According to the rules of heraldry , the most important one, the so-called heart color, is always in the middle. The colors are enumerated from the inside out.
The Coquarde in France
In the 17th century was understood in France under coquarde one attached to the hat ribbon bow as a sign of belonging to a political group.
The cockade became very popular during the French Revolution . It was worn on clothes or on hats as a visible sign of supporters of the revolution.
Spread in Europe
Napoleon's armies brought the blue-white-red cockade to all of Europe. In the Wars of Liberation , Napoleon's opponents used cockades in their national colors as a military identification symbol, for example:
- Prussia: black and white
- Austria: black-yellow
- Great Britain: red-white-blue
- Russia: yellow-black-white and white-blue-red
- Portugal: red-blue
- Spain: red
Uniform cockades in Germany
In Germany and in the German states before the founding of the empire, cockades were introduced at different times (e.g. Prussia 1813). In the North German Confederation and in the German Reich the cockades were used as follows:
- black and white and state cockade: North German Confederation from 1867
- Imperial cockade (black-white-red) and state cockade: German Empire from March 22, 1897
- Eagle in oak leaves: Weimar Republic - Reichswehr from 1921
- black-white-red: Third Reich - Wehrmacht from 1935
After the Second World War, there were different manifestations. For a long time, cockades in the national colors were used on service caps of state employees. In the state police , the cockades were changed to the federal colors in the 1970s. However, some federal states do not use a cockade at all. The cockade in the federal colors was soon introduced for federal employees, it is worn on the headgear. In Germany it is represented on uniforms of the police ( federal police and some state police), customs , the THW and the federal armed forces as well as the fire brigade. The cockade is protected as a national emblem by .
The term aircraft cockade (rarely also aircraft badge ) describes a national emblem on military aircraft , which are usually kept in the national colors of the respective state. In the English language they are called roundels .
Airplane cockades (selection):
(Greater) German Empire (1935–1945)
Federal Republic of Germany
German Democratic Republic before 1959
Greece (since 1919)
Italian Social Republic (1943–1945)
Original symbol of the Soviet Union Air Force ; then with a white border (like right for Russia)
John Cochrane, Stuart Elliott: National Emblem . Military aircraft IDs worldwide. Motorbuch, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-613-03817-2 (to: airplane cockades).