Tank truck

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Three-chamber jumbo tanker with a total of 58 m³ capacity

Tank trucks are special vehicles for transporting liquids , gases , dusts or all kinds of fine bulk goods on the road .

Tank trucks with a suction device are specifically referred to as suction trucks or - for free-flowing transport goods - as silo trucks .


Shell tank truck from 1926 based on the Ford model TT

Road vehicles with tanks exist in different designs. While some versions are pure transport vehicles, many tankers also have equipment ( pumps , hoses, flow meters ) on board to deliver their cargo (e.g. fuel oil tankers for distribution to consumers).

Usual designs:

  • Lorry (truck) with a tank instead of a loading area, also known as a tank body, (military) abbreviation TA
  • Semi-trailers with a tank structure or as a self-supporting construction, military abbreviation for example DST (pressure semi- tank trailer , optionally also DSTK. K for the conical shape of the container)
  • In the military , normal trucks with an additional tank are also often used as tank trucks. Possible military abbreviations AT (add-on tank) as well as WTA, WTAH (W stands for change, that is, the design was designed in such a way that the tank can be more easily separated from the chassis if necessary )
  • Trailer with tank construction (military abbreviation TAH)

In principle there is a division into:

  • Containers for liquid goods: The tanks are equipped with baffles to minimize the risk of moving liquid cargo while driving .
  • Container for powdery goods: Optimized for dry materials
  • Pressure and vacuum-tight tank: With the special technical requirements for pressure vessels (positive and negative pressure)


Airfield tank trucks at Stuttgart Airport
Multi-axle truck tanker with fuel in civil aviation
Ural-4320 as a tank vehicle of the Russian army
  • Milk collection truck or for food transport
  • Tank trucks for drinking water
  • Fuel transporter as a feeder to petrol stations - fuel or heating oil can also be delivered sorted by chamber and is typically drained into the underground tank by gravity alone through a calibrated measuring mechanism - with gasoline for decades with gas displacement .
  • Airfield tanker with its own tank - called Refueller or Bowser - also with trailer (partly also without road approval , as more than 45,000 liters volume and excess width)
  • Airfield tank trucks without their own tank - called dispensers or hydrant trucks - for airports with a hydrant system ( underfloor fueling )
  • P-Cart - special form of a dispenser, mobile hydrant trolley without motor (trailer), partly with solar panels for power supply
  • Transporting heating oil - small vans with add-on tanks for filling 200–400 liter tanks in apartments, even on higher floors, have a suitably long hose rolled up and usually a pump with a combustion engine.
  • Liquefied gas transport
  • Chemical transport
  • Wood pellets
  • Large quantities of compressed gas can be transported in typically nine longitudinal tubes of a semi-trailer.
  • The gases oxygen , nitrogen and helium are liquefied at low temperature without pressure and are delivered in insulated, special tank trucks.
  • Special tanks for high-temperature liquids (such as liquid aluminum)
  • Water transport for artificial irrigation in semi- arid or arid regions
  • Tank trucks for transporting bitumen are insulated with mineral wool . In this way, the hot liquefied product can also be transported over long distances without critical heat loss.
  • Fire brigade for fire-fighting water ( tank fire-fighting vehicle ) and drinking water transport in the event of major incidents and for disaster control
  • Sprinkler for spraying water on streets or cleaning the streets by washing away, also by hand-controlled flat jet nozzle (s)
  • Sewer trolley is a broad collective term for trolleys for carrying out pit service (emptying cesspools) and sewer cleaning. A vacuum-tight kettle with a cylindrical cross-section, the rear domed lid of which can be opened by hand via wing nuts and hinges, is common. To make cleaning easier, the bottom of the dirt tank slopes slightly towards the rear. Rinsing water can be carried in an additional tank or a separate tank chamber.

Web links

Commons : Tanker Truck  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. http://www.fahrzeugbilder.de/bild/LKW~Mercedes-Benz~Tankaufbau/20874/010709mb-mit-tankaufbau-fuer-trinkwasser-an.html