Kochel am See
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|County :||Bad Toelz-Wolfratshausen|
|Management Community :||Kochel am See|
|Height :||605 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||80.12 km 2|
|Residents:||4099 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||51 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||82431, 82432|
|Primaries :||08851, 08858|
|License plate :||TÖL, WOR|
|Community key :||09 1 73 133|
|LOCODE :||DE KHS|
|Community structure:||12 parts of the community|
|Address of the
82431 Kochel am See
|Mayor :||Thomas W. Holz ( CSU )|
|Location of the municipality of Kochel am See in the Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen district|
Kochel am See (officially: Kochel a.See) is a municipality in the Upper Bavarian district of Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen . It is the seat of the administrative association Kochel am See with Schlehdorf and includes around 70 percent of the area of the Kochelsee and the entire Walchensee .
Kochel am See is located approx. 60 km south of Munich in the Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen district.
The first known settlement in the Kochel area is the fortified protective system on the "Große and Kleine Birg", these two mighty boulders near Altjoch on the south bank of the Kochelsee and at the foot of the Kesselbergstrasse. It comes from the Urnfield Period and dates back to around 1200 BC. Dated. In the Roman Empire the area belonged to the province of Raetia . In 739 the Benediktbeuern monastery and the Kochel am See monastery were established. The Kochel women's monastery was destroyed by the Hungarians in 908 (955 at the latest) (and apart from the church it was never rebuilt).
From 1492 to 1495, Heinrich Barth from Munich had the connection from Kochelsee to Walchensee via the so-called Kesselberg extended from the mule track to the first Kesselbergstrasse. In addition to flourishing trade, this also brought horror and suffering, caused by attacks by the Tyroleans. From 1893 to 1897, Kesselbergstraße was rebuilt on the current route. At the beginning of the 20th century, automobile races with famous drivers such as Hans Stuck and Manfred von Brauchitsch took place there.
The Upper Bavarian town gained fame through an important historical event, the Oberland peasant uprising of 1705, the blackest day of which became known as the Sendlinger Murder Christmas . In the War of Spanish Succession Bavaria by the Austrian troops of Emperor was Joseph I. occupied. These squeezed the country out with contributions and forced recruitment. In 1705, “peasants” (mostly servants, day laborers and others who had little to lose - under the leadership of some civil servants and the military) rose against the occupiers in the Unterland and shortly afterwards also in the Oberland . However, they failed due to poor tactical decisions and insufficient military training and armament. According to tradition, during the massacre in the cemetery of the old parish church of Sendlinger St. Margaret, the last of the " Schmied von Kochel " (allegedly called "Schmiedbalthes", alias Balthasar Riesenberger) fell under the blows of the imperial troops, with the slogan of the insurgents "Dear." Die Bavarian than imperial ruin! ” on her lips and her flag in her hand. In contrast to Plinganser , the historically documented leader of the Unterländer, the myths about the blacksmith von Kochel probably only emerged in the 19th century through the publication Der Heldentod der Bayerischen Landesverteidiger bei Sendlingen, 1 hour from Munich, on Christmas Eve of the year 1705 by Hans Ferdinand Maßmann ; the actual existence of the legendary hero has not been established. The blacksmiths based in Kochel at the time in question had a different name and did not take part in the uprising. In general, the Kochlers did not seem to have participated in the failed revolution and did not complain of any victims.
Kochel was part of the monastic rule of Benediktbeuern , which was abolished in 1803 with the Benediktbeuern monastery . In the course of the administrative reforms in Bavaria in 1818 , the place at the foot of the Herzogstandes ( ) became an independent political municipality.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the grandiose landscape of the Zweiseenland ( Kochelsee and Walchensee ) inspired numerous important artists. Terms such as “Malerwinkel” or “Blaues Land” emerged, which are reflected in many well-known works. The Walchensee cast a spell over Lovis Corinth and attracted attention in around 60 of his pictures, which are scattered around the world.
In the area around the Kochelsee, Franz Marc, together with some well-known colleagues from the artist group “ Blaue Reiter ” such as Wassily Kandinsky or Gabriele Münter, found numerous motifs for many world-famous works. In his honor, the Franz Marc Museum , whose importance extends far beyond Bavaria, is now in Kochel am See.
Also in the first quarter of the 20th century, the Walchensee power plant was built according to plans by the famous Oskar von Miller . The project, which was very controversial at the time, connected the two lakes. The water from the Walchensee falls 200 meters through six pipes and is directed into the Kochelsee. In view of the poor technical and economic situation at the time, this structural achievement deserves special recognition.
The amplifier office was built in 1927 on Bahnhofstrasse, with an outstanding landscape embedded in the mountain silhouette . It is an important, well-preserved example of the Munich Post Building School and a protected architectural monument. The executing architect was Franz Holzhammer , the architect Hanna Löv also took part , whose planning particularly affects the motor vehicle halls, which form a large courtyard with the amplification office.
From the summer of 1944, parts of the rocket research of the Peenemünde Army Research Institute were relocated to the so-called WVA (Wasserbauversuchsanstalt GmbH Kochelsee), as the energy required for a supersonic wind tunnel system could be taken directly from the Walchensee power plant. As part of demilitarization , this high-tech facility was dismantled by the US Army in late 1945 and rebuilt in the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in White Oak, Maryland . Together with the facility, the researchers Rudolf Hermann (1904–1991), Hermann Heybey, Eber, Hermann Kurzweg (1908–2000) and Ernst Winkler were brought to the USA as part of Operation Paperclip .
In 1920 the Social University Leohaus, founded a year earlier, moved from Munich to the Seehof. The facility existed until 1994.
Another outstanding building was built in 1930 by the architect Emil Freymuth in the Bauhaus style: the "holiday home for workers, civil servants and employees of the state and municipalities".
The era of National Socialism did not leave Kochel unaffected: The Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach lived in Aspenstein Castle , near which the Nazi driver's home was located. Today the Georg von Vollmar Academy is located at Aspenstein Castle , which offers adult political education in the service of social democracy near the southern shore of the lake.
Between 1988 and 2018 the municipality grew from 3,643 to 4,092 by 449 inhabitants or by 12.3%.
The catholic church in Kochel am See also served Wassily Kandinsky as a motif
Kochel Kochel with the Rabenkopf from
|Independent voter community||2 seats||(14.14%)|
|Free community of voters in the Zwei-Seen-Gemeinde||2 seats||(13.07%)|
|Boy list||1 seat||(8.15%)|
|Free Citizens Ried||1 seat||(6.52%)|
|Bavaria Party||1 seat||(5.50%)|
Another member and chairman of the municipal council is Mayor Thomas Holz. He has been in office since May 1, 2007 and was elected for a further six years on March 15, 2020 with 80.3% of the vote.
coat of arms
As a symbol of the local history, the right-hand side of the municipal coat of arms shows the shield, split three times by red and gold, with a silver location, which can be identified for the first time around 1500 as a secondary coat of arms of the monastery. The other side shows the mountains dominating the country in silver against a blue sky.
- Franz Marc Museum
- Aspenstein Castle (Aspensteinschlössl)
- Goethe monument in Urfeld am Walchensee,
created in 1933 by the sculptor Hans Schwegerle
- Memorial blacksmith von Kochel
- Walchenseekraftwerk - This industrial monument continues to produce electricity . It impresses with the mighty downpipes that drain the water from the Walchensee .
- Walchensee Museum of the Friedhelm Oriwol Foundation in Urfeld
- Catholic Parish Church of St. Michael
- Grave of Franz Marc and Maria Marc in the cemetery near the St. Michael Church
- Dorst Technologies
- E.ON hydropower
- Leisure and adventure pool "Kristall-Therme trimini"
The Kochelseebahn from Munich ends in Kochel . It is served every hour by regional trains from Munich via Tutzing to Kochel, some of which run every half hour during rush hour. There is a connection to the long-distance network of Deutsche Bahn via Munich Central Station . The federal road 11 runs through the village, and the state road to Murnau connects to the A 95 .
Several regional bus routes of the regional traffic Oberbayernbus stop in Kochel.
|Regional traffic Upper Bavaria||Garmisch-Partenkirchen - Klais - Mittenwald - Krün - Wallgau - Kochel|
|Regional traffic Upper Bavaria||Kochel - Schlehdorf - Großweil - Ohlstadt - Murnau|
|Regional traffic Upper Bavaria||Kochel - Benediktbeuern - Bad Heilbrunn - Bad Tölz|
|Regional traffic Upper Bavaria||Penzberg - Bichl - Benediktbeuern - Kochel - Schlehdorf|
- Gisela († 810), sister of Charlemagne , lived for a few years until her death in the Kochel monastery and was buried there
- The blacksmith von Kochel , legendary figure of the Bavarian saga and the Oberland peasant uprising of 1705
- Sebastian Mall (1766–1836), Benedictine priest, theologian and university professor, was regularly active in pastoral care in Kochel from 1791 to 1801
- Josef Demleitner (1877–1954), local history researcher and "father of folk genealogy "
- Ludwig Osthelder (1877–1954), Bavarian lawyer and administrative officer.
- Franz Marc (1880–1916), expressionist painter, and his wife Maria Marc (1876–1955), painter, lived in the Ried district from 1914; her grave is in the cemetery of the Catholic Church
- Carl Suhrlandt (1828–1919), German painter and son of the Mecklenburg court painter Rudolph Suhrlandt ; Carl had lived in Munich since 1895 and later bought a house in Kochel am See for the last years of his life, in which he died on February 11, 1919
- Georg von Vollmar (1850–1922), the first chairman of the Bavarian SPD, lived in Walchensee
- Rudolf von Delius (1878–1946), writer, philosopher and editor, lived in the Ried district
- Heinrich Kaminski (1886–1946), composer, lived and died in the Ried district
- August von Finck senior (1898–1980), banker and investor, born in Kochel
- Baldur von Schirach (1907–1974), NSDAP politician during the National Socialist era; lived in the "Third Reich" in the Aspensteinschlössl
- Eva Aschenbrenner (1924–2013), author and herb expert, was born in Kochel and lived there
- Michael Mellinger (1929–2004), actor, born in Kochel
- Gabriele Clonisch (* 1947), former German pop singer and child star, grew up in Kochel
- Elisabeth Demleitner (* 1952), luge rider, born in Kochel
- Friedrich Ani (* 1959), writer, born in Kochel
- Christian Freiherr von Mauchenheim called Bechtolsheim (* 1960), German entrepreneur, former ambassador of the Sovereign Order of Malta in Lithuania
- Chronicle of war by Kochel, First World War, by Otto Frhr. vuz Aufseß.
- Chronicle of Kochel a. See, by Hans Demleitner, 1984.
- Chronicle 739–1989, Peter Badura, 1989.
- Chronicle of Kochel. Between tradition and progress, 2005 by Helmut Renner.
- The history of the WVA, by Richard Lehnert, 1980.
- Diploma thesis in languages, economic and cultural studies, summer semester 1996, WVA. The Kochler wind tunnel in connection with rocket research in the Third Reich, by Stefanie Harrer.
- Master's thesis at the Institute for the History of Technology Transfer. Germany – USA after the Second World War using the example of the Kochler wind tunnel system, by Sebastian Klapdor, 2003.
- A lot of wind in the canal needs a lot of flowing water, supplement in the Bayerische Staatszeitung, August / September 2008 issue, by Roland Lory.
- Website of the municipality of Kochel am See
- Entry on the coat of arms of Kochel am See in the database of the House of Bavarian History
- Website of the Franz Marc Museum, Kochel am See
- Website of the Georg von Vollmar Academy, Kochel am See
- Website of the Walchensee Museum in Urfeld with information on opening times and directions.
- Kochel am See: Official statistics of the LfStat
- Claudia Koestler in SZ from September 13, 2018: Dispute over usage: Kochler Amplifier Office is a monument
- "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Municipality of Kochel am See in the local database of the Bayerische Landesbibliothek Online . Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, accessed on September 6, 2019.
- Rudolf Hermann: The performance of the supersonic wind tunnel system of the Wasserbau-Versuchsanstalt Kochelsee GmbH Wasserbau-Versuchsanstalt Kochelsee, 1945, accessed on January 8, 2020 .
- D. Eckardt: The 1x1 m hypersonic wind tunnel in Kochel / Tullahoma 1940-1960. (PDF; 1.54 MB) German Aerospace Congress, 2014, accessed on January 7, 2020 .
- Franz Loidl: Catholic workers' association in Vienna III, 1872-1972. Vienna Catholic Academy, Vienna 1982, p. 77
- Kaija Voss: Clear lines with compromises: ribbon windows that are reminiscent of trains. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. August 31, 2017, accessed January 8, 2020 .
- network map of the Upper Bavaria bus ( memento of the original from March 19, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 2.1 MB) on rvo-bus.de
- Volkmar Weiss : Prehistory and consequences of the Aryan ancestral pass: On the history of genealogy in the 20th century. Neustadt an der Orla: Arnshaugk, 2013, pp. 263–268, 275–278 and 290, ISBN 978-3-944064-11-6 .