The names for these members of the peasant class differ from region to region. They were Hovener or Hofener in the Lower Saxony- speaking area, Hufner or Hüfner in Central Germany and Huber in Upper Germany . In some areas completely different names existed, such as Ackermann , Pferdner or in Upper Saxon also possessed man or possessed men .
The Hufner was a full member of the community of farmers, had a say in the community and allowed the common land use. In the village social hierarchy , the Hufner stood as full farmers and owners of a farm with land of - depending on the region - 30 to 100 acres in front of the gardeners and cottagers . In contrast to these, they were able to exercise the Schöppenamt in the village .
Regional name variants
A large number of surnames are derived from this professional name and its regional variants . First of all, the name Huber should be mentioned, which is one of the five to ten most common surnames in the German-speaking area and, in addition to southern Germany, is particularly widespread in Switzerland and Austria . Due to the regionally different pronunciation of the surname Huber, the surnames Huemer , Humer , Haumer, Huebmer and Hueber developed here . The forms Höf (f) ner and Hüb (e) ner are also common .
However, it is also important to pay attention to the type and regionality of the hoof or farm property that the full farmer cultivated. If it was a bona censualia, i.e. a peasant inheritance or interest, then on the peasant property itself there was sometimes labor and always a fixed annual interest rate, which in the event of default did not result in the owner being driven away from the property.
These interest goods could stand in long leases , fiefs or even in the free property of the personally free full farmer. These bad interest goods were generally associated with greater property rights for the peasant . The Upper County of Katzenelnbogen, for example, only knew the bad interest goods as peasant property, which was subject to a landlord's real burden and could be indebted, inherited or freely sold by the peasant. In the Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony the peasant goods of the Vollhufner also existed in the form of bad interest goods with the dominum directum , i.e. upper ownership in the hands of the respective farmer.
All of Germany knew such farms that were in the completely free property of the peasant. In addition to the bad interest goods , there was also the hereditary interest goods , so-called bona emphyteutica, which differed in that the upper ownership remained with the landlord and the owner thus had no free disposal over the property.
The Hufnerhaus is the North German name for the main building of a residential complex. In Marschhufendörfern it stands with the residential part (e.g. the transverse residential hall, called Flett or Fleet ) facing the dike.
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