Ibbenbueren mine

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Ibbenbueren mine
General information about the mine
From the Oeynhausenschacht installation of the Ibbenbüren mine with the RWE Ibbenbüren power plant in the background
other names Ostfeld
Mining technology Coal plane
Funding / year 1,900,000 t
Funding / total approx. 120,000,000 t
Information about the mining company
Operating company RAG Anthracite Ibbenbüren GmbH
Employees 2,260
Start of operation 16th Century
End of operation 2018
Funded raw materials
Degradation of anthracite
Greatest depth 1545 m
Geographical location
Coordinates 52 ° 17 '14 "  N , 7 ° 44' 17"  E Coordinates: 52 ° 17 '14 "  N , 7 ° 44' 17"  E
Ibbenbüren mine (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Ibbenbueren mine
Location Ibbenbüren mine
Location Ibbenbueren
local community Ibbenbueren, Mettingen
District ( NUTS3 ) Steinfurt
country State of North Rhine-Westphalia
Country Germany
District Ibbenbüren coal field

The Ibbenbüren mine of RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbüren GmbH was one of the last two German hard coal mines , next to the Prosper-Haniel colliery . On August 17, 2018, coal was mined for the last time. The mine is located in the Ibbenbüren hard coal district in the Tecklenburger Land region in the area of ​​the city of Ibbenbüren and under the municipality of Mettingen ( Westphalia ) in North Rhine-Westphalia . In addition to the former mining area under the town of Ibbenbüren and the municipality of Mettingen, the villages of Hopsten , Hörstel , Recke and Westerkappeln are also among the mining communities in the region. Due to their economic structure, these places were very closely linked to mining. In the Ibbenbüren mine only anthracite coal was mined , which is suitable as power plant and domestic coal. The positive identification and connection of the people in the region with their mine, which is also reflected in daily life , turned out to be special .


Merging of the pits

The Ibbenbüren mine goes back to a merger of the Glücksburg mine with the Schafberg mine in 1846. The mine was owned by the Prussian state until 1924. At the beginning, the amalgamated Glücksburg mine comprised the Morgenstern shaft and the Beust shaft, both with associated tunnels and light holes . The name Grube Glücksburg changed over time to Ostfeld and later to the current name Bergwerk Ibbenbüren .

When it became known in 1852 that the Hannoversche Westbahn would be built through Ibbenbüren, the mine was geared towards the expected sale of coal to and through the railway. Construction work on the Von-der-Heydt shaft began in 1851 in anticipation of the construction of the railway. This shaft was in the valley cut of the tarpaulin , only a few hundred meters away from the later railway line. A coal railway was built from the shaft to the nearby Ibbenbüren station.

Oeynhausen mine

In 1858 it was recognized that the existing systems would not be able to meet future coal requirements, so a civil engineering system was planned. In 1860 the sinking of von Oeynhausenschacht 1 began. At the same time, the drive for the Ibbenbüren conveyor tunnel from Ibbenbüren station began.

Due to strong difficulties of dewatering the shaft sinking Schachtbau the English engineer was William Coulson transmitted. After great difficulties, the breakthrough to the Ibbenbüren production tunnel took place in 1865 at a depth of 73 meters . The problems with the dewatering also took a toll on the final depth. The filling point was not set in the Glücksburg seam, as originally planned, but at a lower shaft depth of 205.58 m. Since the dewatering took up almost the entire shaft and there was no space left for coal extraction, it was decided to build another shaft just for extraction . This was completed in 1872 with a depth of 202.25 m.

The Beustschacht was shut down in 1870 after the von-Oeynhausen-Schacht could supply itself with coal. The von-der-Heydt shaft was shut down in 1885. It had become superfluous, as it was already through with the von Oeynhaus shaft and a deeper dig would only have swallowed up unnecessary funds.


With the migration of the mining operations in the Glücksburg seam towards the east, the routes for the workforce became longer. In order to shorten this again and to improve ventilation , the Theodorschacht was laid 2.5 km east of the von-Oeynhausenschächte . Devil began on August 21, 1888. The shaft was named after the chief miner Theodor Freund , head of the Prussian mining administration.

Its original depth was 135 m. In 1924, the bay was the II. Civil Engineering sole tiefergeteuft, 1934 on the III. Civil engineering slab. The mine was the first to have a wash house in the Ibbenbüren district .

Drowning and swamping the mine

The worst disaster in Ibbenbüren mining occurred in 1894, when a water ingress occurred on the first underground level at a depth of 150 m. In a mined area in the vicinity of the border field of the mine penetrated by a gap associated with the Erzzeche Perm , was connected water a. These water inflows were so enormous that the mine flooded to the bottom of the tunnel within a few weeks .

Measures were taken immediately to secure coal production. The mining was completely relocated to the seabed corrugated seam above the tunnel floor. For this purpose, the Flottwell auxiliary shaft 100 m north of the v. Oeynhausenschächte sunk. The second Ibbenbüren mine, Westfeld , was also expanded.

Initially, the Ministry of Commerce in Berlin favored closure. This was justified with the then only regional importance. However, a petition on the initiative of the Ibbenbüren Reichstag member Heinrich Wattendorff managed to ensure that the mine was swamped .

The entire mine was rebuilt and redesigned for the swamp. The previous dewatering shaft from Oeynhausen 1 became a production shaft, the production shaft of Oeynhausen 2 became a water maintenance shaft . For the time, huge pumps were installed at shaft 2. Even today, the mining museum Ibbenbüren the reel to be admired for hanging the pump gear.

The daytime facilities were completely renewed. The coal washing plant , which was planned before the water ingress, was built on the Ibbenbüren conveyor tunnel . Until then, the water solution was via the Dickenberg deep tunnel , but had to be transferred to the Ibbenbüren conveyor tunnel due to its insufficient capacity. New clarification ponds had to be created on the Püsselbürener Damm. These still clear the mine water from the mine today.

The actual swamp began on December 9, 1896 and lasted until September 12, 1898. The first coal to be recovered from Flöz Glücksburg was received on October 18, 1898 by cheering crowds at the Ibbenbüren conveyor tunnel. However, the coal washing plant and the briquette factory did not go into operation until 1899. In 1905 a coal mine power station was built , and in 1912 the Nike power station in Ibbenbüren on the coal washing plant went into operation .

Takeover by Preussag

Main entrance with buildings from 1925 (right) and 1927 (background)

Due to the treaties of Versailles and the occupation of the Ruhr , coal production in Germany had fallen to a low point in 1923. The situation of the Ibbenbüren Ostfeld was more than bleak. Although the workforce had grown from 1,000 men in wartime to 1,600 in 1923, the production rate fell from 300,000 tons per year to 200,000 tons per year. The main reason was neglected during the war from - and device of new coal fields.

The decline in production could be absorbed by lease pits that were built all over the area . The Mathilde colliery and the Mieke mine were of the greatest importance . At peak times, over 100 of these small and very small mines were active in Ibbenbüren.

The two mines Ostfeld and Westfeld were transferred to Preussag , founded in 1923, on November 1st, 1924 . This immediately initiated extensive modernization steps and began to develop new seams for the mine. The von Oeynhausenschächte 1 & 2 were up to III. Underground floor deepened. The daytime facilities were completely redesigned, a new coal washing and briquette factory was built directly on the premises of the v. Oeynhausen shaft system put into operation. A colliery railway to Esch station and a new boiler house were built. The hoisting machine and the shaft frame of the von Oeynhausen shaft 1 were renewed. This work dragged on until 1928.

After the coal washing plant and the colliery railway were completed, the processing, briquetting and loading in Ibbenbüren station were shut down. At the same time, the Ibbenbüren conveyor tunnel was shut down and has only been used to drain the pit since then. Instead of the previous wooden trolley with 39 cm gauge , iron ones with 60 cm gauge were now used.

Headframe of the von Oeynhausenschacht 3

The north shaft was planned as early as 1920, but dropped in favor of a third one from Oeynhausenschacht. In February 1930 the groundbreaking ceremony for the new one at Oeynhausenschacht 3 was made. This was up to III. Underground floor with a diameter of 6.20 m and penetrated with 338 m on September 5, 1931 .

The one from Oeynhausenschacht 3 received a steam hoisting machine with 1500 hp. When he started mining in May 1932, the cable car was also moved here. A chimney built in 1896 was converted into a water tower with the water tank that is still characteristic today.

The Reden and Theodor seams were re- prepared underground .

Invention of the scraper and the coal plow

Monument to the coal plane invented at the mine at Ibbenbüren station

Mechanical coal extraction was significantly further developed at the Ibbenbüren mine. Initial successes have been achieved with peeling extraction in experiments. As a result, the first coal plow was built in the Oeynhausenschacht workshop in 1941 and successfully tested underground.

After the coal plane had been continuously improved, a patent was applied for on March 24, 1942 in Berlin . The face progress could be increased from 1.49 m / day to 3.00 m / day. The shift performance increased from 3.6 t to 7.6 t per man and shift. The machine driver Konrad Grebe played a key role in the development of the coal plow. Born in Saarland, he had been at the Ibbenbüren mine since 1931.

The paring scraper, a further developed coal plane with scraper attachment , was also developed in Ibbenbüren. He was specifically seams low thickness oriented.

The mine was not affected by direct acts of war. Due to the power failure in the last days of the war, some civil engineering works in the Reden and Glücksburg seams fell. Only the tower headframe of the Morgenstern shaft was shot at by the approaching British forces because they believed it was a radar station.

North shaft and jump into the depth

The Nordschacht site in the Mettinger area

The upward trend of the mine continued in the 1950s. The Oeynhausenschacht 1 was sunk a further 60 meters to its current final depth. The by Oeynhausenschacht 3 is on the 4th to 1962 in steps up to its final depth 832 m (-672 m NN) sole geteuft. Seams 1, 1a and 2 were developed in this way. At the site of the von Oeynhausenschachtanlage, the Preussag ballast power plant Ibbenbüren was put into operation in 1954 to generate electricity from the ballast coal .

In 1951, the Perm mine opened near the former Perm mine of ore mining in Laggenbeck. Coal was mined here through a sloping tunnel until 1960 in order to alleviate the coal shortage in the still young Federal Republic.

The most extensive project of the 1950s was the construction of the north shaft near Mettingen. The mining of coal shifted further and further north and into ever greater depths, as the seams collapse to the north. Meanwhile, major problems arose for extraction, driving, weather management and dewatering.

In 1953, the sinking of the north die began from the third level. On July 9, 1956, the north shaft was sunk from above ground. This came through with the north die in November 1957. The die had meanwhile reached the level of the Theodor seam. The preliminary final depth of 807.65 m was reached in seam 2a in 1960.

At the same time , a lamp room and parking spaces for 1,500 men were built on the northern Kauen shaft . To improve weather management, the Theodor shaft was brought to its current final depth of 603.60 m and the shaft diameter was expanded from 3.60 m to 6.20 m.

The Bockradener Schacht was built as a further weather shaft together with the Westfeld . The shaft, which was originally also designed as a cable car shaft for the Bockradener Graben and the Beustfeld, was initially interrupted at 391.1 m due to excessive water inflows and has not yet been reopened. After the western field was closed, it still serves as a weather shaft for the Ibbenbüren mine. There is also an underground waterworks for the mine.

The colliery railway was extended in 1962 to the port of Mittellandkanal km 4 and electrified. In 1967 the existing Preußag power plant was supplemented by the RWE Ibbenbüren block A.

In order to develop the deep anthracite coal seams, the north shaft was sunk to 1,417.5 m from 1974 and the 5th level was laid here. From now on, the coal extracted from the anthracite coal seams reached the von Oeynhausenschacht 3 through a cross passage . This was changed in 1974 from rack funding to ski funding. Likewise, the route conveyance was changed from wagon conveyance to belt conveyance . After the coal crisis and drastic changes also in the Ibbenbüren coalfield, the Westfeld was shut down on June 29, 1979 . The Morgenstern shaft in Morgensternfeld, in the far east of the operating area, was also closed and filled . This was taken over by the closed Concordia lease mine around 1940. Most recently, it served as weather management and dewatering.

1980 to 2007

Around 1980 numerous changes were made to the daily operation of the mine. The coal washing facility was expanded and the briquette factory closed. At the north shaft a central cooling plant was put into operation. Here water is cooled down to cool the pit weather.

Since the anthracite coal seams contain a lot of mine gas , this has to be extracted and burned. For this purpose, the EVA (energy supply system) was built, which uses the mine gas to generate electricity. Preussag's own ballast power plant at the site was shut down in 1985 when the EVA went into operation. The Ibbenbüren unit B has been in operation since 1986 and is the largest consumer of coal from the mine. Block A was then shut down in 1987. In 1987 the large hall of the raw coal equalization system was built, which equalizes the different types of coal in the various seams.

1986-88 the north shaft was brought to its final depth of 1,545 m, and the 6th level was added. In 1993 a material sorting system was connected to the north shaft in order to sift through and sort the material accumulating underground.

On February 14, 1997, 3,000 miners and members of the Ibbenbüren mine took part in the 100 kilometer long band of solidarity . The people participating in the chain traveled with 60 buses from Ibbenbüren to Lünen to occupy a 3.1 km long section of the chain. A total of around 220,000 people from the coal mining areas of the Ruhr area, the Saar and the Tecklenburger Land took part in the chain that stretched from Neukirchen-Vluyn to Lünen . The background to the action was the coal policy of the Kohl government , which caused great uncertainty among the miners.

In 1998 the Preussag coal division was outsourced to Preussag Anthrazit GmbH. Since the takeover of Preussag Anthrazit GmbH and thus also the mine in Ibbenbüren by Deutsche Steinkohle AG of the RAG Group on January 1, 1999, the operator has been "DSK Anthrazit Ibbenbüren GmbH", renamed "RAG Anthracite" since January 1, 2008 Ibbenbüren GmbH ".

Shortly before the Westphalia mine closed in 2000, the first of almost 300 miners were relocated to Ibbenbüren.

2007 until closure

After the CDU-led state governments in North Rhine-Westphalia and Saarland , which were striving to end coal mining, reached an agreement with the federal government, the end of subsidies for 2018 was decided in 2007. Since the Saar mine was closed in June 2012, between 2009 and 2013 a total of 756 Saarland miners were relocated to Ibbenbüren. At the time when Ibbenbüren mine ceased operations in 2018, around 50 miners were still employed, while the rest had retired or found other employment.

The approved operating plan ended with the final closure in 2018.

The municipalities of the coal region Ibbenbüren, Westerkappeln, Hörstel, Hopsten, Ibbenbüren, Mettingen and Recke have decided to work together with RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbüren GmbH and RAG Montan Immobilien as part of the upcoming structural change. A coal conversion interface was set up by the municipalities to coordinate the process. This office is located in the town hall of Ibbenbüren. There are many questions that are currently determining the structural change: What potential does the region have? What future uses will the mining sites have? However, the region has “good prospects” for structural change - this is the slogan under which the project is running, as it has so far been well prepared for structural change. The project includes the locations of Oeynhausen, the Nordschacht and the Bergehalden, Hopstener Halde and Rudolfschachthalde, as well as the regional conditions in the planning.

Due to the nearing closure of the mine, a last cohort of trainees was hired in 2014, who completed their training at the beginning of 2018. The last breakthrough was made on March 30, 2017 at a depth of 1,500 m .

On August 17, 2018, coal was mined for the last time in the mine. The last construction height 9/10 north in seam 53 (Beustfeld) started on October 2, 2017 and had an average coal seam thickness of 1.19 meters with a length of 1,440.9 meters. The exploitable coal production from the mining operation was 388,538 tons and lay at an average depth of 1,335 meters.

Coal processing ended when the coal washing plant was shut down on August 31, 2018.

The Ibbenbüren mine was officially closed with the last coal mining on December 4, 2018, the day of remembrance of St. Barbara , the patroness of the miners. In the presence of Prime Minister Armin Laschet and other guests, the last symbolic trolley was lifted from Oeyenhausenschacht 3 .

As the first shaft, the Theodor shaft was filled with concrete between March 15 and mid-May 2019. The 571 meter deep weather shaft was filled with a total of 18,242 cubic meters of concrete.

On June 6, 2020, the dewatering on the north shaft was stopped, the pumps were stolen and brought to the surface. After a final inspection, partial backfilling of the north shaft began on June 9, 2020.

Field parts

The Ibbenbüren mountain plate has broken up into several sub-fields (often also called clods), which are separated from each other by cracks. The subfields are structured from west to east:

Beust field

The Beust field was named after the Beust shaft that was in this field and is the westernmost clod of the eastern field. The Beustschacht, in turn, was named after the Prussian first chief miner Ernst August von Beust, who had the main supervision of the Ibbenbüren mines.

The field is separated from the Brockradener Graben further west with the Beust jump. The mountain jump delimits the Beust field to the south. On the Beustfeld, the geographical names Donnerberg and Mittelberg, which are often mentioned on maps, are located as small elevations on the Ibbenbürener Karbonscholle. In the Beustfeld there are also the historical mining facilities of the Beustschachtes with the Bockraden tunnel, which however have been closed since the 19th century.

To the east, the Beustfeld is bounded by the Fahlbachsprung. This is partially visible on the surface through the Fahlbachtal in the northern area of ​​the carbon fiber. After the Glücksburg seam was dismantled in the 1950s, the field lay idle.

From January 2012 coal was mined again for the first time since the 1950s. First coal was extracted in seam 54, later also in seam 53. On August 17, 2018, the last coal from the Ibbenbüren mine was mined in construction field 9/10 north in seam 53 of the Beustfeld below the streets Nießings Kamp and Querenbergstraße. This mining was also the last mining operation for hard coal in Germany that was won with a coal plow .

Oeynhausen field

The Oeynhausenfeld, east of the Beust field, is one of the four large subfields of the Ibbenbürener carbon clod with the Mathilde field and the Rudolf field of the west field and the Theodor field. Opposite the Beust-Feld, the Oeynhausen-Feld is raised by 180 m by the Fahlbachsprung, which is hardly visible on the surface of the earth - except for the Fahlbachtal. The name was given after the Oeynhausenschacht.

The Oeynhausenfeld is separated from the eastern Theodor field by the Theodorsprung. In the Oeynhausen field, coal was and is being extracted in all of the coal seams that are worth building. Together with the Theodor field, the Oeynhausen field was the main mining area of ​​the mine in the past.

In the Oeynhausen field are the systems of the Oeynhausenschachts as well as the Ibbenbürener conveyor tunnels and the north shaft.

Theodor field

The Theodor-Feld borders the Oeynhausen-Feld to the east, separated by the Theodorsprung. It was named after the Theodorschacht located in the field. Here too, coal was and is being mined.

Knüppescher Graben

Again to the east of the Theodorfeld is the Knüppesche Graben, which has a complicated geological structure. Due to the rise of the carbon floe, this area of ​​the mountain acted as a pressure absorbing zone. On the surface, this field can mainly be recognized by the ditch that opens in the south to the Ibbenbüren valley. Mining has only taken place here in the past.


The easternmost subfield of the Ibbenbüren carbon plaice has also not been home to any mining operations for several years. Like the Knüppesche Graben, the Morgensternfeld has a very complicated structure, which made mining difficult here.

The highest point of the Ibbenbürener Bergplatte is also located in the Morgensternfeld . The Morgenstern shaft in Morgensternfeld has been closed and filled since 1979. Coal is no longer mined here.

Coal seams

In the process of dismantling

  • The dismantling was completed on August 17, 2018. The last face was 9–10 Norden 53. This mining operation was geologically similar to the neighboring construction height 8–9 Norden 53.

In the preparation

  • The refurbishment has been completed in the Ibbenbüren mine.

The breakthrough on route 7a east 78 took place on March 30, 2017. This concludes the device in Ibbenbüren.

Mined in the past

  • Flottwell seam
  • Flottwell Seam (also called Röschenflöz)
  • Gluecksburg seam
  • Seam Bentingsbank
  • Seam speeches
  • Seam Theodor
  • Seam 1a
  • Seam 2
  • Seam 40
  • Seam 43
  • Seam 45
  • Seam 48
  • Seam 51
  • Seam 52
  • Seam 53
  • Seam 54
  • Seam 59
  • Seam 65/68
  • Seam 69
  • Seam 74
  • Seam 78

Coal extraction and utilization

Most of the coal extracted from the Ibbenbüren mine was burned directly in the neighboring Ibbenbüren power plant . Here the anthracite, especially the fine coal of the mine, made up the largest part of the fuel. Some other power plants were supplied with coal either by rail or ship.

A considerable part of the coal mined was sold on the non-subsidized market for coal heating . In addition to smaller house-fire systems, the coal could also be used for large heating systems, especially in gardening centers and swimming pools. In some cases, the coal even made it to neighboring countries and was used there for domestic purposes. In the last few years of operation, the house fire market accounted for around 400,000 t per year.

A special feature was that the anthracite coal mined in Ibbenbüren was ideally suited for water treatment . It has been used in waterworks and small systems as well as in special filters for development aid. The anthracite charcoal was specially prepared and in this condition was able to effectively remove chlorine or trihalomethane and other general oxidizable substances from the water. The coal was also used for the production of carbon electrodes or for carburization and slag foaming in the steel industry .

Delivery rates

Funding year Delivery rate in million t
2009 1,900
2010 1,968
2011 2.006
2012 1.959
2013 1.911

Day systems

Shafts from the last operating phase

Shaft name Depth Remarks
v. Oeynhausenschacht 1 414.90 m Material feed shaft
v. Oeynhausenschacht 2 339.30 m without headframe, temporary dewatering
v. Oeynhausenschacht 3 868.00 m Main shaft, 4 skips
Theodorschacht 603.3 m Main weather shaft
North shaft 1,545 m Main rope access and material shaft
Bockradener Schacht 391.1 m Weather shaft

North shaft

The north shaft is the main cable car shaft of the Ibbenbüren mine. It is located south of the center of the municipality of Mettingen directly on the Köllbachtal. It is currently the deepest operating coal mine in Europe. He already had this title until 1987; the shaft of the Saar mine, also known as the north shaft , held this title until June 30, 2012. Since that day, the north shaft has again been the deepest operating hard coal shaft in Europe.

In addition to the headframe, black and white pubs, material storage and offices, the daytime facilities of the north shaft also include a material sorting system. The buildings on the north shaft are heated by a combined heat and power plant with gas engines that supply energy from mine gas.

Historic shafts and operating facilities

Rope shaft

Cable shaft with headframe in 1870

In order to increase the efficiency of the von Oeynhausenschacht, which is still under construction, the rope shaft to the first underground level was sunk in 1863. This should connect the newly created midsole between the first underground level of the Oeynhausenschacht and the Dickenberger tunnel sole of the von-der-Heydt-Schacht . The Glücksburg seam was to be mined from here. The final depth of the shaft was reached in 1870 at 142 m.

Above the bottom of the Ibbenbüren conveyor tunnel, the shaft only had a clear width of 2.14 m × 2.51 m, while below this bottom the width increased to 5.60 m × 2.33 m. This was due to the fact that the rope shaft should not lift higher than the bottom of the Föderstollen. The naming of the shaft, which in the upper part only served to guide the rope, is based on this property.

There were two conveyor strands, in each of which a conveyor vessel ran, and a drive strand was also installed. The headframe of the rope shaft was the first free-standing headframe in Ibbenbüren mining. Until then, all the shafts had brick hothouses with enclosed pulley chairs.

As with the von Oeynhausenschacht, the inflowing water made itself uncomfortably noticeable, the sinking work was repeatedly severely hindered. A water ingress into the Oeynhausenschacht in 1870 alleviated the water shortage, as the water moved across gaps to the Oeynhausenschacht.

Cable shaft building today

The northern conveying strand was extended up to days in 1872 so that the bottom of the conveying tunnel could also be reached from daylight. Until 1881, the workforce had to drive into the cable shaft for journeys , with the introduction of the cable car this time-consuming and energy-consuming matter no longer existed. At the same time, the previously wooden headframe had to be replaced by an iron one, and the first section up to the bottom of the tunnel was even designed for two-tier conveying.

Until 1893 the shaft was used for the entry and exit of a part of the workforce. With the shutdown of the facility in the same year, the building was converted into a moving apartment. This building still stands today and is point 4 of the Oeynhausenschacht mining hiking route.

Flottwell auxiliary shaft

As a result of the great water ingress in 1894 and the resulting loss of production from the mine, it was necessary to shift production to the seabed. Since this, together with the Flottwell secondary seam, lay above the bottom of the production tunnel, it was not affected by the water ingress. Up to the construction limit on the Morgenstern shaft, there were still 200,000 t of coal to be built, of which 120,000 t could be extracted with a checkered mining.

To support the production, the Flottwell auxiliary shaft was sunk from October 10, 1894 to the bottom of the production tunnel. It reached a depth of 73 m and was 80 m north of the von Oeynhausenschächte. From April 1, 1895, regular production with a 10 hp steam locomotive began.

The shaft, popularly known as the “Hächert” steam locomotive because of its exhaust noise, became superfluous and closed in 1927 with the installation of the new, more powerful hoisting machine in von Oeynhausenschacht 1.


Headframe of the Morgenstern shaft

The Morgenstern shaft was sunk in 1824 as a shaft for the Schafberg mine. The shaft, which was initially 88 meters deep, was sunk onto the deep Schafberger tunnel and was the second of all Ibbenbüren pits to receive a steam hoisting machine. After the Ibbenbüren mines were amalgamated to form the "Grube Glücksburg", their importance declined. It was shut down on April 1, 1872, the buildings demolished and the shaft filled.

Shortly after the First World War , the location of the Morgensternschacht was filled with new life when the Concordia union leased the Morgensternfeld of the district. From 1920 to 1928, the Morgenstern shaft, which had been cleared up again, was used to lift the coal extracted in the Morgensternfeld and to convey it to the Laggenbeck train station by cable car.

After it was shut down again in 1928, operations were inactive for a few years until the Ostfeld mine (now Ibbenbüren) reopened in 1940. Until 1943, the shaft received the masonry winding tower that still exists today, and its final depth of 348 m was sunk.

Since mining in the Morgensternfeld had always turned out to be very complicated due to the difficult geological storage, the Morgenstern shaft was shut down again in 1979 and backfilled. Most recently it served mainly for weather management and dewatering .

Until a few years ago, the striking neon sign for “Preussag Anthracite” shone on the winding tower. The winding tower is used today as an amateur radio station. There are plans to use it as a lookout tower and café in the future. The Morgensternschacht is the starting point of the mining hiking route 1-Schafberg.


Hopstener Halde

The Hopstener Strasse heap was formerly the main heap of the Ostfeld mine. It is now at the end of its operating life and is slowly being prepared for renaturation. The official name of the heap is Bergehalde Hopstener Straße , but for various reasons the name Hopstener Halde has become popular. This is due, on the one hand, to the shortening of the official name, the relative proximity to the town of Hopsten and the fact that the quarries formerly located here, in which Ibbenbüren sandstone was extracted, were operated by Hopsten quarry companies.

The heap was created in the mid-1960s when the mine was running out of heap space. Due to changed mining conditions, such as the shift of mining to deeper seams and the start of quarrying, the amount of tailings increased considerably. Since there were many, recently abandoned, smaller quarries in the Lampingslied, the site was suitable for the creation of a dump.


Aerial photo of the Rudolfhalde (2014)
View from the Rudolfschacht mine dump to the von Oeynhausenschacht and Ibbenbüren power station

In addition to the Hopstener Halde, the mine also owns the Berghalde Rudolfschacht, also called Rudolfhalde or Buchholzer Halde . This is located at the former location of the Westfeldschacht Rudolf on Buchholzer Damm. The dump is located in the Ibbenbürener district of Dickenberg and a small part of the municipality of Recke. The heap that only served the west field was taken over by the east field after its closure and has been used as a mining heap since then.

The heap was created from 1927 with the construction of the processing at the Püsselbueren conveyor tunnel. The mountains, which were separated from the coal here, were driven to the Rudolfschacht by trolley and dumped here on the dump. As early as 1940, the Rudolfhochhalde was the largest dump in the Ibbenbüren coalfield. Part of this steep high slope on Buchholzer Damm is still visible today. This original dump had an area of ​​3.5 hectares.

Since the mid-1960s, the mountains directly at the Rudolfschacht have been loaded onto trucks via a conveyor tunnel and then taken to the dump. By the mid-1970s, the dump area increased to 16 hectares. After the closure of the Rudolfschacht in 1979 and the dismantling of the daytime facilities in the following year, the former shaft site could also be used for mountain tipping.

The shape of the mine dump has also changed over the years. Since the 1960s, care has been taken to create the dump close to nature and suitable for recultivation.

The dump is currently being expanded by a further 35 hectares to the northwest. At 200 meters above sea level, the heap is considered the highest point in Ibbenbüren. Paleontologists often use the dump to look for fossils such as the Arthropleura millipede in the wash mountains . However, the tipping points may only be entered with the permission of the mine.

The summit cross of the Dickenberg stands on the highest point of the dump until a few years ago. It was set up as a peace cross of the parishes in the district. The already renatured areas of the mine dump serve as a local recreation area and have been recultivated close to nature.

Mountain Vocational School

The mine had a mining vocational school since 1925. The training of mountain mechanics in Ibbenbüren was stopped in 1994. Finally industrial mechanics and energy electronics technicians or electronics technicians for industrial engineering were trained here.

The school last called the vocational college of RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbüren GmbH was located in the building at Osnabrücker Straße 112 near the Ibbenbüren power station. With a symbolic handover of the keys on December 1, 2017, the school was incorporated into Ibbenbüren as a subsidiary of the Tecklenburger Land vocational college in the Steinfurt district .

Colliery railway

Zechenbahn mine Ibbenbueren
Route length: 5.2 km
Gauge : 1435 mm ( standard gauge )
Power system : 16 2/3 Hz 15 kV, ehm. 50 Hz  ~
Maximum slope : 25 
Top speed: 25 km / h
Federal states: North Rhine-Westphalia
Categorization: Works railway , single track
Passenger traffic: no passenger traffic
Freight traffic: Coal and material transport
Route - straight ahead
from Rheine
Uffeln harbor
Station, station
0.0 Ibbenbueren-Esch
to Osnabrück
ehm Bf. Püsselbüren / Westfeld
Station without passenger traffic
5.2 Colliery
End of track on open track - end
power plant

The Ibbenbüren colliery railway is a works railway that connects the mine with the Deutsche Bahn network and the Mittellandkanal port for 4 km.


The construction of the colliery railway was necessary in 1927 when the reconstruction of the mining facilities in Ostfeld provided for the relocation of the coal processing and the briquette factory to the Oeynhausenschacht site. Until then, all of the coal from the eastern field was conveyed through the Ibbenbüren conveyor tunnel at the " Ibbenbüren station ", processed and also handed over to the railway here.

Initially, the railway only ran as far as Esch station, but included the “Coal Wash Westfeld” in the route network. In 1961 the connection to the port "Mittellandkanal km 4" was completed. Since the abandonment of the Habbes brickworks, which connected the port with the brickworks on the Dickenberg and the Hörstel station, no longer had a connection to the rail network.

As a further important step, the entire railway system was electrified in 1963. Initially, electricity with 15 kV and 50 Hertz was used because the usual traction current was not yet available in the Ibbenbüren area. Later the network was adjusted to 16 2/3 Hz to the traction current network. In 1979 the processing of the Westfeld was given up with the closure of the Westfeld. However, the rail systems still exist today as sidings for wagons or other rail-bound material.


Tracks of the colliery railway in Bockraden

The route begins at the “von Oeynhausen” site on the “von Oeynhausenschacht” site. Here, wagons are loaded with coal or goods are received. The Ibbenbüren power station is also supplied with supplies such as water chemicals and fuels via a siding. There are 15 tracks on the mine site, which are also connected by two transfer platforms to avoid time-consuming shunting. The track network has a total length of 18.5 km with 43 points, eight bridges and six level crossings secured with barriers and flashing lights.

The locomotive sheds for the railway are also on the premises.

After leaving the site, the train meanders through the northern urban area of ​​Ibbenbüren towards the edge of the Ibbenbüren mountain plateau. There is a steep ramp here that leads to Esch train station, which is a few kilometers southwest of the mine. With a maximum gradient of 25 ‰, the route is one of the steepest in northern Germany. The train climbs around 90 meters to Esch station. Shortly before the train station, the track branches off to the Püsselbüren plant, which includes the tracks of the former Westfeld processing facility.

In the " Bahnhof Esch " the Zechenbahn has three own tracks, the rest of the station is owned by the Deutsche Bahn. To get to the “Hafen 4km”, the train has to pass a short distance through the platforms of the Esch station over the tracks of the Deutsche Bahn in order to get back behind the platforms on the track to the port.

Shortly before the port is the "Vorbahnhof Hafen" with several shunting tracks. This is used to maneuver and park excess wagons. In the port there are further connections to the companies Akzo Nobel and Wibarco, whose traffic, however, is handled by Deutsche Bahn.


Locomotive E-102 of the Zechenbahn traveling uphill with tank cars

Until it was electrified, the old colliery had three tank locomotives ( locomotive 1 , locomotive 2 [Hanomag 4164/1905, C n2t], locomotive 3), which were scrapped a short time later.

The locomotive 3 was nicknamed "Ibbenbürener Bulle" because of its enormous size.

After electrification in 1963, the four-axle E-101 and E-102 electric locomotives were purchased from Krupp . They are still on the route today and are often called "Ibbenbüren crocodiles" because of their appearance. You can drive with alternating current with 16 2/3 Hertz or 50 Hertz or your own battery.


In addition to the locomotives, the Zechenbahn has its own tipping bucket wagons with three buckets each containing nine tons of coal.

After the mine was closed

The 4.5 km long port stretch from Esch train station to the port in Uffeln became the property of the Ibbenbüren company Bergschneider on January 1, 2019. Parts of the port to which the mine railway connects are operated by the buyer of the port route. The Bergschneider company was able to invoke a right of first refusal that had been given many years ago .

The remaining stretch from Esch station to the mine and power plant became the property of RWE, which operates the Ibbenbüren power plant, on January 1, 2019 .

After the end of coal mining and the dismantling of the coal heaps, the Zechenbahn will transport imported coal from Esch station uphill to the power plant from 2020. RWE AG will take over the route and parts of the colliery station. Up to 1,200,000 tons of coal are to be transported per year; this will require five journeys per day with trains of up to 14 wagons each. RWE AG has promised to allow journeys only on working days between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. In addition, modern electric locomotives are to be purchased.

Ibbenbüren coal region

In addition to Ibbenbüren, the Ibbenbüren coal region also includes Hopsten, Hörstel, Mettingen, Recke and Westerkappeln. For decades, the economic structure of these six places has partly grown very closely with mining. The mayors of these coal communities have formed a working group to support the interests of the communities in the course of structural change.

The main task of the working group is to compensate for the loss of well over 2000 jobs subject to social insurance. The region has repeatedly suffered serious job losses - such as the abandonment of the Hopsten air base in 2005 , the closure of the Karmann plant in Rheine in 2010, the imminent closure of the Rheine-Bentlage airfield and the recently concluded textile crisis since 1980, in which several thousand Jobs had been lost.

In addition to the 2,400 people directly employed in the mine, studies indicate that more than 6,000 jobs are indirectly affected by the impending end of mining. These are for the most part dependent on the supplier companies, but also simple follow-up points in the value chain such as shop employees. The value creation cycle for the coal communities was given in 2009 at around 150 million euros. This corresponds to the flow of money that remains in the region. This includes 86 million euros in employee salaries.

In addition to the loss of many jobs, the former 180 training positions at the mine were also lost. The mine was by far the largest training company in the Steinfurt district. The training workshop was used by many smaller companies to guarantee inter-company training.

A special feature of the region is that not only the workforce but also the people who do not work in the mine identify very strongly with the mine.

Individual evidence

  1. a b The last coals are brought up. In: Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung . August 24, 2018, accessed August 31, 2018 .
  2. ^ History of Ibbenbüren mining ( Memento from October 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  3. ^ Karl-Heinz Mönninghoff: 100 years of electricity from Ibbenbürener coal. In: Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung. April 17, 2008, accessed on August 14, 2019 : "Heimatzeitung No. 58"
  4. ^ In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung on February 15, 1997: Fear about the future of mining ties long "bond of solidarity".
  5. Urban Mining Student Award Architecture 2018. (pdf) p. 4 , accessed on January 2, 2019 .
  6. Data from 1996 ( Memento from March 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  7. In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung of March 27, 2000: "New home for mates from Ahlen"
  8. In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung of September 26, 2018: "You have found a second home."
  9. RP-Online: Interview with RAG boss Tönjes , accessed on April 11, 2014
  10. Mining is getting closer to Westerkappeln , in Westfälische Nachrichten of June 27, 2013, accessed April 11, 2014
  11. Tasks of the coal conversion interface
  12. The last trainees. In: Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung. April 10, 2014, accessed November 6, 2019 .
  13. The last trainees in the German coal mining industry received their skilled workers' letters. February 8, 2018, accessed August 26, 2018 .
  14. Last mining field in the Ibbenbüren mine. Retrieved April 4, 2017 .
  15. The coal washing machine stands still. In: Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung. August 31, 2018, accessed August 31, 2018 .
  16. ^ Shift in the shaft in Ibbenbüren. In: WDR KiRaKa. December 4, 2018, accessed December 4, 2018 .
  17. With dignity and a lot of sadness . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung on December 5, 2018.
  18. Theodorschacht will be filled in from March - 2400 concrete mixers are moving in . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung from February 15, 2019.
  19. Theodorschacht is filled . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung on May 28, 2019.
  20. Linda Braunschweig: The main entrance is now closed . In: Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung . June 10, 2020, p. 9 .
  21. http://www.lwl.org/westfalen-regional-download/PDF/S162_Ibbenbueren.pdf Division of the subfields
  22. http://www.bid.rag.de/bid/index.html location of the mining operation; accessed on September 9, 2018
  23. Anthracite charcoal as filter material. Lenntech BV, accessed August 14, 2019 . Filter anthracite
  24. Water treatment with Ibbenbüren anthracite
  25. http://www.dsk-anthrazit-ibbenbueren.de/produkte/ Einsatzbereich.shtml Utilization of Ibbenbürener coal
  26. Work efficiently and safely . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung on April 26, 2010.
  27. Key figures for the mine are in the green . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung on January 12, 2011.
  28. A rollercoaster of emotions . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung on April 23, 2012.
  29. a b Coal mining in the energy industry in the Federal Republic of Germany in 2017 (PDF; 1.1 MB) Statistics of the coal industry e. V., November 2018, p. 28 , accessed on November 6, 2019 .
  30. http://www.bergbau.tu-freiberg.de/bergbau/symposium/Stoettner.pdf?PHPSESSID=d5dc3c50687abf4c95502410bf43a929 Heating with mine gas
  31. http://www.dmt.de/fileadmin/PDF/Infoservice/Einladen_Vortrag_Elektrotechnik_-_Web.pdf conveyor machine control
  32. The rope shaft
  33. Steam engine of the old Morgenstern shaft
  34. Morgensternschacht
  35. ^ Project mining and amateur radio. Retrieved on October 4, 2012 (DL005 Morgensternschacht in Ibbenbüren).
  36. Future of the headframe
  37. Mining hiking routes. In: stadtmarketing-ibbenbueren.de. Stadtmarketing Ibbenbüren GmbH, accessed on August 13, 2019 .
  38. Michael Grischmitz: Good prospects! Future. Ideas. Life. (PDF; 3,590.41 kB) November 10, 2015, accessed on August 14, 2019 . Expansion of the Rudolfhalde from 2005
  39. http://www.bezreg-arnsberg.nrw.de/themen/b/bergehalden/index.php Registered use with the District Reg. Arnsberg
  40. ^ Height of the Rudolfschacht mine dump
  41. The last secret of Ibbenburen. LWL paleontologist searches for the head of a 300 million year old millipede. In: Westfälische Nachrichten. May 20, 2012, accessed August 13, 2019 .
  42. ^ Summit cross ( Memento from February 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Summit cross
  43. ↑ Head of school and training, Alfred Esch, assures: "We are not being phased out" . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung on February 11, 2000.
  44. ↑ Handing over the keys at the RAG vocational college. Retrieved July 11, 2019 .
  45. Contemporary witness: the Ibbenbürener Zechenbahn . In: coal. The employee magazine of RAG Aktiengesellschaft , year 2018, issue 2, p. 19.
  46. Website about the Ibbenbüren mine railway on the website of the Ibbenbüren City Museum
  47. Electric locomotive back in service. In: rag-anthrazit-ibbenbueren.de. June 29, 2006, archived from the original on February 11, 2013 ; accessed on August 4, 2020 .
  48. Matthias Franke: When the railway came to Ibbenbüren. In: stadtmuseum-ibbenbueren.de. Friends of the City Museum Ibbenbüren e. V., October 17, 2019, accessed November 6, 2019 .
  49. Bergschneider buys Zechenbahn . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung from January 5, 2018.
  50. Seven to ten trips a day . In Ibbenbürener Volkszeitung on June 7, 2018.
  51. RWE wants to take over Zechenbahn in Ibbenbüren. In: WDR - Nachrichten - Westfalen-Lippe. June 6, 2018, accessed September 11, 2018 .
  52. Future of the Ibbenbüren mine railway. Coal should go uphill. In: Westfälische Nachrichten. June 5, 2018, accessed September 11, 2018 .
  53. a b Ibbenbüren coal region ( Memento from November 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.1 MB)
  54. Change as an Opportunity 2011. (PDF; 7.0 MB) Working group "Location precautionary coal resolutions" of the coal cities, accessed on August 13, 2019 .
  55. Germany's deepest workplace: 1630 meters under the sea. In: Spiegel Online . January 27, 2012, accessed on July 26, 2012 (photo report from the mine).


in order of appearance

  • Arend Thiermann: Explanations for the geological map 3712 Tecklenburg . Geological State Office, North Rhine-Westphalia 1970.
  • Georg Römhild: The forest and industrial landscape of the Dickenberg mining district near Ibbenbüren . Munster 1974.
  • Alfred Schuster, Manfred Hädicke, Klaus Köwing: The standard names of the seams in the Ibbenbüren coalfield . Schweizerbart´sche Verlagbuchhandlung, Hanover 1987.
  • Hubert Rickelmann , Hans Röhrs : Ibbenbürener hard coal mining from the beginning to the present . Schöningh, Paderborn 1987, ISBN 3-506-77223-6 .
  • Hans Röhrs: Ibbenbürener hard coal and ore mining and its minerals . Bode, Haltern in Westphalia 1991.
  • Michael Schumann: The Preussag factory railway in Ibbenbüren - colliery railway for anthracite. In: Bahn Regional. No. 48, 1994.
  • Hans Röhrs: The Ibbenbürener mining of the 20th century in pictures . Ibbenbürener Vereindruckerei, Ibbenbüren 1998, ISBN 3-921290-94-5 .
  • Gunnar Gawehn: In the deep north. The history of hard coal mining in Ibbenbüren . Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 2018, ISBN 978-3-402-13391-0 .

Web links

Commons : Coal mines in Ibbenbüren  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files