A Boeing 787-8 in Boeing corporate colors
|Type:||twin-engine wide - body aircraft|
December 15, 2009
October 26, 2011
in series production since 2009
|Number of pieces:||
975 (as of end of June 2020)
The Boeing 787 , also marketed by the manufacturer with the nickname “Dreamliner” , is a twin - engine, long - haul airliner from the US aircraft manufacturer Boeing for 200 to 300 passengers . It is the successor to the Boeing 767 and the first wide-bodied aircraft whose fuselage is largely made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic . The first machine was delivered to All Nippon Airways on September 25, 2011 after a three-and-a-half year delay and went into service on October 26, 2011.
Most recently, Boeing launched a new aircraft, the 777, in the mid-1990s . Since the end of the 1990s, the aircraft manufacturer has pursued various strategies to respond to the challenge posed by Airbus and its development of the world's largest passenger aircraft, the A380 : Initially, Boeing wanted a larger version of the “Jumbo Jet” 747 developed in the 1960s , by then the largest passenger aircraft in the world, directly competing with the A380. This plan of a 747-X However lack of demand, airlines soon abandoned and replaced by the announcement, an almost supersonic large aircraft " Sonic Cruiser to develop." This plan was based on the assumption that maximum time savings would remain the determining factor in the flight business.
Due to the crisis following the attacks of September 11, 2001 and in view of rising oil prices , however, no airline was ready to order the fast, but relatively uneconomical "Sonic Cruiser". Based on these reactions, Boeing set about designing a new aircraft from what was initially only a reference draft of a “Super Efficient Airplane”. Initially this was called the “7E7”, with an “E” for “efficient”. After the program started, it was renamed "787" to better fit Boeing's well-known numbering scheme and to have the "8" in its name, which is considered the lucky number in Asia, and it was given the nickname "Dreamliner" ("dream plane") . The Boeing Board of Directors made the decision to build the 787 in December 2003. This had already been expected in advance, because the prevailing opinion was that Boeing could not afford not to build a model it had announced for the third time in a row.
Boeing now sees the future more in medium-sized models, with which long and ultra-long-haul flights can be flown directly and without intermediate stops from less large airports away from the major aviation hubs (" point-to-point ") and the hubs with the smaller aircraft can be flown to more frequently. Boeing expects wealthy business travelers to want a particularly large aircraft less than direct connections and short waiting times. Nevertheless, with the 747-8 , an enlarged version of the “Jumbo” was introduced.
One goal of the developers was to bring the operating costs of the 787 by eight to ten percent below those of the Boeing 767-300ER by lowering fuel consumption . On November 7, 2006, the manufacturer announced that the direct operating costs would be a further two to three percent lower due to lower maintenance costs. According to Boeing, this cost advantage should more than compensate for the higher acquisition costs of the 787.
Funding and Subsidies
The total cost to market of the 787 is about $ 13.4 billion, that of Boeing itself (about $ 4.2 billion), from suppliers ($ 3.1 billion), through government subsidies from an of the states involved in production (Italy 590 million US dollars, Japan 1.588 billion US dollars), the US states Kansas (200 million US dollars) and Washington (3.2 billion US dollars) and others Donors are raised. This corresponds to roughly double the funds required in 1990 for the launch of the Boeing 777 (US $ 6-7 billion).
The alleged violations of the subsidy regulations laid down in the “Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures” of the World Trade Organization (WTO) for the financing of the 787 led to a complaint by the EU to the WTO in 2004 .
The official program start of the Boeing 787 took place on April 26, 2004 after All Nippon Airways (ANA) was the first customer to firmly order fifty machines for delivery from 2008 onwards. The date for the planned rollout of the 787 was announced on March 30, 2007 and finally took place on July 8, 2007 in the final assembly plant in Everett, Washington .
Similar to the Airbus production model , essential parts are produced at various locations and brought to main assembly. In contrast to Airbus, these components are not manufactured in different plants of the company or parent company, but by independent contractors. The wings are manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Nagoya , Japan , the horizontal stabilizer by Alenia Aeronautica in Italy (in cooperation with the Turkish TAI), individual fuselage sections also by the aforementioned manufacturers and the Lewis and Vought Corporation from South Carolina and Spirit AeroSystems from Wichita (Kansas) .
The first unofficial roll-out took place at the end of June 2007 when a Boeing 787 was towed out of the production hall, the official one followed on July 8, 2007 (Boeing writes the date as 7/8/7 in American spelling) when the 787 was recorded the Boeing Aircraft Depot in Everett was presented to the world public.
On June 20, 2008, the first power-on of the electrical systems was successfully completed as an important step before the first flight.
The first flight took place on December 15, 2009 from 10:28 a.m. (local time) or 7:28 p.m. (Central European Time) by a 787-8 and led from Paine Field in Everett near Seattle in the US state of Washington to Boeing Field on the south Edge of the metropolitan area of Seattle. Given the original schedule, this was a 27 month delay. The approximately three-hour flight was carried out by test pilots Mike Carriker and Randy Neville, with the machine reaching a maximum altitude of at least 3764 m (4572 m were approved) and a speed of 370 km / h.
The 787 landed in Europe for the first time on July 18, 2010 at the Farnborough Air Show. The first visit to Germany took place on June 25, 2011 for a presentation of the planned German first customer Air Berlin at Berlin-Tegel Airport . On December 17, 2012, the first 787 landed at Vienna-Schwechat Airport in Austria - it was a plane operated by the Polish state airline LOT .
Class records, miscellaneous
During a test flight on December 6, 2011, a Boeing 787 ( aircraft registration number ZA 006) with 13 people on board, including six pilots, set two records for aircraft in its weight class (200-250 tons): a distance record for covering a distance of 19,835 kilometers without stopping and a time record of 42 hours 27 minutes for a circumnavigation of the earth.
The first leg took the aircraft from Seattle in an easterly direction across North America, the Atlantic , the Mediterranean , the Middle East and India 19,835 kilometers to Dhaka , Bangladesh . During a two-hour stop there, the machine was refueled. It then flew east over Singapore , the Philippines and the Pacific 18,678 kilometers to Seattle, where it landed 42 hours and 27 minutes after take-off.
The 787 broke a seven-year-old distance record for an Airbus A330 - a time record for a circumnavigation of the world has never been seen in this weight class.
The Boeing 787 was awarded the Collier Trophy for 2011.
The fuel consumption is intended by newly developed engines , reduced weight and improved aerodynamics to 20 percent lower than that of comparable current models under real conditions depending on seating, usage and utilization specific consumption 3-10 l / comprise 100 km / passenger. In addition, the new types of engines should cause less noise .
New types of engines
The two engine types Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 and General Electric GEnx are offered for the Boeing 787 . Unlike previous types, these engines do not emit any bleed air for the air conditioning system . Only for the anti-icing of the engine there is an air loss. Each engine has two starter generators of 250 kVA each, which are used to start the engines and generate electricity. With other types, compressed air from the auxiliary power unit ( APU ) is used for starting . On the Boeing 787, the auxiliary power unit with its two 225 kVA generators only serves as a power supplier. The air conditioning on the Boeing 787 is also operated electrically. This also excludes the aerotoxic syndrome , as the air for the cabin is not taken from the engines and therefore cannot be contaminated by engine oils. The 787 is the first jet in decades that - like several types constructed long before, such as the Douglas DC-8 (without Super 70 conversion) - does not use any bleed air for the air conditioning. The machine's electrical system works with alternating current of variable frequency (from 360 to 800 Hertz) and, unlike other machines, is decentralized. So instead of one large electrical room - usually found near the cockpit - two smaller ones are used. The length of the cabling could be kept relatively short at 113 kilometers (Boeing 767: around 150 kilometers). In addition, consumers with less than 10 A are supplied via decentralized power distributors. For emergencies, a fold can ram-air turbine supply the major systems with 10 kVA of electrical power and emergency hydraulics. As a further special feature, both engine types have similar connections to the aircraft, so that, unlike other aircraft types, each aircraft can be converted from one engine type to the other more quickly. The duration of the conversion is still disputed with 24 hours to 15 days.
The relative weight saving of 20 percent is achieved through lightweight construction . Much of the aircraft is built from composite materials instead of metal. For example, aluminum is only used with a weight share of 20 percent.
The 787 has a completely newly developed airframe (wings, tail unit and fuselage) with a current aerodynamic design. The design, which initially appeared very futuristic and even more streamlined in advertising images, was discarded in favor of the current more conventional appearance. It would have created too much drag. The tail units of the 787-9 and 787-10 receive a system that suppresses disturbances in the air flowing along them.
Lower noise emissions
The lower noise emission of the engines is made possible, among other things, by a zigzag-shaped trailing edge ("chevron nozzle") attached to the bypass flow nozzle, which leads to better mixing of the bypass flow (fan flow) with the external flow. It reduces noise somewhat during take-off and landing. The main benefit is a significant reduction in the noise level in the rear cabin during cruising - a prerequisite for being able to comply with the noise limits for the interior of the cabin despite the lightweight construction.
Lower kerosene consumption
Since there is no longer any bleed air to be taken from them, the two newly developed General Electric GEnx (GE Next Generation) and Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engines should contribute eight percent to the increase in efficiency. Their thrust is 236 to 334 kN.
The 787 is the first large passenger aircraft to be equipped as standard with a so-called "inerting system", which significantly reduces the risk of kerosene exploding in the tanks. For this purpose, nitrogen is extracted from the air using a special filter system and then fed into the tanks. This lowers the oxygen content there so much that no fire can occur even if there are flying sparks. The development of such a system was initiated after the accident of TWA Flight 800 .
With dimensions of 48 centimeters by 28 centimeters, the windows are larger than in any other aircraft in this class and can be electronically darkened individually . Light-emitting diodes are used for the cabin lighting - these can be regulated in their brightness and varied in color; Daily routines and a night sky with stars could also be simulated in the jet. The lighting technology is supplied by the Franco-German company Diehl Aerospace .
Sensors and intelligent electronics should make the flight of the machine smoother in turbulence , because countermeasures are taken automatically at every moment; Boeing believes that this will significantly reduce the risk of motion sickness .
The air humidity is around 15% in order to better prevent the passengers from drying out (the previous air humidity in airplanes is usually only around 5%).
Manufacturing and logistics
A special feature of the 787 is the globally distributed production of the assemblies, which are completely equipped by suppliers. While the wings (from Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) and individual fuselage parts (center wing box from Fuji Heavy Industries / Nagoya, front fuselage part and the main landing gear shaft from Kawasaki Heavy Industries / Nagoya) are produced in Japan, other parts come from Italy ( middle part of the fuselage from Alenia in Grottaglie, horizontal stabilizer from Alenia in Foggia). Boeing itself limits itself to final assembly, in which around four prefabricated components as well as engines and interior fittings are assembled in a few days. With this aircraft, Boeing only sees itself as a system integrator .
One of the advantages of this production method is that risks and costs can be transferred to the suppliers (sales-dependent payment of the suppliers and full assumption of the one-off costs for development and production). The disadvantage is that the dependency on suppliers increases and Boeing's know-how for the next aircraft developments is lost.
The 747LCF - a modification of the 747 - was specially created to transport the parts .
Since Boeing had very little experience with fiber composite components before developing the 787, problems were foreseeable, especially in the manufacturing process. The previously developed Boeing 777 used relatively few fiber composite components compared to the Airbus planes ( A340 / A330 / A320 ). The first signs of problems were reports of blistering in the fiber laminate during the manufacture of the hull.
In May 2009, a load test on the wings resulted in delamination of the composite materials at the end of the wing stringers , which led to a further postponement of the first flight. Boeing wants to solve the problem with additional reinforcements.
On August 15, 2009, it was announced that wrinkles had been discovered in the outer skin of 23 segments of the aircraft under construction. These segments were manufactured by the Italian supplier Alenia Aeronautica. After discovering these problems, the supplier's production was stopped until the problem was solved.
As early as 2006, reports were circulating about problems meeting the schedule. The reasons for this, in addition to the confirmed problems in the production of fuselage segments, would be problems with the wings (with regard to production and excessive weight) and the integration of the electronics. In addition, at that time there should have been problems in communication with the many suppliers due to the program and in coordinating the suppliers with one another. On December 11, 2006, Boeing confirmed compliance with the schedule, according to which the test flight of the first machine was planned in 2007 and the first should be delivered in 2008.
The speculations of 2006 were confirmed when Boeing announced in a telephone press conference on September 5, 2007 that it would have to postpone the first flight to mid-November to mid-December 2007. At that time it was still thought that the first delivery planned for May 2008 would still be possible due to a tightening of the test program, this had to be revised on October 10, 2007, when an official declaration announced that the first flight would be in March 2008 and the delivery postponed to December 2008.
On January 16, 2008, Boeing announced further delays, according to which the first flight would be postponed to the end of the second quarter of 2008 and the first delivery to the first quarter of 2009. This date could not be kept either, and a first flight at the end of 2008 and a start of deliveries in the third quarter of 2009 were targeted.
In the period that followed, some of the newly defined internal project deadlines were not met and further improvements had to be made in the production processes. On April 9, 2008, Boeing finally announced another delay. The first flight was therefore scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2008, while the first delivery should take place in the fourth quarter of 2009. This resulted in an overall delay in the project of around 18 months compared to the original schedule. With the new schedule, Boeing also announced that the order in which the three previously announced variants will be launched has been changed. The base model 787-8 was not to be followed by the 787-3, but - in 2012 - by the 787-9. The -3 variant should therefore only be delivered as the third; an appointment was not given.
On November 4, 2008, Boeing finally announced that the first flight of the 787 was no longer expected in 2008. Problems with connecting parts (six percent of the special bolts used to connect titanium and composite parts were not flush) and a protracted mechanics' strike were cited as reasons for the renewed delay . The new schedule was specified on December 11th: the first flight should now take place in the second quarter of 2009, the first delivery in the first quarter of 2010.
On June 23, 2009, Boeing announced that the first flight would be postponed again - initially for an indefinite period - due to technical problems. The reason given was problems with the side of the fuselage. This should now be strengthened.
On August 27, 2009, Boeing announced a new schedule. After that, the first flight of the base model 787-8 should take place at the end of 2009 and the first delivery in the fourth quarter of 2010.
There was no further postponement of the date of the first flight, it took place on December 15, 2009.
In mid-July 2010, Boeing announced that delivery of the first aircraft to the Japanese company All Nippon Airways could be postponed to early 2011. The reason given for the delay included further investigations in the aircraft's test phase. On August 27, 2010 it was confirmed that the first 787 could now probably only be delivered in February 2011, as the provision of the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engines was delayed after a failed test run and the associated necessary corrections.
At the beginning of December 2010, Boeing informally told Air France managers that the first deliveries would be postponed "to June or July 2011", ie for another six months. On January 18, 2011, Boeing finally announced publicly that the first delivery would definitely have to be postponed to the third quarter of 2011. Overall, the delay compared to the original plan was over three years.
On May 26, 2011, Boeing announced that the first delivery would take place between August and September 2011. The Japanese airline All Nippon Airways (ANA) will buy the first aircraft.
On August 13, 2011, the flight test program of the seven machines used for this purpose was completed after 1731 flights and 4911 flight hours.
On September 25, 2011, the first delivery of a 787 finally took place. As predicted, the customer was All Nippon Airways. On October 26, 2011, the 787 finally started operating.
On September 22, 2012, United Airlines was the first North American airline to receive a 787 (Boeing 787-822, registration number N20904), and on November 4, 2012, it carried out the first commercial passenger flight of a 787 in North America (from Houston to Chicago). As of March 2014, United was the only North American scheduled airline with a 787 unit in its fleet, with American Airlines and Delta Air Lines also placing orders.
After the US air traffic control authority FAA imposed a take-off ban on the Boeing 787 for the USA and other regulatory authorities followed this, Boeing stopped delivering the aircraft on January 18, 2013. However, production should continue. More on the take-off ban in the flight ban section .
On November 7th, 2006 it was announced that the design would have to be about 2.5 tonnes (two to three percent of the curb weight) lighter in order to meet the promised performance data. This is to be achieved through detailed optimization and through increased use of titanium. To this end, the research and development budget was increased by US $ 300 million in 2006 and by another US $ 335 million in 2007.
According to Boeing, the first six prototypes of the model are to be built with overweight on December 11, 2006. From the seventh aircraft onwards, the target weight should then be maintained.
Steven F. Udvar-Házy , head of the leasing company ILFC , criticized that the 787-9 was more than six tons too heavy. "We are working on weight reductions for the 787-9 and other members of the 787 family," the manufacturer confirmed.
In December 2009, Boeing published a revised version of the airport planning documents for the 787, showing increases in the maximum take-off weight for all three variants, which are partly due to the increased curb weight. The maximum take-off weight of the 787-3 is now 170,250 kg (plus 5,000 kg), that of the 787-8 227,900 kg (plus 8,400 kg) and that of the 787-9 247,400 kg (plus 2,270 kg).
The relatively small increase in weight of the 787-9 is due, among other things, to the fact that Boeing reduced the wingspan of the 787-9 to the dimensions of the 787-8 after an analysis of the load results for the wings of the 787-8 was available.
On May 11, 2011, Boeing announced a further increase in the weight of the 787-9, to 251,000 kg. This increased the maximum take-off weight by approx. 5,800 kg compared to the original plan.
On October 4, 2011, further details about the overweight of the 787-8 became known, so the prototype weighed almost ten tons more than originally planned; the first customer machines (7th to 19th copies delivered) will still be used by the respective airlines with an excess weight of 6.1 tons. According to Boeing, it will only be able to achieve the promised weight from the 90th machine onwards, until then constant weight reductions are planned. At least up to the 34th copy, the curb weight will be four tons above the planned weight.
On February 2, 2007, it was announced that Boeing was having problems with its suppliers, Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Fuji Heavy Industries . They could not finish the work on the components for the 787, which is why the semi-finished parts had to be brought to a Boeing plant in South Carolina . On June 12, 2007, problems with the accuracy of fit became known. In order to connect the front of the first prototype to the rest of the fuselage, internal fixtures had to be removed to make it less stable, so that a 4.5 cm gap could be closed with hydraulic aid. Due to delivery difficulties, only provisional rivets could be installed in many places in the machine planned for the rollout , which had to be replaced before the first flight.
On August 9, 2007 it was announced that the first flight of the Boeing 787 would have to be postponed from the planned date in September to October 2007 due to software problems. However, compliance with the rest of the schedule is still possible.
On May 1, 2015, it was announced that due to software problems after long periods of continuous operation of the generators, the power in the aircraft could fail, which would cause the pilots to lose control of the aircraft. Until the software error has been corrected, the four generators must be switched off and restarted after 120 days of operation at the latest. The US aviation authority FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) issued a corresponding directive.
The US aviation authority FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) instructed the airlines on March 26, 2020 with effect from April 7, 2020 to shut down and restart their Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft after no more than 51 days. This measure is necessary in order to avoid "unsafe conditions" , according to an airworthiness directive (LTA) of the FAA.
According to the LTA, if the aircraft is in continuous operation for more than 51 days, the pilots may receive misleading data. This applies to speed, attitude, altitude and engine data, among other things.
In December 2007, doubts arose as to whether the Rolls-Royce engines in particular would be able to meet the promised consumption figures. On September 16, 2010, it became known that difficulties had occurred with an engine of a test aircraft. The engine had to be replaced. It was unclear whether this incident would have any impact on the delivery schedule. The Boeing 787 achieved ETOPS -180 approval in the test flights, so that the aircraft only have to reach an alternate airport after three hours after an engine failure. In May 2014, the Boeing 787 was finally granted the ETOPS-330 approval that Boeing has always striven for for certain engines.
During the certification flights, there was a fire on the electrical panel P100 of the ZA002 in the rear electrical room. When examined, molten metal was found in the panel. The incident resulted in an interruption in the admissions program. Changes had to be made to the design of the panel and the control software. In December 2012 there were generator problems on two newly delivered machines. In January 2013 there was a fire in the newly developed lithium-ion batteries in two machines in the front and rear electrical rooms. As a result of the second incident, the FAA issued an airworthiness directive which required the operators of the B787 to provide evidence of the safe operation of the batteries. In both cases the batteries were not overcharged. There have been frequent problems with the batteries, and some had to be replaced due to deep discharge . This indicates a problem with the electrical control of the battery. As early as 2006, a lithium-ion battery caught fire during laboratory tests. The type of battery used by the Boeing 787 is the lithium cobalt oxide battery (LiCoO 2 ), which is very explosive. In order to get the approval from the FAA again, Boeing has packed the battery in a steel case and additionally isolated the individual battery cells from each other. In this way, a possible fire should not spread to other cells and not get into the cabin. The US traffic safety authority NTSB blames Boeing, the Japanese battery manufacturer GS Yuasa and the US aviation authority FAA for failures: Yuasa has not tested the battery under the most severe conditions, Boeing has not developed a scenario in the event that there is an internal short circuit in the The battery is coming and the FAA overlooked the possibility of this type of defect in the approval process for the aircraft type.
The following two incidents triggered a practically worldwide flight ban:
- On January 7, 2013, a battery caught fire in a Japan Airlines (JAL) 787 at Boston Airport . The fire that developed was extinguished by the fire brigade. Nobody was injured, except for a mechanic there were no people on board the aircraft. According to initial investigations by the NTSB , this battery has not been overcharged.
- On January 16, 2013 an ANA 787 had to make an emergency landing in Japan due to smoke development in the cabin. The cause was found to be a defect in the batteries. The two Japanese airlines ANA and Japan Airlines decided to leave all 24 Boeing 787s on the ground and inspect them for the time being.
Shortly thereafter, the American US aviation authority FAA issued a complete flight ban (grounding) for all “Dreamliners”. Other authorities around the world have joined this ban, including EASA for Europe. This was the first time since 1979 that all aircraft of one type were held on the ground (at that time all McDonnell Douglas DC-10s were affected because of problems with the engine mounts).
On February 5, 2013, Boeing filed a request with the FAA to conduct test flights, which could indicate progress in troubleshooting. Approval for this was granted on February 8, 2013.
On April 19, 2013, the FAA approved the Boeing 787's new battery system and announced that the Boeing 787 would be granted permission to take off again at short notice. After the conversion, however, flights of up to 180 minutes over sparsely populated areas or over the sea should initially be permitted.
On April 25, 2013, the FAA lifted the January flight ban, even though investigations into the causes of the battery overheating had not yet been completed. Aviation authorities in other countries also gave the green light.
Claims for compensation
Should negotiations fail to reach an agreement by the end of the year, Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT held out the prospect of a compensation claim in August 2013. The LOT “Dreamliner” had to be replaced by leased machines after the launch ban in the spring, which resulted in costs of an estimated 25 million euros. In December 2013, the two companies agreed on a compensation payment; no sum was given.
Air India had already requested compensation for the delayed delivery of the 787 in spring 2012 . Boeing immediately denied reports of a $ 500 million payment agreement.
The Boeing 787-3 was - similar to the Boeing 747-SR - designed for a special feature of the Japanese market, but the plans were discontinued due to low demand. In Japan there are various domestic flights over sometimes only 400 km with a very high number of passengers, for which the usual medium- haul aircraft such as Boeing 737 are clearly too small. Initially, 43 orders for this version had been received from the Japanese airlines JAL and ANA , which presumably would have mainly used them on domestic Japanese routes - in the meantime, however, the orders of both airlines have been canceled or converted to other series of the 787.
Since take-offs and landings place significantly more stress on aircraft than cruising, the 787-3 would have been given a significantly reinforced structure compared to the -8, but would have considerably more passengers with around 290 to 330 seats due to the denser seating that is common in regional traffic compared to long-haul traffic promoted as version -8. The dimensions of the 787-3 would have been the same as those of the -8 - apart from the slightly smaller wingspan, as the blended winglets used in regional traffic, in contrast to the more efficient raked wingtips in long-haul aircraft, are not in width but in height. Due to the shorter range, the fuel tanks could also have been made smaller, thereby relieving the aircraft structure.
In January 2010, it was announced that All Nippon Airways had converted their remaining 28 787-3 orders to 787-8 orders. The likely availability of the model played a role in the decision. Boeing no longer had any orders for the 787-3. In December 2010, the model variant was then officially deleted from the range.
Version -8 is the base model of the Boeing 787. It was the first Boeing 787 version to enter service at ANA at the end of October 2011 and can carry around 210 to 250 passengers over long distances. For the 787-8, Boeing has so far (as of end of June 2020) recorded 422 firm orders and 374 deliveries. The 787-8 has raked wingtips at the wing tips . This model also carried out the first flight, see the section program start .
The version -9 is a long-haul version of the Boeing 787 that is about six meters longer than the 787-8. With this stretching, the aircraft is designed for 250 to 290 passengers, and larger tanks in the fuselage also allow for one compared to the 787-8 700 km increased range. The 787-9 also has raked wingtips on the wing tips. The first machine of the version -9 was originally supposed to be put into operation in December 2010 by the New Zealand company Air New Zealand . However, the first flight of this version was only carried out on September 17, 2013, and the second aircraft was added on November 7. Until then, the 787-9 version had carried out 137 flight hours in the test program. At the end of June 2014, the first 787-9 was officially handed over to Air New Zealand. With 877 firm orders and 543 deliveries (as of end of June 2020), this version is the most popular.
A 787-10 version, initially also called the 787-10X, has been investigated by Boeing since late 2005 due to many customer inquiries about a larger 787. The development of this model was announced at the 2013 Paris Air Show after a design was presented to various airlines. The fuselage is stretched 5.5 m (18 feet ) from the 787-9 and takes about 40 additional passengers; Boeing's standard configuration is 330 passengers in 2-class seating. This makes the 787 a direct competitor of the Airbus A350-900 and A330-900 . Since the 787-10 only has increased fuselage length and passenger capacity, while wings and fuel tanks remain unchanged, its range is reduced to 11,910 km. Rolls-Royce is offering improved Trent 1000 TEN engines for the 787-10, which will also be delivered for the other variants of the 787 from 2018.
The final assembly of the Boeing 787-10 takes place exclusively in the Boeing plant in North Charleston , South Carolina , as the fuselage is too long for a transport by Boeing 747LCF to Everett . The first flight with Trent engines took place on March 31, 2017.
Forty-four orders for the 787-10 were from Singapore Airlines , 30 from Etihad Airways , 25 from ALC , 18 from EVA Air , 14 from United Airlines , 14 from Air France-KLM , 14 from All Nippon Airways , 12 from British Airways , 10 from Korean Air , 8 from Air New Zealand , 4 from GECAS , 4 from Saudi Arabian Airlines and 14 from unnamed customers, making a total of 211 orders for this variant (as of end of June 2020).
In March 2018, the first 787-10 was officially handed over to Singapore Airlines. A total of 58 machines had been delivered by the end of June 2020.
Orders and options
On April 4, 2007, about a year before the planned commissioning of the first model, Boeing announced that it had reached the mark of 500 orders. This is the best civil aircraft pre-sale result to date. By mid-2008, with almost 900 orders, almost as many had been built as the previous 767 series.
On the other hand, because of the delays, there were also numerous cancellations. On April 7, 2008 , Azerbaijan Airlines canceled the order for an aircraft that had been ordered and instead ordered a Boeing 767. However, Boeing emphasized that the airline was sticking to the purchase of two more 787s. On January 29, 2009, S7 Airlines announced that it had canceled its entire order for the type. But it was emphasized that they were interested in leasing the type instead . A short time later, on February 6, 2009, it became known that the leasing company LCAL had canceled 16 of their originally ordered 21 787s due to the difficult economic situation. In mid-June 2009, Japan Airlines (JAL) converted its order for 13 787-3 to 787-8; This left All Nippon Airways (ANA) as the only customer for this variant. ANA also initially converted two of their 787-3 orders into orders for the 787-8 and, in January 2010, the remaining 28 as well.
On September 25, 2011, the first 787-8 was delivered to the first customer All Nippon Airways with a delay of around three and a half years . The first long-haul flight took place on January 21, 2012 on the newly established Tokyo-Haneda - Frankfurt route .
The Chilean airline LAN (now LATAM Airlines ) received its first 787-8 on August 31, 2012. Planned destinations are Buenos Aires , Lima , Los Angeles , Madrid and Frankfurt. United Airlines will be the second American airline to use the Boeing 787 for long-haul flights from December 2012. Less than a week later, on September 6, 2012, Air India took over the first “Dreamliner”. On November 15, 2012, the first 787 delivered to a European airline landed at Warsaw Chopin Airport , where it was put into service for LOT.
Mexico decided to buy a Boeing 787-9 as a government aircraft in August 2012. The machine was put into service in February 2016. Unnamed critics criticize the high purchase price in view of the poverty in the country.
After Air Berlin canceled all Boeing 787-8s it had ordered in September 2014, the Swiss PrivatAir was the only “Dreamliner” customer in the DA-CH region for several years with an ordered 787-8 (delivered on September 18, 2015) . This changed when Lufthansa ordered twenty 787-9s in March 2019 (as of end of June 2020).
General sales figures
(Status: end of June 2020)
Orders and deliveries by year
(cumulative; status: end of June 2020)
Boeing 787 family buyers
Only aircraft delivered, as of the end of June 2020
So far there have been no fatal accidents or aircraft losses with a Boeing 787.
|Parameter||Boeing 787-3||Boeing 787-8||Boeing 787-9||Boeing 787-10|
|Application area:||Middle distance||Long haul|
|Length:||56.7 m||62.8 m||68.3 m|
|Span:||51.9 m||60.1 m|
|Wing swept :||32.2 °|
|Height:||16.90 m||17.07 m|
|Hull diameter:||5.75 m|
|Cabin width:||5.49 m|
|Seats (typical / max.):||290-330 /?||242/381||290/420||330/440|
|Empty weight:||k. A.||119,950 kg||128,850 kg||k. A.|
|maximum take-off weight:||170.097 kg||227,930 kg||254,011 kg|
|maximum fuel capacity:||48,567 l||126,206 l||126,356 l|
|Top speed:||Mach 0.89 or 945 km / h|
|Cruising speed:||Mach 0.85 or 903 km / h|
|maximum altitude:||approx. 13,100 m|
|Range:||4,650-5,640 km||13,530 km||13,950 km||11,750 km|
|Price:||$ 150-155 million||$ 161-171 million||$ 194-205 million||k. A.|
|first customer delivery:||Project discontinued||September 25, 2011||June 30, 2014||March 25, 2018|
|Engines:||two General Electric GEnx or Rolls Royce Trent 1000 turbofan engines|
|Kerosene consumption:||2.5 liters / 100 km / passenger (hypothetical, calculated value according to the manufacturer)|
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