The Quadrille , also Quadrille à la cour, is a French counter-dance that originated in Paris at the time of Napoleon I. It is danced by eight people (four couples), two and two facing each other in a square. Usually the dance consists of six parts, also with a gallop at the end. In England the dance was introduced before 1816, in Germany around 1820. In the form of Les Lanciers , the dance form has become known throughout Europe. A further development of the quadrille is the waltz quadrille, which ends with a waltz.
From 1852 new quadrilles were introduced as alternatives to the "Quadrille français". The "Quadrille des lanciers" appeared in 1856 and is the only one that has survived. No longer danced: “quadrille du prince impérial”, “quadrille des variétés parisiennes”, “quadrille des dames” and “quadrille russe”. It consists of five figures (tiroirs, lignes, saluts, visites, lanciers) and was danced regularly until the Second World War , but is currently rather rare, especially as a dance show every year at the Bal de l'X .
Figures of the French Quadrille
The six classic French figures of the Quadrille français are:
- Le Pantalon (The Pants)
- L'Été (The Summer)
- La Poule (The Chicken)
- La Trénis (also Trénitz , named in French after the German dance master Trenitz, who invented a dance figure for this part of the quadrille around 1800)
- La Pastourelle (The Shepherdess)
- Finale or Saint-Simonienne
In the Munich Française , the 4th tour is canceled.
Characters and music from the lancer's quadrille
The Quadrille of the Lancers was built around 1850 and was first to distinguish the quadrille français , Quadrille anglais called, exist from at least eight different variants. It disappeared from the dance program before the First World War.
Each character has their own music.
- Les tiroirs (the drawers)
- Les lignes (the lines)
- Les moulinets (the roles)
- Les visites (the visits)
- Les lanciers (the lancers)
The quadrille is taught at all Danish grammar schools in the form of Les Lanciers and is danced at every Danish prom. Otherwise, the quadrille has gone out of style. Quadrille dance was an integral part of classical dance courses until the 1950s . The quadrille is still popular at weddings and balls.
At Viennese balls, such as the Vienna Opera Ball , the Philharmonic Ball or the Rudolfina Redoute , the Quadrille français is an integral part of the ball and is held as a midnight quadrille (after or instead of the midnight performance). In this form of audience quadrille, every dance step is announced during the dance (e.g. by Thomas Schäfer-Elmayer , or for example at the Vienna Opera Ball from 2007 by Roman E. Svabek ). If necessary, repeat the quadrille after midnight at a later time. The Quadrille français is danced at Viennese balls today (2000s / 2010s) exclusively to the music of the Fledermaus Quadrille (op. 363) by Johann Strauss (son) .
Further development and reception
The Square Dance and Set Dance based on the principle of the quadrille. This form of dance also occurs again and again in folk dances , for example in the “Bunter”, which has been passed down mainly in northern Germany.
In Lewis Carroll's novel Alice in Wonderland , two characters, the griffin and the false turtle, dance the "lobster quadrille".
- Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary , keyword Quadrille
- Keyword Quadrille. In: Daniel Coit Gilman, Harry Thurston Peck and Frank Moore Colby (Eds.): The New International Encyclopædia . 1905.
- Franz M. Böhme (Ed.): History of dance in Germany. Contribution to the history of German customs, literature and music. Volume 1: Performing part. Edited for the first time according to the sources and with old dance songs and music samples. Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig 1886, pp. 224–225 .
- Monika Fink: Quadrille. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 4, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3046-5 .