Ban bull

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A bull is a mostly papal document that pronounces a teaching condemnation or excommunication as a ban .

The most famous bulls are:

In some cases, there is also a preliminary stage in the form of the bull threatening the ban before the bull . As an example: Before Martin Luther was finally banned from church in 1520 , this was pronounced by Pope Leo X. It is a threat of excommunication. After Luther publicly burned the bull threatening the ban, the ban on the church on January 3, 1521 was only a legal consequence.

The papal bull In coena Domini by Pope Gregory IX. from around 1229, a collection of papal excommunications and threats of punishment, is also referred to as a bull of excommunication.

See also


  • Hieronymus Schulz: The burning of the bull by Luther (1520 Derb. 10). A contemporary report (by Hieronymus Schulz). Communicated by Walter Friedensburg, 1898.
  • Peter Rath: The bull from Munster or would Jesus receive a teaching ban today? Documentation on the Herrmann case . Tenhumberg, 1976.
  • Georg Gotthilf Evers : Martin Luther. The ban bull . 1885
  • Immanuel F. Gamm: Ashes sparks from the bull burning of Luther, smoldering after the third secular festival, preserved by the memory of the 2nd Luther, Dr. Valentin Andreä 1817.