In vaulting ( Italian volta , French volte , bow strike, bow jump), gymnastics and acrobatic exercises are performed on a horse moving in a circle on a lunge .
In addition to gymnastics skills, as in all equestrian sports, knowledge and skills in dealing with the horse are of particular importance. Vaulting is often an introduction to equestrian sport. It is also represented in school sport and in the field of curative education . There is also vaulting, which is a competitive sport.
Procedure and equipment
The horse is lunged by a lunge guide on a circular path (called a circle) with a diameter of at least 18 m (tournament size ), the vaulting circle, and walks in the gaits of walk , trot or gallop. One to three vaulters do gymnastics on and on the horse at the same time. A basic requirement of vaulting is the coordinated interaction between the lunge guide, horse and vaulting man, because in this sport they form a unit and influence each other directly.
The horse wears a vaulting belt just behind the withers , which is provided with two handles, two foot loops (and middle loop). To protect its back, the horse also wears a vaulting blanket ( pad ) and a foam pad under the belt. Permitted bridles are the bridle and the Cavesson . The equipment also includes auxiliary reins such as walking reins, triangular or side reins, gaiters , bandages or fetlock boots, possibly jumping bells , a lunging whip and a lunge.
The equipment of the vaulters consists of elastic, tight-fitting jerseys or vaulting suits as well as soft vaulting or gymnastics slippers. This rules out the possibility of the clothing hindering the athlete in performing the exercise or covering up posture errors. On the other hand, safety aspects are important: Accidents caused by getting caught on a belt, pad or training partner can be avoided by wearing tight clothing and tied hair.
Another important training device in vaulting is the wooden horse, which also has a vaulting belt and pad. The techniques and movements of the vaulting exercises can then be intensively trained in order to master them perfectly on the vaulting horse or pony. There are also special wooden horse tournaments.
Vaulting as a popular sport
Vaulting is a comparatively inexpensive equestrian sport that is open to all classes of the population. Here, young people's interest in horses is combined with varied movement training and the promotion of social skills. On the one hand, the children learn how to deal responsibly with their partner horse. On the other hand, physical and motor skills, especially posture, rhythm, balance and concentration are trained. As a group sport, vaulting also promotes social skills such as empathy, trust, a sense of community and independence. As a rule, beginner groups consist of eight to twelve boys and girls who are at about the same level of ability.
The popular vaulting can be used as an introduction to equestrian sport, but also offers good preparation for tournament sport. For beginners and beginners groups (also called junior groups) and sometimes also for individual vaulters, there are competitions at the state and district level, which are carried out in whole or in part in step.
Vaulting as a tournament sport
Carried out in tournaments, vaulting is a demanding competitive sport that challenges the athlete in terms of balance, strength, body tension , flexibility, stamina, sense of rhythm, trust, courage and creativity.
The performance of the individual starters will be assessed by several tournament judges who sit around the competition circle.
There are three competition disciplines: individual, double and group vaulting. The groups consist of six to eight (national) or six members (international, junior). The doubles are sometimes written out strictly as a mixed-gender pas de deux . At championships, individual competitions are judged separately by gender.
Europe is regarded as a center of excellence in vaulting, with vaulters from Germany , Switzerland , the Netherlands , Austria , France , Denmark , Italy and Great Britain particularly successful . But outside of Europe there are also very high-performing groups and individual vaulters, e.g. B. in the USA , Australia , Argentina , Brazil , Canada , Colombia , New Zealand , Russia and South Africa .
Vaulting is not represented as a gymnastics sport, but as an equestrian sport , despite the sporting proximity to artistic gymnastics or ballet . The international umbrella organization is the International Federation of Equestrian Sports (FEI). In Germany, the German Equestrian Association ( FN ) takes on the representation or the respective state commission of the equestrian association. Within the FN, vaulting is supervised by the youth department. a. is responsible for the issuance of vaulting and lunge driving licenses as well as for the tournament results. In Austria, vaulting is represented by the Federal Association for Riding and Driving in Austria (FENA), in Switzerland by the Swiss Equestrian Federation (FNCH) and the Swiss Vaulting Association.
A large number of vaulting competitions take place in Germany every year: Within the regional associations, there are tournaments organized by the clubs at the district or district level, as well as the respective state championships.
National championships are:
- the South German championships of the state associations of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saar , Saxony and Thuringia
- the North German Championships of the regional associations Berlin-Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hanover, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein and the like. Weser-Ems and
- the 5-country comparison battle between the state associations of Hesse, Saar, Rhineland , Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate
The most important competitions at national level are the German Championships (DM) , the German Youth Championships (DJM) , which took place for the first time after the LPO was changed in 2008, and the Prize of the Best . The only nationwide competition for L groups is the C-Team Cup , which was held for the first time in 2001. Analogous to this, the M-Team Cup and the Double Cup were introduced in 2009 to offer groups of eight and double vaulters an opportunity for nationwide comparison. Since 2010, the national winners in double vaulting have also been determined as part of the German championships.
Important tournaments in Austria are the provinces Team Championships (BLMM), the Austrian Championships (OEMs) for Junior vaulters and the 1981 inaugural Austrian Championships (ÖSTM). In Switzerland, since 1977 organized set Swiss Championships is the most important national competition.
At the international level, the Concours de Voltige International (CVI) and, each in an alternating two-year rhythm, the European and World Championships are held. The European Junior Vaulting Championships have existed since 2005, the double vaulting championships since 2009. In 2015, the Junior Vaulting World Championships were held for the first time in Ermelo, the Netherlands. Before that, the European Championships took place every year, since then, as with the seniors, every two years with the World Championships.
As part of the “FEI Vaulting Development Program”, the Inter-Africa Vaulting Cup was launched in 2006 as the first African comparison competition. It takes place every year. In 2009 vaulters from five countries competed in the vaulting tests: Malawi , Mauritius , South Africa , Swaziland and Zambia . The costs for travel and accommodation for the participants are co-financed by the “FEI Development Fund”.
Individual vaulters and groups are divided into performance classes in tournament sports according to their level. These differ primarily in the requirements placed on compulsory and freestyle. In 2008, the previously alphabetically categorized performance classes were re-classified in Germany: The lowest performance class D became A, LK C became L, LK B became M *, LK A became M **. The performance classes S (reserved for top-class sport) and junior, which are advertised according to international regulations, are new. In individual vaulting, a distinction is made between the performance classes L, M and S as well as juniors. In double vaulting, there are only the junior and senior classes.
A promotion to the next higher performance class is based on certain qualification grades, which must be achieved at least twice, at most three times during the current or the previous season:
- Performance class A to L: score 5.5, maintenance score in performance class L: 5.0
- Performance class L to M *: score 5.8, maintenance score in performance class M: 5.3
- Performance class M * to M **: score 6.3
- Performance classes M ** / Junior to S *: score 6.5, maintenance score in performance class S: 6.0
- Performance class S * to S **: Score: 6.7
Popular sports competitions are often offered in the following requirement classes (gaits: compulsory - freestyle): canter - gallop, gallop - step, step - step. There is also the performance class E, which is open, and the performance class junior, in which all teams of members who are all under 18 participate.
In Austria, like in Germany, the categorization of the performance classes is based on the names of other equestrian disciplines: In group vaulting there are classes A, L, S 1 * and S 2 *, in individual vaulting there are classes A, L, M, S 1 * and S 2 *. Swiss vaulters are divided into four performance classes (S-difficult, M-medium, L-easy, B-basic).
The general age limit of 18 years in group sport was lifted in 2005 for the upper performance classes and completely overridden in 2008, so that adults in every performance class can participate in group sport. Since then, there has been an additional class in each of the performance classes A and L in Germany, A16 and L18, with the respective maximum age of 16 and 18 years. The newly introduced junior performance class is reserved for vaulters aged 18 and younger. There are no age restrictions for the other classes.
There is no upper age limit in single and double vaulting. However, according to German regulations in both disciplines, a minimum age of 12 years in combination with possession of the German vaulting badge in bronze (DVA III) is required to participate in competitions. In double vaulting, only one of the partners needs to be able to show DVA III. In addition, tournament organizers can announce competitions for young individual vaulters. In Switzerland, the minimum age for solitary vaulters is 14 years. The FEI regulations for international vaulting tournaments also stipulate 14 years as the minimum age for participation in single and double competitions. Vaulters who are younger than 18 years old can optionally start in the junior age group. A change of age group within a season is not possible.
The age limits mentioned are reached in the respective calendar year.
The number of judges differs with the respective announcement of the vaulting competitions, however, three judges (judge A, judge B and judge C) are common for tournaments that do not take place at championship level. Up to six judges are used at national and international championships as well as at CVI 2 * and CVIO.
The actual performance on the horse at a vaulting tournament is framed by the entry and exit of the starters with judges greeting: vaulters, lunge guides and horses run in lockstep to music in the tournament circle, stand in front of judge A and greet him. The horse runs at a trot. After the judge's salute, the vaulters line up at the edge of the circle.
In order to be able to ensure that the horse is not paralyzed , the lunge guide must allow it to trot forward for at least one lap according to the judge's instructions. If the gait is disturbed, Judge A is obliged to "ring the bell", ie. H. excluded from the competition. Otherwise the horse will be galloped on the left hand and the first vaulting will start.
A performance test usually consists of a compulsory and a freestyle part , which are performed to music. The duty consists of a prescribed sequence of certain figures, which each individual group member must perform one after the other. The subsequent freestyle includes a freely compiled sequence of exercise parts. Depending on the announcement, compulsory and freestyle can also be shown in separate stages. In this case, according to German regulations, a so-called short obligation can be required in the second round before the freestyle.
The program ends with another greeting line-up in front of Judge A and the starters run out at a trot. The music can be chosen freely. In the performance classes A and L, however, the use of vocal music is prohibited.
The scores for vaulting range between 0.0 (lowest result) and 10.0 (best result). The overall grade of a starter or a group is calculated as the mean value from the judges' evaluations.
The following elements are included in the evaluation, depending on the performance class, competition, tender and discipline:
- Compulsory (individual grades for six to nine exercises)
- Technique (individual grades for five technical elements, design and execution)
- Freestyle (individual grades for difficulty, design and execution)
- Overall impression (awarding of points for entering and leaving, greeting, presentation of the group)
- Horse grade (points awarded for horse and lunge guide)
In group sport, the overall grade of an individual judge is calculated as follows:
The scores of all vaulters for all compulsory exercises are added up and then divided by the number of vaulters (LK A to M **: six to eight, LK S and Junior: six). The partial grades for freestyle, horse and overall impression are offset against the following multipliers:
|Evaluation elements||LK A||LK L||LK M||LK S||Junior|
|Freestyle difficulty||x 1.5||x 1.0||x 1.0||x 1.0||x 1.0|
|Freestyle design||x 1.5||x 2.0||x 2.0||x 2.0||x 2.0|
|Freestyle execution||x 3.0||x 3.0||x 3.0||x 3.0||x 3.0|
|Horse note||x 1.0||x 1.0||x 1.0||-||-|
|Horse note compulsory||-||-||-||x 1.0||x 1.0|
|Horse grade freestyle||-||-||-||x 1.0||x 1.0|
|Overall impression||x 1,||x 1.0||-||-||-|
The total of the grades is then calculated from the compulsory, freestyle, horse grade and overall impression. Depending on the performance class, this is divided by the factor 13 (LK M), 15 (LK A, L and S) or 16 (LK Junior). This results from the formula
- Sum of the multipliers for freestyle, horse and overall impression + number of compulsory exercises.
The freestyle with a factor of six therefore, with the exception of performance class M, is always a little weaker than the compulsory seven (LK A, L, S) or eight exercises (LK Junior).
While no official statistics are kept for popular sports, active competitive athletes in Germany are statistically recorded by the FN via their annual tournament licenses . In 2009, a total of 1,157 vaulting groups, 672 individual vaulters and 1,465 lunge guides were registered with the FN. 89.4% of the lone vaulters were female. In the groups, the two lowest performance classes A and L together made up 59.2% of all registered groups. In contrast, top-class sport (S groups) had a share of only 6.3%. In 2010, the largest regional association in terms of numbers was Westphalia with 125 individual vaulters, 176 groups and 238 lunge guides, followed by the regional associations of Bavaria and Hanover.
The FN statistics are u. a. used for the allocation of starting places at the German Championship, as this is done according to a quota system. In principle, each regional association is allowed to send an individual vigilante and a group. For every full 70 vaulting groups and every full 20 individual vaulters from the regional association who are registered with the FN, the regional association receives an additional starting place.
Vaulting is often used as a basic training in equestrian training. The riding student learns and practices, without having to "steer" the horse himself, a correct seat, dynamic balance and a relaxed posture. Through the basic exercises of vaulting, he becomes familiar with the horse as a partner and learns to move freely on it, as well as safe entry and exit and gentle fall.
Special educational vaulting
Curative vaulting is a curative educational method for working with children and young people with behavioral problems. Special riding therapists are trained for this, who must have a B- trainer license and a pedagogical professional training as a training requirement.
History of vaulting
The origin of vaulting lies in the cavalry . The aim of the exercises was to train the soldiers' balance, mobility, strength and endurance. There were also competitions, where almost all jumps were performed. Vaulting was even once Olympic in Antwerp in 1920 , at that time under the name of art riding . Belgium won the team competition ahead of France and Sweden, while the Belgian T. Bouckaert won the individual ahead of the French field and the Belgian T. Finet.
Vaulting from ancient times to the Middle Ages
The first attempts at vaulting are suspected to have been in antiquity . As an indication, rock drawings of North Germanic tribes in southern Scandinavia are viewed, which show a standing person on a "horse-like animal". Etruscan tomb paintings also show how two men on galloping horses tried to switch from one horse to the other.
As interpreted from the grave paintings, the “desultores”, the so-called alternating riding, developed. In this popular discipline, a rider had, in addition to the mounted horse, a hand horse, which he could switch to when the other had no more strength. From this it can be concluded that it must have been a race over several kilometers, since a horse would be able to withstand a normal race. Modifications of the Etruscan competitions can also be found in other ancient cultures. Here at the “ars desultoria” one had to switch between two horses as often as possible on a certain route. Races that were carried out standing on horseback were also part of the competitions.
For the Romans , vaulting was mainly part of the military training of soldiers. It was essentially about jumping up and down on a wooden horse so that the technique could be implemented on real horses. These dexterity exercises enabled the rider to avoid dangers quickly and nimbly or to inflict considerable damage on opponents. At the annual Roman Games not only horse and chariot races were carried out, but acrobatic exercises on the galloping horse were also shown.
Even in the Middle Ages, knights learned to jump on horses as part of their training. The jumps were made in full armor . In addition, they had to do artful exercises on the horse. The tournaments and competitions served to entertain the people and the king. In the late Middle Ages it became fashionable to dress up at tournaments. While there is no clear source to confirm this, it could be possible that disguises were also worn during the acrobatic performances on horseback.
Vaulting in the Renaissance (1420–1600)
The renaissance was not only the “rebirth” in the cultural, but also in the sporting sense of antiquity. Now it was no longer enough just to be able to ride and fight like in the Middle Ages. The courtiers had to be educated, have good manners and be able to move elegantly and gracefully. Against this background, the jumping up and down of the medieval fighting games developed into the actual vaulting, which was designated with the Latin term “volte sive giri”.
The writing of textbooks on "finer" sports such as fencing , riding and wrestling established itself . These textbooks contained, among other things, precise instructions on the methodology of the disciplines described. Books have also been written about vaulting, e. B. by Petrus Monti between 1492 and 1509. In his works he described individual and partner exercises on the standing or moving horse. Also Giocondo Baluda named in 1630 in his book "Trattato del modo di volteggiare e saltare il cavallo di Legno" exercises, although they were intended almost exclusively for running on a wooden horse. In keeping with the spirit of the Renaissance, he described the exercises using terms such as grace, beauty, lightness, security, exactness and perfection.
Vaulting became a popular pastime, especially at court, and gained in reputation and importance. How strongly the aesthetic aspect was emphasized is shown by a quote from the Italian courtier, diplomat and writer Castiglione :
“I consider vaulting on horseback to be no less praiseworthy. It is arduous and difficult, but more than anything makes it extremely agile and skilful; and if the lightness is accompanied by beautiful grace, besides the usefulness, in my opinion it offers a more beautiful spectacle than anything else. "
Vaulting came to Germany through the Württemberg theologian Johann Valentin Andreä , who discovered horse jumping for himself in Padua on a trip to Italy in 1612 and opened a school in Tübingen especially for this purpose.
A quote from Grisone , the founder of the riding school in Naples, testifies to the still important role in the training of soldiers :
“Even if the ball game and the knowledge of vaulting are not absolutely necessary for the rider, it still helps a lot, not only to give it grace, but to make it smarter and calmer. "
Vaulting in cavalry training from the 17th to the 20th century
Vaulting also played a major role in the training of soldiers in the 17th and 18th centuries and became more and more important. The young aristocrats not only had to acquire knowledge and good behavior, but also skills in fencing, dancing, horse riding and vaulting. The term "vaulting" was coined at that time as a generic term for gymnastic exercises on the moving horse. Originally intended as a preliminary exercise and a supplement to riding, vaulting developed over time into an independent sport that was also transferred to a wooden horse.
The first textbooks were written that dealt with vaulting on a living horse as well as on a wooden horse. In 1661, Johann Georg Pasch wrote a “Kurtze iedoch thorough description of the voltesiren So well on the horse as over the table.” In it he describes the basics of horse gymnastics and gives a mixed form in which moves of gymnastics on the live horse, which in There was a connection with riding, but also with gymnastics on the wooden horse. In 1791 the work of the Kurmainzischen court and university as well as fencing and vaulting master Alexander Doyle "Interpretation of the Voltagierkunst" appeared. 30 years later, Johann Andreas Schmidt, Nuremberg fencing and exercise master, wrote the book “Thoroughly teaching fencing school, along with curious lessons in vaulting and wrestling”. All three works described the training part of vaulting, which became an integral part of the canon of physical exercises in the school education of the philanthropists.
Lion has contributed a lot to the development of this equestrian sport, because in 1795 he gave tips on gymnastics on the galloping horse in his book "The gymnastics exercises of the mixed jump". In addition, a vaulting harness was mentioned for the first time in his work, which already looked very similar to today's.
Horse gymnastics became particularly popular thanks to "gymnastics father" Friedrich Ludwig Jahn , who brought gymnastics into its current form. Because at this time two "branch sports" of vaulting developed. On the one hand, gymnastics was still performed on the living horse, and on the other hand, the horse's gymnastics device was becoming increasingly popular. In the 19th century, training in vaulting was continued. In 1843, the stable master of the royal training cadron Seidler wrote “Instructions for vaulting, both on the wooden vaulting stand and on the live horse”.
Vaulting between the world wars
A century later, vaulting was no longer just part of military training. A high point of vaulting was the one-time participation in the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp. Cavalrymen from different countries competed against each other under the name of art riding. In individual and team competitions, jumps on saddled and unsaddled horses and in all possible gaits had to be performed. There were three men in each group. The Belgian Bouckaert won the individual competitions. He was followed by Field for France and Finet for Belgium. In the team competition, the Belgians won ahead of France and Sweden.
After the Olympic Games, vaulting developed into a children's sport in Germany. The sport was used as preparation for riding and the vaulters were allowed to show their skills at various horse shows. Seidel, an instructor at the Hanover Cavalry School , was the first to start vaulting with children from the school's members. They called themselves the "Seideltruppe" and appeared as show numbers at various horse shows.
Post-war period - modern vaulting in Germany
After the Second World War , vaulting was resumed for the first time in 1950 in the university riding stables in Göttingen . A show troop was set up there, which had the same function as that of the "Seideltruppe".
Three years later Dieter Schnelle published the first modern vaulting instructions, about the most common exercises at the time and the establishment of a vaulting department. Now the productivity of the vaulting sport could no longer be stopped. “Vaulting representatives wrote a complete set of rules” in just a few years. In addition, the vaulters organized themselves in clubs and held their own tournaments. The first was organized in 1953 in Göttingen at a horse show. The mandatory exercises were anchored in the national guidelines.
Team vaulting was now viewed as an attractive and competitive sport. The classification as an exclusive children's sport was lost in the 1960s at the latest, when young people and adults were finally doing the sport again. Years later, the vaulters still benefited from the conditions that had been created, as they offered enough “space” not to have to make any major changes in the next few years. More and more teams were formed and took part in group competitions. The level of performance also increased. The first German group championships took place in Wiesbaden-Biebrich in 1963, which the group from Goslar won before Lübeck and Heilbronn. A year later, the guidelines stipulated an age limit of 16 years.
In 1972 vaulting had its second major appearance at the Olympics in Munich . The five best German vaulting groups presented the five Olympic rings with their circles at a demonstration and were thus able to present themselves to the world public.
In the mid-1970s, individual vaulting was introduced. Many demanded regulations for this new discipline so that competitions could also take place for it. However, it took five years for individual vigilance to be included in the guidelines in 1980. An age limit of 21 years was set. The first German championships in individual vaulting were held in Mannheim in 1986 . A year later, the age limit was lifted again internationally by the FEI and a few years later by the FN, so that adults in Germany could again take part in individual and duo competitions.
Development since the official recognition by the FEI
The 1st unofficial international tournament, at which six nations were present, took place in Constance in 1976 . Nevertheless, vaulting was not recognized as an official sport by the FEI General Assembly until December 15, 1981. In 1983 the FEI's first international set of rules, based on the German regulations, came into force. As a result, official international tournaments could now also be held anywhere in the world. In 1984 the first European vaulting championship took place in Ebreichsdorf near Vienna with the disciplines individual - women, individual - men and team. The first world championships were held in Bulle / Switzerland in 1986 .
In the period that followed, the rules of vaulting continued to develop. In 1990 and 1994, the guidelines changed to such an extent that, since 1990, the obligation was divided into two blocks and four years later the vaulting competitions were divided into performance classes D, C, B and A. The requirements in freestyle and duty were also adapted to the level of performance.
In 1990, when the guidelines were changed, the World Championships were held for the first time as part of the World Equestrian Games . Through this event, vaulting was able to present itself to a large and above all international audience as a competitive sport. Since then, the FEI has hosted the World Equestrian Games every four years. Germany took first place unbeaten in the overall standings until 2006. The vaulters were also successful from the very beginning. After the German individual vaulters (men and women) took the first three places at the World Equestrian Games in 1990 and the team took second place, Germany was always able to receive at least one gold medal in the vaulting department until 2006. Between 1998 and 2006 Germany was also the undefeated winner in group vaulting. At the 2010 World Equestrian Games, the German vaulting team won three silver and one bronze medals. Overall, Germany is by far the most successful vaulting nation in the world, as the medal table of the world championships in vaulting from 1986 to 2010 shows:
In 2008 there was another far-reaching change in the guidelines for the Performance Examination Regulations (LPO) in Germany. The previously alphabetically structured performance classes with the categorization A to D were brought into line with the names of the classic equestrian disciplines such as jumping, eventing or dressage. Groups of eight vaulters are now divided into classes M ** (previously LK A), M * (previously LK B), L (previously LK C) and A (previously LK D). Analogous to the international regulations, the system of groups of six with the performance classes S and Junior was integrated into the national regulations. In addition, the age limit in group sports has been completely lifted.
Another step in the history of vaulting will follow in the winter of 2010/2011, when a separate World Cup series will be held for the first time .
(In all the source data available here, the circumstances of the country, the competition and the popularity of vaulting are taken into account.)
- Ulrike Rieder : Vaulting from beginner to expert. BLV-Verlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-405-16266-1
- German Equestrian Association e. V .: Guidelines Volume 3: Vaulting. FN-Verlag, Warendorf 2008, ISBN 978-3-88542-445-1 .
- Ulrike Rieder, Ute Lockert: Badges in vaulting. FN-Verlag, Warendorf 2010, ISBN 978-3-88542-473-4 .
- Ulrike Rieder, Ute Lockert: The vaulting badges . FN-Verlag, Warendorf 2014, ISBN 978-3-88542-796-4 .
- Umminger: Sport Chronicle. 5000 years of sports history .
- German Equestrian Association e. V. (FN): Vaulting exercise book (2008 edition). Requirements and criteria in German tournament sports acc. LPO (National Tasks). FN-Verlag, Warendorf 2007, ISBN 978-3-88542-442-0 .
- German Equestrian Association e. V., Youth Department; The vaulting circle e. V .: Vaulting is all about. Information brochure. 2004 (Free download, last accessed September 8, 2010).
- Julius Bohus: Sports History. Society and sport from Mycenae to today. BLV-Verlag, 1993, ISBN 978-3-405-13136-4 .
- Michael Krüger: Introduction to the history of physical education and sport 3: Physical exercises in the 20th century. Sport for everyone: Part 3. Hofmann-Verlag, Schorndorf 2005, ISBN 978-3-7780-8402-1 .
- Gerhard Lukas: Sport in ancient Rome. Sportverlag, Berlin 1982.
- Link catalog on vaulting at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Information about vaulting
- Official website of the FN on vaulting
- Official website of the FEI for the discipline of vaulting
- Official website of the International Vaulting Club
- Information about vaulting at www.pferde-portal.de
- ^ German Equestrian Association e. V., Youth Department; The vaulting circle e. V .: Vaulting is all about. Information brochure. 2004, p. 3
- ^ German Equestrian Association e. V .: Performance Examination Regulations (Edition 2000). Warendorf, FN-Verlag 1999, p. 231.
- ^ German Equestrian Association e. V., Youth Department; The vaulting circle e. V .: Vaulting is all about. Information brochure. 2004, p. 6.
- ↑ Country overview vaulting ( Memento of the original from December 21, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Accessed: October 19, 2010
- ↑ WDR: Report on the double vaulting on the official website of the WDR. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010 ; Retrieved October 24, 2010 .
- ↑ International Federation of Equestrian Sports: FEI Annual Report 2009, p. 33. (PDF; 3.0 MB) Archived from the original on July 27, 2012 ; Retrieved October 25, 2010 .
- ↑ Swiss Equestrian Federation: Voltige Reglement, edition 2009 as of 01.01.2016. (PDF; 599 kB) Accessed November 21, 2016 .
- ↑ Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI): Rules for Vaulting Events (PDF; 870 kB), p. 4, accessed: October 29, 2011
- ↑ FEI: Rules for Vaulting Events (PDF; 870 kB), pages 12-14. Retrieved December 13, 2010
- ^ German Equestrian Association e. V .: Performance Examination Regulations (Edition 2000). Warendorf, FN-Verlag 1999, p. 79.
- ↑ German Equestrian Association: LPO 2008. Main points of the revision and new regulations for vaulting (pdf), p. 27. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on December 30, 2010 ; Retrieved October 13, 2010 .
- ^ German Equestrian Association e. V. (FN): Vaulting exercise book. Requirements and criteria in German tournament sports acc. LPO. 2007, pp. 19-32.
- ↑ Distribution of quotas by the FN: Statistics from the FN Part 1 (as of October 2010) ( page no longer available , search in web archives ). Overview of individual vaulters, groups, lunge guides and clubs in 2010 (overview 6r). (Free download, accessed: January 14, 2011)
- ↑ Distribution of quotas by the FN: DReth quotas EV and GV according to current management appointment 2011 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ). (Free download, accessed: January 14, 2011)
- ↑ a b FEI: Factsheet Equestrian Vaulting. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ↑ a b Ulrike Rieder: A look into the history of vaulting. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on August 9, 2011 ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 .
- ^ Johann Georg Pasch: Kurtze iedoch thorough description of the Voltesirens . Halle (Saale), 1660. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive )
- ↑ Ulrike Rieder, B. Dommnich: Once and never again - vaulting was part of the 1920 Olympics! (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ↑ a b Ulrike Rieder: Interesting facts about vaulting. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 12, 2014 ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 .
- ^ Fédération Equestre Internationale: Vaulting - World Championships 1986-2006. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ^ Fédération Equestre Internationale: World Vaulting Championship 2008 in Brno - Final Results. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 10, 2010 ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 .
- ^ Fédération Equestre Internationale: World Equestrian Games 2010 - Final Results. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 8, 2010 ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 .
- ^ German Equestrian Association: Vaulting competition system (according to LPO 2008). (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on August 22, 2010 ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 .
- ↑ Vaulting World Cup - premiere in Munich, Dresden and Leipzig ( page no longer available , search in web archives ), horseweb.de, September 15, 2010