Landes department

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Coat of arms of the Landes department
Finistère Côtes-d’Armor Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Loire-Atlantique Vendée Manche Mayenne Orne Calvados Maine-et-Loire Sarthe Indre-et-Loire Vienne Deux-Sèvres Indre Loir-et-Cher Eure Eure-et-Loir Seine-Maritime Oise Aisne Somme Pas-de-Calais Nord Ardennes Marne Meuse Meurthe-et-Moselle Haute-Marne Vosges Moselle Haut-Rhin Bas-Rhin Territoire de Belfort Cher Loiret Yonne Aube Côte-d’Or Nièvre Haute-Saône Essonne Yvelines Seine-et-Marne Val-d’Oise Hauts-de-Seine Val-de-Marne Seine-Saint-Denis Paris Doubs Jura Saône-et-Loire Allier Creuse Haute-Vienne Charente Charente-Maritime Corrèze Dordogne Gironde Puy-de-Dôme Loire Rhône Ain Haute-Savoie Cantal Lot Savoie Haute-Loire Isère Ardèche Landes Lot-et-Garonne Hautes-Alpes Drôme Alpes-Maritimes Var Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Vaucluse Bouches-du-Rhône Gard Hérault Lozère Aveyron Tarn Tarn-et-Garonne Gers Pyrènèes-Atlantiques Hautes-Pyrénées Aude Pyrénées-Orientales Haute-Garonne Ariège Haute-Corse Corse-du-Sud Vereinigtes Königreich Andorra Guernsey Jersey Niederlande Belgien Luxemburg Deutschland Liechtenstein Monaco Österreich Schweiz Italien SpanienLocation of the Landes department in France
About this picture
region Nouvelle-Aquitaine
prefecture Mont-de-Marsan
Sub-prefecture (s) Dax
Residents 407,444 (Jan. 1, 2017)
Population density 44 inhabitants per km²
surface 9,242.60 km²
Arrondissements 2
Community associations 18th
Cantons 15th
Communities 327
President of the
Department Council
ISO-3166-2 code FR-40
Location of the country
Location of the department of land in the
region Nouvelle-Aquitaine

The Landes [ lɑːd ] is the French department with the atomic number 40. It is in the southwest of the country in the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine . The name is a plural ( les Landes , département des Landes ; Gascognisch las Lanas ) and is derived from the name of the formerly dominant heathland (French land ), from which since the great reforestation on the orders of Napoleon the largest contiguous forest area in Western Europe has become , known as Les Landes ( the Landes ).


The department borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Gironde department to the north within Aquitaine , the Lot-et-Garonne department to the northeast and the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department to the south . To the east it borders the Gers department of the Occitania region .

The landscape of the department is characterized by the largest contiguous forest area in Western Europe, the Forêt des Landes . The forest extends far beyond the boundaries of the department south to the Adour , east to the Garonne and north to far into the Médoc . In contrast to the neighboring hilly and mountainous countries, the Landes are for the most part a lowland plain. The few hills are flat. Much of the forest has been severely damaged since the 1980s, more than any other forest area in France.

The most important river is the Adour , which crosses the southern part of the department in an east-west direction, turns to the south-west at Dax , joins the Gaves Réunis on the border with the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department and flows into the Atlantic between Tarnos and Anglet .

coat of arms

Description : The coat of arms is quartered in blue and red . Fields 1 and 4 with a golden running, blue-armored and tongued lion, and in the other fields three pine cones on a golden background.


The department was formed during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790 from parts of the then provinces of Guyenne and Gascogne . It was divided into four districts (French: district ), the forerunners of the arrondissements . The districts were Dax, Mont-de-Marsan, Saint-Sever and Tartas. The department and the districts were divided into 25 cantons and had around 200,000 inhabitants. The capital was already Mont-de-Marsan.

The arrondissements of Dax , Mont-de-Marsan and Saint-Sever were established on February 17, 1800, the arrondissement of Saint-Sever was dissolved on September 10, 1926 and integrated into the arrondissements of Dax and Mont-de-Marsan.

From 1960 to 2015 it belonged to the Aquitaine region , which in 2016 became part of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region.


The most populous municipalities in the Landes department are:

city Population
Mont-de-Marsan 29,554 Mont-de-Marsan
Dax 20,681 Dax
Biscarrosse 14,182 Mont-de-Marsan
Saint-Paul-lès-Dax 13,413 Dax
Tarnos 12,264 Dax
Saint-Pierre-du-Mont 9,561 Mont-de-Marsan
Capbreton 8,769 Dax
Soustons 7,877 Dax
Saint-Vincent-de-Tyrosse 7,593 Dax
Mimizan 7,018 Mont-de-Marsan

Administrative division

The Landes department is divided into 2 arrondissements , 15 cantons and 330 communes :

Communes and arrondissements in the Landes department
Arrondissement Cantons Communities Residents
January 1, 2017
Density of
population / km²
Dax 9 152 000000000226858.0000000000226,858 3,194.16 000000000000071.000000000071 401
Mont-de-Marsan 8th 175 000000000180586.0000000000180,586 6,048.44 000000000000030.000000000030th 402
Landes department 15th 327 000000000407444.0000000000407,444 9,242.60 000000000000044.000000000044 40
Forest area and dune belt of the Landes

See also:


The Landes are the most forested region in France. Two thirds of the department are covered by forests (mainly maritime pines ). Forestry and wood processing therefore play an important role. The main source of income is tourism , which is concentrated in the immediate coastal region with its continuous sandy beach ; the sea offers the best conditions for surfers and swimmers, but is not without danger because of the often offshore currents. Well-known seaside resorts include Capbreton , Hossegor , Vieux-Boucau-les-Bains , Mimizan-Plage and Biscarrosse-Plage , but there are also less crowded sections in between. In the interior of the country, especially in Dax and Saubusse , thermal baths offer the opportunity to relax and take a spa stay.

The local gastronomy offers typical dishes of the region such as foie gras , duck breast ( Magret de canard ) or chicken in a tomato and paprika sauce (chicken à la basquaise ).


Measuring station: Cap-Ferret on the Bassin d'Arcachon, 700 meters from the sea (As the Landes department does not have its own measuring station, the data from the Gironde department , neighboring to the north, was given - although it should be taken into account that rainfall increases, depending closer to the Bay of Biscay ; especially in early summer, strong thunderstorms in the coastal region (French: littoral landais ) are not uncommon)

maritime climate data J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
mean maximum temperature 10 11 14th 16 19th 22nd 25th 25th 23 19th 14th 11
mean low temperature 4th 5 6th 8th 11 14th 16 16 15th 11 7th 5
Number of very sunny days 3 3.5 5 4th 4th 5 7th 6th 6th 5 3 2.5
Number of days with an overcast sky 16 13 12 9 10 7th 6th 6th 8th 9 14th 17th
Number of rainy days 13 12 11 9 10 7th 7th 9 10 10 12 13
Rainfall in mm 90 75 70 55 65 50 35 60 80 85 90 100
Water temperature near the coast 12 11 12 13 15th 18th 20th 21st 20th 18th 16 13

Days per year with

  • Rainfalls over 1 mm: 123
  • Frost: 15
    • First frost: early December
    • Last frost: early March
  • Snow: 2
  • Thunderstorm: 18
  • Hail: 3

As of 1991

Web links

Commons : Département Landes  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Climate data from: Jean-Noël Darde, Plages et côtes de France, Éditions Balland, Paris 1991

Coordinates: 43 ° 53 ′  N , 0 ° 52 ′  W