstraße in the southern part and connection to the Krupp site via the Gaterweg bridge) from the mid-1960s to 1972, continues in the Gaterweg (formerly Major-Streinbach-Straße), the Neue Krefelder Straße, the high-speed car road from Moerser Straße to the Moers-West motorway junction ( A 40 ), most recently the east tangent from the new roundabout on the Rheinhauser side of the Hochfelder Rheinbrücke on the Rheindamm a few years ago along under the railway bridge to the Logport area. There is also the southern bypass (Landesstraße 47), which leads from the Gaterwegbrücke to the Kaldenhausen-Krefeld-Uerdingen city limits on Düsseldorfer Straße ( B 57 ) to a motorway slip road to the A 57 (Krefeld-Gartenstadt exit) and into the Krefeld city area. It has a branch to the new industrial park on the former Hohenbudberg marshalling yard .
The economic life of the city of Rheinhausen was shaped by coal and steel for years. The Krupp steel works was shut down on August 15, 1993. Coal was extracted from the Diergardt and Mevissen collieries, which have now also been closed . Despite numerous protests, which were echoed time throughout the Republic, the closure was of the structural change in the German steel industry affected steelworks not be prevented 1,993th
In recent years, a modern logistics center with numerous newly created jobs (“Logport”) has been built on the site of the former iron and steel works. In the meantime, a number of small and medium-sized companies have been settled (Logport on the former Krupp site, Mevissen business park, Asterlagen business park, Hohenbudberg business park).
The unemployment is significantly lower than in the city of Duisburg in total. As of June 2005, the Rheinhausen employment agency's office district was expanded to include the districts of Homberg and Baerl . The unemployment rate on November 30, 2014 was 10.2%, in Duisburg as a whole it was 12.4%.
Some old buildings have been preserved in Rheinhausen, e.g. B. the mills in Friemersheim and Bergheim , the Christ Church in Hochemmerich and the village church in Friemersheim and the Werthschenhof in the Friemersheimer Rheinaue . The Hohenbudberg water tower is also a listed building .
Rheinhausen was called the " Bunker City" of the German Empire. A total of 63 bunker systems gave space for 46,188 people, almost the entire population at that time. While earth bunkers could be leveled after the war (and some of them are still available, e.g. under the Hochemmerich market square or the town hall forecourt), the eleven raised bunkers had to be converted into residential buildings by blowing window openings into the bunker walls.
Rheinhausen has a very large proportion of rental apartments; there are only a small number of private homes. The reason lies essentially in the massive construction activity of the then in-house housing associations of the Krupp company and the collieries from the beginning of the 20th century until the mid-1960s, when living space had to be created for the company's employees. Larger housing estates were often built at the same time, which means a very homogeneous age structure in individual settlements that only begins to dissolve after many decades. Examples are the Margarethensiedlung or the city center development in the center of Rheinhausen (between Friedr.-Alfred- and Friedrich-Ebert-Strasse and on both sides of Lindenallee, built between 1950 and the mid-1960s). Some of the settlements built by the company's own housing associations have changed hands over the past few decades and some have been offered to tenants. In addition, the two housing cooperatives founded in 1919 (Bauverein Rheinhausen and Spar- und Bauverein Friemersheim) have a large housing stock. From 1950 to the end of 1967 the number of residential units in Rheinhausen rose from 10,770 to around 24,000. In the last few decades the focus was on building your own home, especially in the districts of Bergheim, Trompet and Rumeln-Kaldenhausen.
Plans from the end of the 1960s to convert the Margarethensiedlung into a high-rise building with spacious green areas were never realized. This spared Rheinhausen a dispute like the one in the neighboring town (the current neighboring district) Homberg about the Rheinpreussensiedlung and the only partially realized high-rise development there and the problems that exist today.
Before the first fixed Rhine crossing was built, the Rheinhausen – Hochfeld railway was in operation from 1866 to 1874 . The first railway bridge from Rheinhausen to Hochfeld was built at Rhine kilometer 774.36 by the Rheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft as part of the Osterath – Dortmund Süd railway line and inaugurated on December 23, 1873. After around 50 years, it had to be closed on October 12, 1927 due to old age and replaced by a new bridge over the Rhine.
This second Rhine bridge was built right next to the old one between 1925 and 1927 and opened to traffic on October 13, 1927. On March 4, 1945 it was blown up by the retreating German troops.
As early as May 8, 1945, a pioneer unit of the US Army, the 332nd Engineer General Service Regiment , built a makeshift war bridge next to the destroyed bridge, which was called the "Victory Bridge", within just one week. On May 12, rail traffic began on it.
The reconstruction of the railway bridge began in July 1945 using the parts that were still usable; It was opened to traffic on October 1, 1949, and a year later as a two-lane, and is still in operation today.
It was not until January 12, 1934, that a first road bridge was built between Rheinhausen and Duisburg-Hochfeld at river kilometer 775.29 , the Admiral-Graf-Spee-Brücke, which was opened to traffic on May 22, 1936 by the then Reich Minister Joseph Goebbels . The total construction costs amounted to around 6.75 million Reichsmarks . A bridge fee had to be paid at a toll station, which was five pfennigs for people over the age of 14 and 75 pfennigs for horse-drawn vehicles. Like the railway bridge, it was blown up by the German Wehrmacht on March 4, 1945 . The flood bridge on the left bank of the Rhine was preserved. A pontoon bridge built by the Allies was in use until April 1946 .
A new road bridge was built in the same place from July 1945 and opened to traffic on July 3, 1950. In place of the earlier construction, following a proposal by the company Krupp Stahlbau Rheinhausen, there was an elegant bar arch, which is almost a filigree work of beauty and curvature. While the former bridge had four lanes, the occupation authorities insisted on reducing it to three lanes, which for some years now have been opened in different ways by a set of traffic lights. The bridge was renamed the “ Bridge of Solidarity ” in 1988 by the striking Krupp workers , and the city later officially named the bridge.
1966 to 1970 another Rhine bridge was built on the border of the districts Rheinhausen and Homberg, at Essenberger Bruch, at river kilometer 778.34 ( Rheinbrücke Neuenkamp ), on which the A 40 (formerly A 2 / A 430) runs. It was opened to traffic on October 16, 1970 by Federal Transport Minister Georg Leber .
Overhead line crossing of the Rhine in Duisburg-Rheinhausen
The 118.8 meter high overhead line masts of the combined 220 kV / 110 kV overhead line over the Rhine with a span of 570 meters are striking . These overhead line masts erected in 1926 (left bank of the Rhine: , right bank of the Rhine: ) are not only due to their great height , but also remarkable for the unusual arrangement of the conductors in six levels.
In contrast to the generally used convention in line construction of mounting the conductor cables for the higher voltages on the top traverse , these masts have the conductor cables for 220 kV on the lower trusses and the conductor cables for 110 kV on the upper trusses.
|height||81.8 m||89.8 m||97.8 m||103.8 m||109.0 m||115.0 m|
|width||17.5 m||15.0 m||12.5 m||13.5 m||11.0 m||8.5 m|
|tension||220 kV||220 kV||220 kV||110 kV||110 kV||110 kV|
The Rheinhauser Rheinhafen was built in 1897 by the Krupp company directly on the factory premises (south of the railway bridge) at Rhine kilometer 773.6 and was used to transport coal and iron ore . Today it is managed by the Duisburger Hafengesellschaft Duisport as "Logport". The port Mevissen served from 1928 to shipment of the promoted in the former mines and Diergardt Mevissen coal and was connected to them by a works railway. It was located on the border with the city of Homberg at Rhine kilometer 778.1 not far from the new motorway bridge over the Rhine and was operated by Mathias Stinnes AG .
Personalities born in Rheinhausen
- Jupp Becker (1909–1997), gym teacher and gymnastics organizer
- Erich Gerlach (1910–1972), politician (SAPD, SPD) and economist
- Adolf Oehlen (1914–1972), illustrator and caricaturist, and father of Albert and Markus Oehlen
- Katharina Reiss (1923–2018), translator and translation scholar
- Günter Birtsch (* 1929), historian
- Heribert Esser (* 1929), conductor and university professor
- Kriemhild Limberg , b. Hausmann (* 1934), discus thrower
- Friedel Neuber (1935–2004), SPD member, member of the state parliament (North Rhine-Westphalia), board member of WestLB
- Godebert M. Reiss (* 1937), antiquarian and book auctioneer
- Manfred Bruckschen (1938–2019), politician (SPD) and works council
- Horst Günther (* 1939), Member of the Bundestag (CDU)
- Gerhard Sedlacek (1939–2012), civil engineer specializing in steel construction
- Hans-Joachim Wiese (1940–2007), Internet pioneer and organizer of art exhibitions and jazz concerts
- Johannes Heinrichs (* 1942), philosopher, Christian social ethicist
- Johannes Hengstenberg (1944–2019), climate protector and social entrepreneur
- Ernst Kausen (* 1948), university professor (mathematics, linguistics)
- Dieter Soika (* 1949), journalist
- Julius Georg Luy (* 1953), diplomat and German ambassador to Egypt
- Peter Honnen (* 1954), linguist and specialist in the languages of the Rhineland
- Barbara Hindahl (* 1960), artist and lecturer
- Wolfgang Trepper (* 1961), cabaret artist and presenter
- Jochen Flasbarth (* 1962), environmental politician, State Secretary in the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety
- Enno Stahl (* 1962), author
- Graciano Rocchigiani (1963-2018), boxer (world champion, European champion)
- Ralf Rocchigiani (* 1963), boxer (world champion)
- Martin Kröger (* 1965), German-Swiss physicist and university lecturer
- Oliver Heisch (* 1971), photojournalist and gestalt therapist
- Christian Ehring (* 1972), presenter, cabaret artist, author and musician
- Thomas Schneider (* 1972), assistant coach of the DFB national team
- Maren Meinert (* 1973), soccer player (soccer world champion, European champion)
- Daniel Stephan (* 1973), handball player
- Achim Schürmann (* 1974), handball player and handball trainer
Personalities associated with Rheinhausen
- Michael W. Driesch (* 1963), filmmaker and entrepreneur
- Peter Lindbergh (1944–2019), star photographer in Paris
- Heinrich Rindfleisch (1916–1969), doctor and SS officer; worked as chief physician in the surgical department of the Johanniter Hospital in Rheinhausen until his death in July 1969
- Volkram Anton Scharf (1906–1987), pseudonym Katsu, painter and sculptor in Rheinhausen-Oestrum
- Theo Steegmann (* 1955), works council during the industrial dispute in 1987/1988
- Sándor Szombati (1951–2006), musician and artist, he created sound sculptures and kinetic objects
- Erich “Fuzzy” Wiesner (1931–2017), main operator of the Sioux Montana Ranch, the replica of a former western town in Rheinhausen
- Aleta Eßer, Klaus de Jong: Rheinhausen in old pictures. Volume 1, 1978, ISBN 3-88265-020-6 .
- Aleta Eßer, Klaus de Jong: Rheinhausen in old pictures. Volume 2, (1980?).
- Michael Gey, Klaus de Jong: Rheinhausen in old pictures. Volume 3, 1984, ISBN 3-88265-118-0 .
- Rudolf Lisken: Rheinhausen in old views. Zaltbommel (NL) 1994, ISBN 90-288-5898-9 .
- Rudolf Lisken: My hometown Rheinhausen in pictures. Then and now. (Volume 1 and 2).
- Friedrich Albert Meyer: Young city on the river; How the city of Rheinhausen became , 1953.
- Friedrich Albert Meyer: Rheinhausen am Niederrhein in the historical process. A house and handbook for the Rheinhauser area. (= Publication series of the city of Rheinhausen, volume 1.) 1956, .
- Friedrich Albert Meyer: The land acquisition of industry in the Rheinhauser area. (= Series of publications of the city of Rheinhausen, Volume 3.) 1965.
- Friedrich Albert Meyer: From the Ruhr over the Rhine. Rheinhausen's heavy industry. (= Series of publications by the city of Rheinhausen, Volume 4.) 1966.
- Friedrich Albert Meyer: Rheinhauser stories. New edition, 1979/1980.
- Bernhard Schmidt (Ed.): Moers under the Hakenkreuz, Essen 2008, ISBN 978-3-8375-0004-2 .
- Erich Wislinghoff: The Friemersheim room. Rheinhausen 1961.
- Klaus Sefzig: Rheinhausen. (Illustrated book with German, English and Turkish captions) 2004, ISBN 3-934572-82-0 .
- Contemporary witness exchange Duisburg ev: Rheinhausen , Sutton Verlag Erfurt 2013, ISBN 978-3-95400-152-1 .
- Freundeskreis lebende Grafschaft eV, Duisburg-Rheinhausen: Yearbooks for Rheinhausen and the surrounding area (later: the districts of the city of Duisburg on the left bank of the Rhine), from 1984 to 2008/2009 (25 years).
- Wilfried Scholten, Rheinhausen: Industrial and mining town on the left Lower Rhine - a settlement and economic geographic study, Marburg / Lahn 1969
- That the imperial assembly took place in Friemersheim is controversial among historians. The reference to a Reichstag in Friemersheim goes back to a document that has since been recognized as forged.
- District website
- Entry on Kruppsche's Rheinhausen in the " KuLaDig " database of the Rhineland Regional Association
- Structural data of the Rheinhausen district, Sept. 2012 (City of Duisburg, PDF; 1.2 MB)
- Regiolect recording from Duisburg-Rheinhausen ( MP3 ), Ruhr area on the left bank of the Rhine, Rhineland Regional Council
- Many old photos from Rheinhausen (Facebook page)
- History of the Rheinhaus town hall
- Duisburg Monument Topics Volume 1: Rheinhausen Town Hall, Duisburg 2007 (PDF; 557 kB)
- History of the Rheinhaus secondary schools
- History of the bunkers in Rheinhausen (WAZ series)
- Plan for the urban development competition in Rheinhausen, 1955
- Rheinhausen district on OpenStreetMap
- Public transport route map Rheinhausn (PDF)
- Description of the administrative district of Düsseldorf according to its scope, its administrative division and population , Stahl, 1817, p.  117. Digitized edition of the ULB Düsseldorf
- Johann Georg von Viebahn (Ed.): Statistics and Topography of the Government District of Düsseldorf, second part, Düsseldorf 1836, p. 128
- Official journal for the administrative district of Düsseldorf 1920, p. 240
- Official Journal for the Düsseldorf District 1921, p. 147
- Helmut Mootz: the long struggle to found the rural community of Rheinhausen; in: Yearbook of the Left Rhine. Districts of Duisburg 2003/04, p. 6 (Ed. Freundeskreis lively Grafschaft)
- Official Gazette for the Düsseldorf administrative region 1923, p. 159
- Official journal for the administrative district of Düsseldorf 1923, p. 299
- Official journal for the administrative district of Düsseldorf 1927, p. 277
- Official Journal for the Düsseldorf administrative region 1934, p. 259
- Official Journal for the administrative district of Düsseldorf 1950, p. 201
- Gudrun Escher: Rheinhausen town hall. In: Duisburger Monument Themes No. 1, Duisburg 2007, PDF (544.2 KB) ( Memento from August 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- The Duisburg City Archives and the Düsseldorf State Archives, where old Gestapo files are stored, served as sources .
- Timetable of communal restructuring in the Moers district
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 291 .
- AufRuhr. Remembering forwards, the idea lives on ( Memento from August 11, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 1, 2013
- in | ad | ae | qu | at / Florian Neuner: AufRuhr IV - Rheinhausen ( Memento from December 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 1, 2013
- AufRuhr Festival Rheinhausen February 20, 1988 , accessed on 1 March 2013
- AufRuhr. Rheinhausen 1987/1997. Text: Waltraud Bierwirth, photos: Manfred Vollmer, Klartext-Verlag Essen, 1997, ISBN 3-88474-596-4
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Moers district. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- genwiki.genealogy.net: Population Rheinhausen 1931
- Monika Nickel / Helmut Mootz: The Mayors of Rheinhausen 1923–1975; in: Yearbook 1994/1995 of the districts of the city of Duisburg on the left bank of the Rhine (Ed .: Freundeskreis lively Grafschaft eV Duisburg, ), p. 36 ff.
- Rainer Sanner: The history of the Rheinhaus city arms ( Memento from January 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), 2003.
- G. Binding: Archaeological investigations in the Christ Church Rheinhausen-Hochemmerich. 1971.
- Church of the Redeemer for five decades. Retrieved February 17, 2015 .
- Dialect in Friemersheim
- Rheinhausen mining terms. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011 ; accessed on January 1, 2013 .
- André Joost: Operating OfficesArchiv Trompet. In: NRWbahnarchiv. Retrieved June 22, 2017 .
- Hartwig Unverdorben: Rhine crossings in the Duisburg area . In: Freundeskreis lively Grafschaft eV (ed.): Yearbook 1988/1989 of the districts of the city of Duisburg on the left bank of the Rhine . ISSN 0931-2137 , p. 84 ff .
- Structures / masts of the Duisburg-Rheinhausen overhead line crossing. In: Structurae
- Construction drawing: Turmbauwerke, Bauverlag GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany), 1966 (there referred to as a crossing mast on the Lower Rhine)