|Airbus A350 XWB|
|Type:||Twin-engine wide-body aircraft|
14th of June 2013
January 15, 2015
In series production since 2014
|Number of pieces:||
370 (as of July 31, 2020)
The Airbus A350 is a twin - engine, long - range , wide-body aircraft produced by the European aircraft manufacturer Airbus . It is the airliner with the highest proportion of carbon fiber composites in the fuselage and wing structure. Developed as a competitor to the Boeing 787 , it is the successor to the Airbus A340 .
The A350's maiden flight took place on June 14, 2013. Qatar Airways received the first A350-900 on December 22, 2014 and the first A350-1000 on February 20, 2018. So far (as of July 31, 2020) 370 of the 930 aircraft ordered have been delivered, all of which are still in service.
The original design from 2004 was for a modernized version of the Airbus A330. The size of the first designed variants A350-800 and -900 corresponded roughly to the Airbus types A330 / A340 -200/300. The first flight was planned for 2009, the commissioning in 2011. At the time of the start of the project, there were 140 firm purchase commitments (Orders & Commitments) .
In response to the market momentum launched by the Boeing 787 program, the original A350 concept was modified in the course of 2005. The revised design differed in 90 percent of the components from the A330, but with the same wing shape and the same fuselage cross-section. The cockpit instrumentation was based on the A380 . The new concept was supplemented by aerodynamic improvements, larger cabin windows and a larger proportion of aluminum-lithium alloys and metal composite materials such as glass fiber reinforced aluminum (glare). Compared to the carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic parts (CFRP) preferred by the competitor Boeing, the aim was to achieve easier maintenance with comparable weight savings in the structure. The bow section was also largely redesigned by the end of 2005. The wings should like the military transporter A400M are made entirely of carbon fiber. This guaranteed greater rigidity with 4.5 t less structural weight than the original construction. The smooth surface of the wing ensured less turbulence. Since around 60 percent of the empty weight of the aircraft was accounted for by the fuselage and wing, this could be reduced by 10 t compared to the A330. Airbus promised itself fuel savings of a quarter with the A350-900 compared to the Boeing 787. Also, the machine would only be half as loud as "competing models in production" ( Boeing 777-200ER ).
The drive had turbofan - engines General Electric GEnx 1A and Rolls-Royce Trent provided 1711th Both are modifications developed for the Boeing 787 engines, among other things, with the possibility of bleed air - ( bleed air ) sampling.
The development costs of the A350 were given at the end of 2005 at around 4.5 billion euros.
Specifications of the original design
|length||58.8 m||65.26 m|
|span||61.1 m||64.75 m|
|height||17.4 m||17.05 m|
|Hull diameter||5.64 m|
|Max. Cabin width||5.28 m|
|Wing area||362 m²||442.9 m²|
|Wing sweep (t / 4 line)||30 °||31.9 °|
|Empty mass||124,100 kg||130,700 kg|
|Max. Takeoff mass||245,000 kg||268,000 kg|
|Passenger capacity||253 (3 classes)||300 (3 classes)|
|Max. Cargo capacity||26 LD3||36 LD3|
|Engine types||2 × Rolls-Royce Trent or 2 × General Electric GEnx|
|Thrust||2 × 280 to 334 kN|
|Top speed||Mach 0.86|
|Cruising speed||Mach 0.85 at 11,000 m altitude|
|Range||16,300 km||13,890 km|
Criticism and further development of the concept
At the beginning of April 2006, the founder of the ILFC leasing company Steven F. Udvar-Házy asked at an aviation conference in Orlando to build a completely new type of aircraft instead of a further development of the A330, which could also replace the A340 , which was discontinued in November 2011 . Chew Choon Seng, as head of Singapore Airlines, made a similar statement a little later. The fuselage cross-section, unchanged since the A300 and ten centimeters narrower than the Boeing 787, would offer less seating capacity and less comfort than the competition. After further critical voices from potential customers, it was announced in early May 2006 that Airbus was now planning “radical changes” to the previous A350 design. Among other things, a wider fuselage, wings made entirely of composite materials, a higher cruising speed and more powerful engines are planned. In addition, the A350 series should not - as initially planned - consist of two, but of three versions with 250 to 350 seats. The A350-1000, the largest variant, will compete with the Boeing 777-300ER , consume around 20 percent less fuel and replace the less successful A340-600 . It was speculated which designation this new aircraft would receive: A370, A280 or A880? The Airbus boss Humbert confirmed on May 17, 2006 at the ILA air show in Berlin that the Boeing 787 had been underestimated and that "some substantial changes" were planned for the A350. These would be discussed with previous customers and Airbus owners, and the final decision would be announced by summer 2006.
Revised draft (2006)
At the Air Show in Farnborough on July 17, 2006, the new Airbus boss Christian Streiff and sales manager John Leahy announced that a completely new aircraft as the A350 XWB (eXtra Wide Body) would be developed instead of the previous A350 design . Existing customers of the original A350 would be negotiating to convert their order to A350 XWB.
Development costs were now 7.9 compared to 4.5 billion euros for the original A350. The design presented at the trade fair still contained a fuselage based largely on aluminum-lithium alloys, while the newly designed wing was to be made entirely of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic. Reports that potential A350 customers did not like the concept of conventionally riveted fuselage panels, as less maintenance would be expected with a fuselage structure made from CFRP tubes, were made on May 30, 2007, on the occasion of the order for 80 A350 aircraft from Qatar Airways , denied by Airbus boss Louis Gallois.
Due to delivery delays in the A380 program, the decision to officially start the A350 XWB program - the "Industrial Launch" - was postponed several times. In addition, project financing without state aid had to be set up in order to avoid further WTO conflicts with the United States . For the first time in the history of Airbus, at least 10 percent of the development costs estimated at 10 billion euros should be borne by risk-sharing partners. On December 1, 2006, the EADS board of directors finally approved the development and marketing of the new aircraft type. Even before the decision to build the A350 XWB, press reports that the fuselage would consist entirely of carbon fiber composites, were indirectly confirmed by Airbus after the decision.
Due to the completely new development, the dates for the first flight and commissioning have been postponed. In July 2006 the first flight of the A350-900 was announced for mid-2011, the commissioning in mid-2012, both of which would have been about a year later than originally planned. The A350-800 was scheduled to go into service in the first quarter of 2013 and the A350-1000 in the first quarter of 2014. The A350-900R and -900F would follow about another year later. On February 28, 2007, Airbus announced that final assembly of the A350 would take place in Toulouse . The variant delivered first will no longer be the A350-800, but the larger A350-900.
An ETOPS-420 certification aims Airbus A350 no longer, as all relevant flight connections with the left realize ETOPS-370 approval, the type of aircraft received in October, 2014.
The first flight of the A350-941 with the serial number (Manufacturer Serial Number) MSN001 and the registration F-WXWB took place on June 14, 2013 in front of thousands of spectators in Toulouse . With a take-off mass of 221 tonnes, powered by Rolls-Royce Trent XWB engines, the A350 circled near Toulouse after take-off from runway 32L at 10:00 a.m. during the first test phase with its landing gear extended. After about half an hour the undercarriage was retracted and flight tests continued over southern France. The A350 flew several loops between the Pyrenees , the southern Massif Central , Carcassonne and Les Landes and landed again on runway 32L at 2:05 p.m. During the four-hour flight, all maneuvers of the machine were observed and filmed by an accompanying aircraft. Test data recorded on board the A350 were transmitted directly to the Airbus test center in Toulouse via satellite.
The first flight was carried out by a crew of five from the test flight squadron stationed in Toulouse. Flight captain Peter Chandler, Airbus chief test pilot, and captain Guy Magrin, project pilot for the A350 XWB shared command during the first flight. Pascal Verneau (flight engineer for the A350 XWB project, “third man” in the cockpit) was also in the cockpit. Fernando Alonso , director of the flight tests department, was the test engineer in charge of flight controls and the aircraft structure. In addition, Patrick du Ché (systems) and Emanuele Costanzo (engines) were on board the aircraft as test flight engineers. As is customary on first flights, the crew carried parachutes.
The test program comprised around 2500 flight hours, of which 2000 hours had already been completed on more than 500 flights by mid-June 2014. With MSN001 , among other things, tests were carried out on the minimum unstick speed at the maximum take-off mass at Châlons Vatry Airport . Since October 14, 2013, MSN003 has also carried out test flights, the serial number MSN002 was provided with a complete interior. In January 2014, MSN003 passed the altitude and cold tests required for approval. On February 26th, MSN002 and MSN004 joined the test fleet. In May 2014, MSN004 successfully completed the so-called water absorption tests, in which the behavior of the aircraft in a wet environment, such as when it rains, is tested. With the first flight of the F-WWYB (MSN005) on June 20, 2014, all five prototypes were in test flight operations. MSN005's tasks included ETOPS certification and route test flights, which is why the aircraft was fully equipped. The test flights were concluded on July 19, 2014 at Istres Airport with a successful abort test at the maximum take-off mass.
Long-range test flights
In February 2014, flights to prove long-haul and airport suitability started. After the aircraft was presented to the first customer Qatar Airways in Doha , the A350 took part in the Singapore Airshow on February 11 and 12, 2014 . From June 2nd to 4th, 2014 flights with passengers were carried out for the first time. The tickets for two Early Long Flights (ELF) with the aircraft equipped with 252 seats were raffled among around 50,000 Airbus employees worldwide. The aim of the ELF was to test the comfort on board and the proper functioning of the air conditioning, galley, lighting, toilets and entertainment electronics under real operating conditions. Therefore, 30 experts were among the passengers to directly analyze the problems that occurred. The cabin crew was provided by Lufthansa and Air France in order to gain experience in operational cabin operations.
On July 24, 2014, the MSN005 started a second - this time three-week - test flight series with passengers. The first trip led from Toulouse via Iqaluit , Frankfurt back to Toulouse. The second stage consisted of the destinations Singapore and Hong Kong, in the third stage Johannesburg, Sydney, Auckland, Santiago de Chile and Sao Paulo were served. The test aircraft recently flew to Doha, Perth, Moscow and Helsinki. The aircraft was equipped with 42 business class and 223 economy class seats.
Completion of flight tests
On September 30, 2014, the A350-941 (engine: Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-84) was the first A350 variant to receive official type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). At this point in time, all test aircraft had completed more than 2,600 flight hours. The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) type certification followed on November 12, 2014.
The first delivery took place on December 22nd, 2014 when the MSN006 was handed over to Qatar Airways .
|MSN 1||Reg||First flight||Type 2||Engines||Equipment at Airbus||Remarks||status|
|001||F-WXWB||06/14/2013||A350-941||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB- 84||Water tanks||first test aircraft||active|
|002||F-WWCF||02/26/2014||A350-941||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-84||complete cabin equipment||“Carbon” paint; conducted Early Long Flights (ELF)||switched off|
|003||F-WZGG||October 14, 2013||A350-941||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-84||Water tanks||Altitude, cold and heat tests||parked in Toulouse (for museum)|
|004||F-WZNW||02/26/2014||A350-941||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-84||Cabin equipment||“Launch Customer” ( Qatar Airways / Airbus) livery; Tests for indoor lighting and noise pollution, water absorption tests||parked in Lourdes|
|06/20/2014||A350-941||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-84||second aircraft with full cabin equipment||ETOPS certification and route test flights||sold to French Bee (delivery on June 30, 2017)|
|059||F-WMIL||11/24/2016||A350-1041||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-97||Test equipment / water tanks||first A350-1000||active|
|065||F-WLXV||February 7, 2017||A350-1041||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-97||Cabin equipment||“Carbon” paint; Route test flights||will be sold|
|071||F-WWXL||10/01/2017||A350-1041||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-97||Altitude, cold and heat tests||will be sold|
|5000||N / A||N / A||A350-900||N / A||static test cell||Static test cell, Toulouse|
|5008||N / A||N / A||A350-900||N / A||Endurance test EF-1, Toulouse|
|5009||N / A||N / A||A350-900||N / A||dynamic test cell||Total cell endurance test EF-2 at IABG in Erding|
|5010||N / A||N / A||A350-900||N / A||Endurance test EF-3, Hamburg|
|5011||N / A||N / A||A350||N / A||Dummy cockpit and cabin|
It lists both machines that Airbus uses for flight tests and structural test cells for load tests on the ground.
1 Manufacturer Serial Number: Manufacturer's serial number
2 The last two digits of the aircraft type designation stand for the manufacturer (see Airbus designation system ) and type of engine (structural test cells are not equipped with engines).
Construction and technology
The A350 XWB has a completely new and wider fuselage, new high-speed wings and newly developed engines, with which it is said to be around two percent more efficient per seat than the Boeing 787 and up to 25 percent more efficient than the Boeing 777 . According to Airbus, the direct operating costs should be around ten percent below those of the Boeing 787 and 20 percent below those of competing products of the current generation. As with the A380, the cruising speed should be Mach 0.85 and the noise level with a full load should be 16 EPNdB ( Effective Perceived Noise level , cumulatively over three measuring points) below the limits of ICAO Chapter 4.
The A350 has a simplified system of three tanks with no trim tank . This makes it the first Airbus widebody model to dispense with the trim tanks introduced with the A310 in order to reduce maintenance costs. In order to prevent the ignition of fuel gases in the tanks, the tanks are filled with protective gas ( inerting ). In many technical details, the A350 benefits from the development of the A380. For example, a 34.5 MPa high-pressure hydraulic system with two circuits is used, which is protected by a two-channel electro-hydraulic reserve system.
Contrary to the original plan of an elliptical fuselage cross-section, the A350 XWB - like the Boeing 787 - was given a fuselage that is almost circular in cross-section and largely consists of fiber composite construction elements.
While the 787 fuselage consists of several CFRP hollow cylinders mounted one behind the other , a fuselage segment of the A350 XWB consists of four CFRP panels riveted to each other with overlapping (one each at the top, one below, and one on both sides) on ribs made of an aluminum-lithium -Alloy (Al-Li) can be attached. Longitudinal CFRP stringers stiffen the panels, and a metallic fabric integrated into the outer skin is supposed to protect against lightning strikes.
After damage, this enables the trunk to be repaired quickly by replacing the affected segment. Due to the great length of these individual segments, the number of fuselage cylinders to be assembled is smaller than in the Boeing concept. The resulting reduction in the structural elements to be connected should contribute to weight reduction and simplify load-optimized detailed constructions. Another reason for this concept is that the autoclaves required for production can be smaller. In contrast to previous Airbus long-haul aircraft, the passenger cabin does not taper conically at the rear, but rather has a constant width.
The A350-1000 has a fuselage that is seven meters longer than that of the -900 variant, six frames in front of the wing and five frames behind the wing. The planned version -800 is shortened by six frames in front of and four behind the wing compared to the A350-900.
The design of the cockpit section borrows from the A380 with its forward retracting nose wheel and the six cockpit windows. The aerodynamically revised bow is made of an Al-Li alloy and thus of material that has been tested in bird strikes. If CFRP had been used, the area above the cockpit would have had to be reinforced with titanium structures to protect the crew.
The cockpit is designed as a typical Airbus two-person glass cockpit with sidesticks and folding tables with keyboard. The mushroom-shaped hand rests also used in the A380 for mouse control, two head-up displays and a representation of the altitude profile flown over are new. Six liquid crystal screens with a diagonal of 38 cm serve as a display, the screen contents of which can be freely selected.
The A350 cabin has large windows and spacious, easily accessible overhead lockers. The passengers are offered a quiet environment, plenty of headroom and full-color light-emitting diode lighting technology previously introduced on the A340-600. Thanks to “Mood lighting”, the cabin can be illuminated in different colors depending on the time of day to be simulated, controlled by the Cabin Management System CIDS, which is developed and manufactured by Airbus Buxtehude.
The fuselage is around 11 cm narrower than that of the Boeing 777 , but around 12.5 cm wider than that of the Boeing 787 at eye level and therefore more comfortable with up to nine seats per row. With ten seats in a row, lower costs per seat-kilometer are possible. According to Airbus, the air humidity in the cabin of the A350 should be around 20 percent higher than usual and the cabin pressure should correspond to the air pressure at an altitude of around 6,000 ft (approx. 1,800 m).
Inside the cockpit section there are two bunk beds that can be reached by stairs and a relaxation seat for exchange pilots on long-haul routes. Another crew rest area in the back of the fuselage above the passenger cabin has space for up to eight people from the aircraft crew.
The Airbus A350 is designed as a low-wing aircraft. The wings of the A350 XWB are a new design made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and optimized to a cruising speed of Mach 0.85 thanks to the high sweep of 35 degrees ( leading edge of the wing: 45 °). The wings are 32 meters long and have seven spoilers on each side . The two-part wing tips developed and built by FACC consist of a wing extension and wing tips that are attached to it, curved upwards and backwards . On the wing leading edge there are gapless slats (so-called droop noses ) in the inner area between the fuselage and the engine . On the outside of the wings there are six slats on each side .
The drive train for all slats is supplied by Liebherr-Aerospace . This drive is based on a combined hydraulic-electric solution ("Hybrid Power Control Unit"), which should ensure a high level of reliability and safety. On the trailing edge of the wing there are single slotted flaps with "dropped hinge kinematics". The flaps can also be deflected by up to two degrees when retracted in order to adapt the wing curvature to the current flight condition. This adjustment is made possible by an active gearbox equipped with an electric motor, which is also supplied by Liebherr-Aerospace.
In November 2011, the assembly of the first A350 wings began in Broughton , Welsh .
In collaboration with Kawasaki, Rolls-Royce developed the Trent XWB specifically for the A350 based on the Trent engine family that emerged from the RB211 . Its variants cover the thrust range from 330 kN (Trent XWB-75) to 430 kN (Trent XWB-97) required to propel the different A350 versions . The engines supply bleed air for the pressurized cabin.
The thrust reverser of the engines is activated for the first time by an electrical system (by Goodrich ). The generators of the engines work with variable frequencies in order to be able to supply different alternating voltages for the on-board electronics.
Auxiliary engine / power supply
For the energy supply on the ground without this auxiliary turbine and during the flight in the event of a failure of the engine-side generators, four lithium-ion batteries were originally provided. After two similar types of batteries on the Boeing 787 caught fire in January 2013 and all machines of this new type were shut down, Airbus initially relied on nickel-cadmium batteries in order not to delay the program any further. Both systems were tested as part of the approval process. After clarifying the approval requirements, Airbus plans to offer its customers lithium batteries as an option again from 2016.
The aircraft has a landing gear with two-wheeled nose gear and four-wheeled main undercarriage for the A350-800 / -900 and six-wheeled main landing gear for the A350-1000 (the designation for this arrangement is according to the FAA 2D or 3D ).
The conventionally designed nose landing gear from Liebherr-Aerospace Lindenberg with two tires with a diameter of 1.05 m is folded forward and pulled into the nose section. The main landing gear from Safran Landing Systems with a total of eight (twelve on the A350-1000) 1.40 m large wheels is housed in a 4.1 or 4.7 meter long landing gear shaft for the A350-1000.
The installation of the main landing gear is different from previous Airbus aircraft and borrows from the Vickers VC10 from the 1960s. The chassis is folded in instead of retracted, which reduces maintenance and weight. Airbus traditionally attaches the main landing gear to the rear wing spar. According to Airbus, such a fastening would lead to strength problems in a carbon fiber composite wing, since the thin outer shell of the wing cannot absorb the forces introduced there. That's why the main landing gear legs of the A350 are positioned further back. These are attached to the front on the rear wing spar and to the rear on an additional arm that is attached to the fuselage and integrated into the wing.
Manufacturing and logistics
As with all Airbus aircraft, the individual components are manufactured locally, only the final assembly of the A350 takes place in Toulouse, France. The large-format fuselage sections, wings and tail units are mainly transported by the Airbus Beluga fleet.
The bow section manufactured by STELIA Aerospace in Méaulte - cockpit with the upper and lower fuselage shell behind it, including door and nose landing gear shaft - is connected to the fore fuselage section from Hamburg-Finkenwerder at the St. Nazaire plant . The engine nacelle suspensions and a section of the central fuselage will also be built in France, the horizontal stabilizer will be manufactured in Getafe (Spain). The Airbus locations in Germany build the fuselage except for the above-mentioned sections, the upper wing shells, the vertical stabilizer and the cabin equipment. The wings are manufactured at the Airbus plant in Broughton , the main landing gear at Messier-Bugatti-Dowty in Gloucester ( Great Britain ) and the nose landing gear as well as the slat actuation system and components for the actuation of the landing flaps at Liebherr Aerospace in Lindenberg in the Allgäu . Northrop Grumman builds CFRP stringers and frames in Clearfield, Utah.
The production of fuselage segments for the -1000 started in October 2014 at Premium Aerotec . In the Nordenham plant, the complete section 13/14 is being built, which will be transported by ship to Finkenwerder, while side shells for the rear section 16/18, cabin floor and pressure cap are being built in Augsburg. Wing shells manufactured in Illescas (Spain) are completed to form the wing in Broughton, equipped in Bremen and finally delivered to Toulouse for final assembly.
The A350 XWB was initially offered in three versions: the A350-800, -900 and -1000, which differ mainly in the length of the fuselage. A further stretching of the A350-1000 is being considered; however, a corresponding program has not yet officially started.
With the A350, a competitor model to the Boeing 777 series and at the same time an alternative to the Boeing 787, which has a similar manufacturing technology, has been developed that can hold more passengers. (Capacity overlaps with the Boeing 787 only exist between the A350-800 and the variant 787-9 as well as A350-900 and 787-10.)
The A350-800 series ( aircraft type code 358 ( IATA ); A358 ( ICAO )) should offer space for around 280 passengers. Originally, this version was to be given a lighter structure, with a design revision. At the request of the airlines, however, it was decided to use a design identical to the -900 , which results in greater payload capacity and range at the expense of economy. Airbus reserves the right to offer the structurally improved variant as an option.
The original design provided for a range of 15,400 km and a maximum take-off weight of 248 t, but Airbus developed this further to make it more distinct from the -900, increased the range to 15,860 km and increased the maximum take-off weight to 259 t. Airbus continues to offer this concept to customers as an option.
At Airbus, this type should replace the four-engine A340-200 in the product range. At the beginning of 2014, however, it was announced that Airbus would stop development work on Version 800 due to the continuously falling order backlog. This version of the A350 is being replaced in the Airbus range by the Airbus A330-800neo .
The A350-900 ( IATA type code ; 359; ICAO type code : A359) has 325 seats in Airbus' fictitious three-class seating and a range of around 15,000 km. According to Airbus, the -900 has a 16% lower mass, 30% less fuel consumption and 25% lower operating costs than the Boeing 777-200ER . It was developed as a competitor to the Boeing 777 and Boeing 787 and is intended to replace the Airbus A340-300. The French Bee airline ordered its A350-900 with 411 seats. The German flight readiness ordered three copies with a special configuration.
The A350-900ULR (Ultra Long Range) version with a modified tank system, extended winglets and changed flap positions has a range of 17,960 kilometers and went into service for the first time in the second half of 2018. The first flight of the prototype MSN216 took place on April 23, 2018. Seven copies of this type were ordered by Singapore Airlines . The aircraft will be used on the Singapore – Los Angeles and Singapore – New York routes. The latter flight route is the longest commercial flight route in the world at approximately 10,400 miles (16,737 kilometers). The flight time is given as up to 19 hours. Singapore Airlines had already operated these two routes with the Airbus A340-500 , but stopped again in autumn 2013 due to inefficiency due to the inevitably high fuel consumption. The aircraft of this variant have an adapted fuel system (without additional tanks) to increase the amount of fuel from 141,000 liters to 165,000 liters and an increased maximum take-off mass of 280 tons as well as aerodynamic improvements. At the operator's request, the machines can be dismantled to standard configurations of an A350-900. On October 11, 2018, the ultra-long route from Singapore to Newark was resumed. The first aircraft in the sub-fleet (MSN 220) bears the registration number 9V-SGA.
The version A350-1000 ( IATA type code : 351 ; ICAO type code : A35K) with two fuselage sections lengthened by more than three meters, increased take-off mass to 316 t and a maximum range of 8,400 nm (15,557 km) can be ordered since June 2016. A Trent XWB-97 engine with enhanced performance for this A350 variant has been tested in flight on the A380 MSN001 in Toulouse since the beginning of November 2015. In contrast to the -900, CFRP door frames developed by Premium Aerotec are used. The main landing gear has six wheels on each side.
The A350-1000 has 366 passenger seats in a three-class configuration defined by Airbus, is intended to replace the A340-600 and will be established as a competitor to the Boeing 777X and 777-300ER. By arranging ten seats next to each other, an even higher passenger capacity is possible. On September 15, 2008, the French airline Air Caraïbes signed an agreement in principle with Airbus for the purchase of three A350-1000s for 440 passengers in three classes. Airbus names 440 passengers as the maximum permitted for all variants of the A350.
Final assembly of the first A350-1000 began in early February 2016 , the maiden flight took place on November 24, 2016, the A350-1000 series received certification in November 2017, and on February 20, 2018 the first aircraft was sold to Qatar Airways delivered.
Due to the larger passenger capacity of the Boeing 777-9X compared to the A350-1000, a further stretching of the A350 by three to four meters is being discussed. The project variant known as the A350-1100 or A350-2000 could be 76.60 meters long and is particularly supported by the major customer Singapore Airlines . Airbus, on the other hand, denies such plans and instead pushes for a further consolidation of the existing models.
Airbus is considering a cargo version of the A350. Potential customers have already been asked.
Orders and deliveries
For all variants of the A350, 970 orders from 51 customers have been received (as of July 31, 2020).
The first deliveries of the A350-900 were originally planned for the end of 2013 and later for the second half of 2014. The shorter version -800 was to leave the factory for the first time in mid-2016, the longer -1000 in mid-2017. After several postponements due to manufacturing problems with the wings, an A350-900 (MSN006) was finally delivered to Qatar Airways on December 18, 2014.
On December 21, 2004, the Spanish airline Air Europa was the first customer to sign a letter of intent for ten A350-800s. Qatar Airways raised plans to purchase up to 60 -800 and -900 aircraft at the 2005 Paris Air Show . After speculation about a move away from this project due to the delayed commissioning of the aircraft due to the A350 redesign, the announcement of the procurement of a total of 80 A350s (20 each A350-800 and -1000 as well as 40 A350-900) from 2013 followed on March 15, 2007 A corresponding basic agreement was signed on May 30, 2007, the purchase agreement followed on June 18, 2007.
The 182 firm orders and purchase intentions for the original A350 on July 17, 2006 - when the new A350 XWB development program was announced - were only slightly changed by the airlines. On the same day, the leasing company ILFC announced that they were satisfied with the new design and would not cancel the original order. Only the price will be negotiated again. Other previous A350 customers made similar statements.
Singapore Airlines announced on July 21, 2006 during the Farnborough Air Show that it would order 20 A350 XWB version -900 plus 20 options. This was the first new customer and the first airline to order both the Boeing 787 and the A350. The purchase agreement was signed in June 2007.
The first firm order for the A350 XWB was signed at the end of December 2006 with the US leasing company Pegasus for two aircraft and announced in early January 2007. Finnair is the first customer to convert their order for the original A350 design into an order for the A350 XWB on March 8, 2007. At the same time there was an increase by two to a total of eleven aircraft and on December 3, 2014 by a further eight A350-900s. Finnair has thus ordered a total of 19 machines.
Emirates' order from November 11, 2007 for 50 Airbus A350-900 and 20 A350-1000 was canceled in June 2014 after discussions between the airline and Airbus about their fleet renewal.
In July 2017, Qatar Airways canceled four A350s.
On July 26, 2017, the 100th Airbus A350 was delivered to China Airlines with an A350-900 .
In February 2019, Emirates announced that it had signed a preliminary contract for 30 A350-900s. The airline ordered 50 A350-900s for the Dubai Air Show 2019.
In April 2019, it was announced that the Federal Republic of Germany will purchase three A350-900 aircraft worth 640 million euros as replacements. The first machine is expected to be taken over by the German Bundeswehr in June 2020 . The planes were ordered by Lufthansa Technik . In August 2020, a machine named Kurt Schumacher was handed over to the Bundeswehr for flight readiness. Two more machines will be handed over under the names Konrad Adenauer and Theodor Heuss .
(in million US dollars)
|2008||205.9 to 211.5||238.2 to 242.9||267.0 to 272.2|
Table of firm orders and deliveries
The firm orders (August 20, 2020) listed in the Airbus order books are listed without taking any letters of intent into account . The delivery dates refer to planespotters.net .
|airline||A350-900||A350-1000||total||delivered of it||First delivery|
|AerCap 1||20th||0||20th||220||June 30, 2015|
|Aeroflot||22nd||0||22nd||1||February 28, 2020|
|Air Caraïbes||3||4th||7th||1||February 28, 2017 (leased from AirCap)|
|Air China||30th||0||30th||10||August 8, 2018|
|Air France-KLM||38||0||38||6th||September 27, 2019|
|Air Lease Corporation||20th||10||30th||10||29th November 2017|
|Air Mauritius||4th||0||4th||2||October 20, 2017 (leased from AerCap)|
|Alafco 1||12||0||12||12||August 31, 2017|
|Asiana||21st||9||30th||11||April 25, 2017|
|BOC Aviation 1||2||0||2||2|
|British Airways||0||18th||18th||6th||3rd July 2019|
|Cathay Pacific Airways||26th||20th||46||34 + (2)||May 28, 2016 (leased from AerCap)|
|China Airlines||14th||0||14th||14th||September 30, 2016|
|China Eastern Airlines||20th||0||20th||7th||29th November 2018|
|China Southern Airlines||20th||0||20th||6th||June 28, 2019|
|CIT Leasing 1||10||0||10||27||19th September 2015|
|DAE Capital 1||2||0||2||2|
|Delta Airlines||25th||0||25th||13||July 13, 2017|
|Emirates||50||0||50||0||probably May 2023|
|Ethiopian Airlines||22nd||0||22nd||12 + (2)||September 20, 2017 (leased from AerCap)|
|Etihad Airways||0||20th||20th||5||29th July 2019|
|Finnair||19th||0||19th||15th||October 7, 2015|
|Groupe Dubreuil 3||1||0||1||1||June 30, 2017|
|Hong Kong Airlines||13||0||13||3||August 31, 2017|
|Iberia||20th||0||20th||9||June 26, 2018|
|Japan Airlines||18th||13||31||6th||June 13, 2019|
|LATAM Airlines Group||13||2||15th||14th||December 17, 2015 (leased from AerCap)|
|Lufthansa||43||0||43||16||December 21, 2016|
|Air Force (Bundeswehr)||3||0||3||1||20th August 2020|
|Philippine Airlines||6th||0||6th||6th||July 14, 2018|
|Qatar Airways||34||42||76||49||22nd December 2014|
|Scandinavian Airlines||8th||0||8th||4 + (2)||November 28, 2019 (leased from AerCap)|
|Sichuan Airlines||10||0||10||(4)||August 8, 2018 (leased from AerCap)|
|Singapore Airlines||67||0||67||48||March 2, 2016|
|Starlux Airlines||9||8th||17th||0||probably 2021|
|Thai Airways International||4th||0||4th||4+ (8)||August 30, 2016 (leased from ALAFCO and CIT)|
|Turkish Airlines||25th||0||25th||0||probably March 2020|
|United Airlines||45||0||45||0||probably 2027|
|Vietnam Airlines||10||0||10||10+ (4)||June 30, 2015 (leased from AerCap and CIT)|
|Virgin Atlantic Airways||0||8th||8th||4th||August 9, 2019|
|Private customers 2||2||0||2||0|
|Unknown orders||10||0||10||10 + (3)|
|total||760||170||930||370||so far delivered to 24 operators|
Diagram of orders and deliveries
As of July 31, 2020
|First flight||k. A.||14th of June 2013||April 23, 2018||k. A.||November 24, 2016|
|Commissioning||k. A.||22nd December 2014||October 11, 2018||k. A.||February 26, 2018|
|length||60.60 m||66.89 m||73.78 m|
|Tailplane span||18.79 m|
|height||17.07–17.39 m (depending on mass and center of gravity)|
|Trunk width||5.96 m|
|Torso height||6.09 m|
|Max. Cabin width||5.61 m|
|Wing area||k. A.||354 m²||k. A.||k. A.||370 m²|
|Wing sweep (t / 4 line)||on the fuselage: 31.9 °, in the center of the wing: 35 °|
|Empty mass||k. A.||115.7 t||k. A.||k. A.|
|Max. Takeoff mass||259 t (option 248 t)||275 t||280 t||316 t|
|Max. Landing mass||182.5 t||207 t||k. A.||k. A.||233 t|
|Fuel capacity||129,000 l||138,000 l||165,000 l||k. A.||156,000 l|
|wheelbase||24.86 m||28.67 m||k. A.||k. A.||32.48 m|
|Gauge||10.60 m||10.73 m|
|Passenger capacity (3 classes)||280||325||325||366|
|Max. Cargo capacity||28 LD3 or 9 LD7 pallets||36 LD3 or 11 LD7 pallets||k. A.||around 90 t of freight||44 LD3 or 14 LD7 pallets|
|Engine types||2 × turbofan engines Rolls-Royce Trent XWB *|
|Thrust||2 × 351.5 kN (option 2 × 330.5 kN)||2 × 374.5 kN||2 × 431.5 kN|
|Top speed||Mach 0.89 (approx. 960 km / h at 11,000 m altitude)|
|Cruising speed||Mach 0.85 (approx. 910 km / h at 11,000 m cruising altitude)|
(with typical number of passengers)
(option 15,400 km)
|15,000 km||about 17,960 km||over 9,250 km||15,550 km|
|Service ceiling||43,100 ft (13,100 m)||12,600 m|
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