Hurricane Katrina

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Hurricane Katrina
Category 5 hurricane ( SSHWS )
Hurricane Katrina at its greatest strength on August 28, 2005
Hurricane Katrina at its greatest strength on August 28, 2005
Emergence August 23, 2005
resolution August 30, 2005
Peak wind
175  mph (280  km / h ) (sustained for 1 minute)
Lowest air pressure 902  mbar ( hPa ; 26.7  inHg )
dead 1836 total
Property damage $ 108 billion (2005)
Bahamas , South Florida , Cuba , Louisiana (especially New Orleans and the surrounding area), Mississippi , Alabama , Florida Panhandle , East Coast of the United States
Season overview:
2005 Atlantic hurricane season

The Hurricane Katrina is one of the most devastating natural disasters in the history of the United States . The hurricane straightened end of August 2005 in the southeastern parts of the United States, especially at the local Gulf Coast , massive damage, reaching at times the level 5 . Affected states included Florida , Louisiana (especially the New Orleans metropolitan area ), Mississippi , Alabama, and Georgia .

The storm and its consequences killed 1833 people. The property damage amounted to approximately 108 billion US dollars. The city of New Orleans in particular was badly affected: Due to its geographical location, two breaks in the dyke system meant that up to 80 percent of the city area was up to 7.60 meters deep under water.

Storm course


Katrina 2005 track.png
Wind field from Hurricane Katrina
Eye of Hurricane Katrina captured from a NOAA P-3 aircraft

The hurricane formed over the Bahamas on August 23 during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and crossed Florida as a Category One temperate hurricane before rapidly gaining strength in the Gulf of Mexico , becoming one of the most violent cyclones there has ever been . By the time it reached land and caused the New Orleans flood, it had already lost a significant amount of energy and had already been downgraded to category three.


On August 23, the southeastern Bahamas formed the twelfth tropical depression of the season as a result of the interaction of a tropical wave and the remnants of the tenth tropical storm low . Under favorable conditions, a huge tropical storm could develop from this on the morning of the next day, which from then on bore the name "Katrina". Increased as early as 24 August, the cyclone to a tropical storm ( tropical storm ). On the morning of August 25, 2005, shortly after Katrina was classified as hurricane level one, it moved with further intensification first to the northwest, then to the west and finally reached the southern tip of Florida near Miami between the cities of Hallandale and Aventura . 14 people were killed. Katrina weakened slightly overland and was downgraded from hurricane to tropical storm for a few hours.

It regained hurricane status an hour after reaching the Gulf of Mexico . Due to high water temperatures of around 30 ° C and a strong divergence of the high-altitude currents, a rapid drop in pressure and thus a massive increase set in. On the morning of August 27, the storm reached the third stage of the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale ( major hurrican ), which he grew the Year for the third big hurricane. The core pressure had meanwhile fallen to 940 hPa and the wind speeds had risen to 185 km / h. On the morning of August 28, 2005, it was finally placed in level five and at one o'clock in the afternoon it reached its maximum strength. At this time, Katrina had wind speeds of up to 280 km / h and gusts of up to 344 km / h. Its core pressure had dropped to 902 hPa. This made Katrina one of the worst measured storms in the Gulf of Mexico, but was hit by Hurricane Rita just a few weeks later .

In the early morning hours of August 29, 2005 (Monday), shortly after he was downgraded to level four due to turbulent internal processes, he encountered the south coast of the USA at Buras triumph in Louisiana . When it hit the mainland, the wind speed decreased to 200 km / h. After moving across southeastern Louisiana, it was sighted from land near the Mississippi River for the third time. During the night of August 30th, it weakened to a tropical storm and finally to a tropical low.

About 1.3 million people left the area around New Orleans and fled as far as Texas after appeals from local authorities . A few days before Katrina went ashore near New Orleans, the National Weather Service had warned of Katrina and continuously published new model calculations of the intensity and trajectory of the hurricane, as well as information on the expected precipitation and tidal waves. The observation data came mainly from weather satellites and hurricane flyers who flew into the middle altitude ranges of the cyclone and deployed drop probes . These probes delivered measurement data on wind speed, air pressure, temperature and humidity, which were sent by radio to the ground station. Hurricane pilots reported that the turbulence in the eye-wall , the cumulonimbus cloud wall around the eye of the hurricane, is said to have reached unimaginable intensities.

Preparing for the storm


When Katrina hit Florida, there were only inadequate warnings, as the storm had quickly turned from a harmless storm into a hurricane. When Katrina met southern Florida near Miami-Dade and Broward Counties , the Coast Guard was able to evacuate many people living in the affected area. On August 25, 2005, the hurricane reached the cities of Aventura (Miami-Dade County) and Hallandale (Broward County). However, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) projections had correctly predicted that Katrina would intensify to the size of a hurricane before it hit the country; Observations and corresponding warnings had already been published between 31.5 and 19.5 hours in advance, i.e. only slightly behind the usual target corridor of 24 to 36 hours.

In response to Katrina's advance on the coast, Florida Governor Jeb Bush declared a state of emergency on August 24th. As a result, accommodations were opened and schools closed in the southern part of the state. A number of (mostly voluntary) evacuation orders were also issued. Evacuation has been ordered by law for the most vulnerable homes in Martin County .

U.S. government

By ten o'clock on the morning of August 25th, Katrina, who was still in the Gulf of Mexico , had increased to level three. That afternoon, the National Hurricane Center realized that Katrina had already made her way across the Florida Peninsula and revised its revised forecast that the storm would move from the tip of Florida straight to the Mississippi coast. The NHC then set up on August 27 at 10 a.m., including New Orleans and the surrounding area. In the afternoon, the NHC decided to extend the observation to the coastlines of the states of Mississippi and Alabama and the coastal areas of Louisiana as far as Intracoastal City.

On August 27, before the storm reached the coast again, who was now promoted to Level 3, called US President George W. Bush the state of emergency in the three states of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. That same evening, the NHC again increased its forecast for the Morgan City, Louisiana section and the Florida-Louisiana border by issuing a hurricane warning twelve hours after the previous announcement. A tropical storm warning was also issued for the coastal area of ​​northwest Florida.

On August 28, when the size of Katrina became known, the NHC extended its warnings to the entire coastal area of ​​Louisiana and most of northwest Florida. The New Orleans / Baton Rouge office of the National Meteorological Service then issued an illustrative status report that predicted the region would be "uninhabitable for weeks" after the "devastating damage" caused by Katrina; at the time, the impact of Katrina was comparable to that of Hurricane Camille in 1969.

Much of southeast Louisiana and the coastal areas of Mississippi and Alabama have evacuated on both a voluntary and statutory basis. In total, around 1.2 million Gulf Coast residents were evacuated.

New Orleans

People flee to the Louisiana Superdome

On August 26th, the possibility of an unprecedented catastrophe was firmly taken into account. Many computer models had determined the potential route from Katrina 230 kilometers west of northwest Florida, with the city of New Orleans right in the center of the most likely route. The probability that the train route will hit the city was 17 percent, increased to 29 percent on August 28. The risks of the hurricane hitting New Orleans directly were known: studies by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the United States Army Corps of Engineers had already warned that this could lead to massive flooding. Thousands would drown as a result, and many more would die of disease and a lack of safe drinking water as the floodwater would slowly withdraw from the city.

Aside from possible dam breaks, the front right quarter of the hurricane with the strongest winds should cause an 8.5 meter high tidal wave; the officials of the emergency management feared that this could overcome the levees of the city of New Orleans and cause a flood disaster. The particular danger for New Orleans was based on its location: in particular, the areas on the nearby Pontchartrain Lake are below sea level, the city itself is around 80% and its immediate vicinity around 20%.

Therefore, the city of New Orleans and the endangered areas of Louisiana were to be evacuated for the first time on that day . A level three hurricane should have triggered the January 2000 Southeast Louisiana Hurricane Evacuation and Sheltering Plan . The plan clearly divided the powers of the state authorities; People who did not have a motor vehicle should be evacuated by school bus. However, the buses sank unused.

Those who couldn't get out of town on time should now find refuge in the Louisiana Superdome , the football stadium in New Orleans. The number of people who fled to the Superdome ranged from 20,000 to 60,000. The Superdome was also badly damaged during the storm and later trapped by the floods, so that it also had to be evacuated.

Rest of the Gulf Coast

Satellite image NOAA August 28, 2005

In preparation for the storm, the State of Mississippi activated its National Guard on August 26th. In addition, the next day the state government put its emergency operations center into service and local governments began executing evacuation orders. At 7:00 p.m. on August 28, eleven counties and eleven cities carried out forced evacuations. On the morning of the following day there were already 412 counties and 61 cities. In addition, 57 emergency shelters and 31 additional accommodations, which should also be available if necessary, were set up in the coastal communities.

Louisiana's Hurricane Evacuation Plan calls for local administrations in areas on or near the coast to conduct evacuation operations in three phases. These should begin 50 hours before the start of the tropical wind gusts in the immediate coastal region. Areas assigned to phase two are to be evacuated 40 hours before the onset of the storm and phase three areas, which include New Orleans, are to be evacuated 30 hours before the storm.

However, several such caring private agencies, which relied on bus companies and evacuation rescue services, were unable to carry out their assignments. The supply of fuel and replacement cars was not very high, and several public transit systems had been shut down before the storm hit. According to some estimates, 80% of the New Orleans metropolitan area's 1.3 million residents have been evacuated, and far fewer people remained than when they were evacuated after Hurricane Ivan in 2004.

On August 28, a Sunday, almost all infrastructure along the Gulf Coast had been closed, including the Canadian National Railway and Amtrak , which ran into the affected region, as well as the Waterford Nuclear Power Plant . The NHC upheld its warnings until the end of August 29th, when Katrina had already reached the state of Mississippi.


Overall impact

After the storm, 1,836 deaths were officially confirmed. Ray Nagin , the mayor of New Orleans, initially suspected that up to 10,000 people had died as a result of the storm. In January 2006, about 3,200 people were still missing , according to CNN . In the first few days, many waited on their roofs for rescue. Drinking water in the region became scarce because the pipe system was contaminated with flood water when a supply pipe broke .

Hurricane Katrina is the most costly cyclone to hit the United States to date. Experts initially estimated the damage to be more than 26 billion euros. This figure was later corrected to at least 125 billion euros. The insurance loss amounted to US $ 62.2 billion. With this magnitude of damage, it surpasses Hurricane Andrew , which devastated southern Florida in 1992 and was the largest storm disaster since storms began to be recorded in the United States. The magnitude of the material damage also exceeded that of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake . The hurricane also far exceeded the economic damage caused by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks .

Experts assumed a million people had become homeless. About five million people had no electricity. Estimates assume that it could take more than two months for this to be available nationwide again.

Because of the supply crisis, attempts were made to declare a state of emergency in the states of Louisiana and Mississippi and to impose martial law, which the laws of both states actually only allow in the event of an actual war. However, on September 1, 2005, martial law was declared in the city of New Orleans. The governor of Louisiana ordered the National Guard to shoot looters.

South Florida and Cuba

Damage in Davie , Florida

On August 25, Hurricane Katrina hit land in southern Florida for the first time, where it hit a first-stage hurricane with a wind speed of 130 kilometers per hour. There was heavy rainfall in some places, and the water level in the town of Homestead was at least 35 centimeters. In Monroe County the storm surge measured between one and a half meters. More than a million people were left without electricity , and the damage in Florida was estimated to be in the range of $ 1 billion to $ 2 billion, largely caused by the flood and fallen trees. According to the report, there were a total of 14 people in Florida who were killed in Hurricane Katrina.

Most of the Florida Keys islands experienced the tropical wind gusts of Katrina as the center of the storm moved north, with the storm reportedly moving across the Dry Tortugas . There was also heavy rainfall on this group of islands, 25 centimeters of which in Key West alone . On August 26, an F1 tornado on the Fujita scale formed from an outer band of rain from Katrina and marched through the city of Marathon . This tornado damaged a hangar at the airport and caused approximately five million dollars in property damage.

Although Hurricane Katrina stayed well north of Cuba , it brought gusts of tropical winds on August 29 and rainfall of more than 8 inches in the western regions of the island. They damaged telephone and power cables and around 8,000 people were evacuated in the Pinar del Río region . According to TV reports from Cuba, the coastal city of Batabanó was 90 percent under water. However, there were no reports of deaths as a result of Hurricane Katrina in Cuba.


Fishing trawlers hoisted onto land by Katrina

On August 29, Hurricane Katrina arrived near Buras Triumph with winds of 205 kilometers per hour as a level 3 storm. But it had only weakened from strength 4 a short time before and the radius of the strongest winds was huge. It is possible that in the extreme southeast of Louisiana, force 4 winds briefly blew over land. Although the storm surge was higher east of the Path of the Eye in Mississippi, a very large flood hit the Louisiana coast. The height of the tide is unknown due to a lack of data, although a high tide level in Plaquemines Parish indicated a storm surge exceeding four meters and a tide of three meters was recorded in Grand Isle .

Hurricane Katrina brought heavy rainfall up to 25 centimeters to Louisiana, which fell in a wide strip in the east of the state. In the Slidell area the rains were even heavier; the highest water level recorded in the state was approximately 38 centimeters. As a result of the rains and the storm surge, the level of Lake Pontchartrain rose and caused great flooding along the northeastern bank, affecting the communities from Slidell to Mandeville . The water destroyed several bridges including the Interstate 10 twin bridge that connects Slidell with New Orleans. Nearly 900,000 people in Louisiana were without power from Hurricane Katrina.

In particularly badly battered St. Bernard Parish , which completely flooded Katrina, the search for missing persons was slow. According to an interview with The Times-Picayune from New Orleans, the coroner was still trying to get a list of the missing from the American Red Cross in November 2005 . While that list included a few victims whose bodies were found in their homes, the overwhelming majority were found through word of mouth and through lists from credit card companies. As of December 2005, a total of 147 people were on the official list of missing persons.

In Louisiana alone 490 people died from the strong storm. Some also died in their homes as they were destroyed by the storm.

New Orleans

That flooded New Orleans
Satellite imagery of New Orleans
The damaged Superdome in the middle of flooded New Orleans
New Orleans submerged residential area

Although the dykes ( "levees") of the Mississippi River at New Orleans stopped, the whipped tidal waves broke through the smaller walls of two channels to a length of 150 m. From this time flowed uncontrolled brackish water from the Lake Pontchartrain in the city of New Orleans. Since New Orleans is located between Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi and below their water level , up to 80 percent of the urban area was up to 7.60 meters deep under water after the dams broke. It was not possible to seal the dams with sandbags. The proposal to plug the hole with a ship was not implemented. Because of the power failure, the water could not be pumped out at first. The city could no longer be reached or left via the access roads. One of the two airports had to shut down because it was completely under water. The second airport was not completely destroyed by Hurricane Katrina. The airport building and the runway remained intact. The pilots only had to do without radar and ground lighting. According to the airport management, around 300 flights were handled daily.

In other places the water had started to undercut the dykes. Even against the newly created dam breaches, the region's crisis managers seemed powerless, as the necessary number of helpers as well as the material and equipment to counteract the causes were lacking.

The weather forecast did not bode well: a heavy weather front was reported for the weekend, which would have made the relief work more difficult. If further parts of the dam had broken or if there was new heavy rainfall, not only would the city have been completely flooded, but the hinterland with an estimated 20,000 residents would also have been affected by the flood. This would also have been a serious setback for the rescue teams from an organizational point of view, since the accessibility of the city from the hinterland by helicopter would then no longer have been smoothly secured.

The evacuation of the Louisiana Superdome , which was an emergency shelter for many people, was suspended after a helicopter was allegedly shot at. Garbage cans were set on fire around the Superdome. The evacuation by bus, which had already started, was also suspended after the first buses had already arrived at the Reliant Astrodome in Houston . The Astrodome should serve as a replacement for the Superdome and serve as emergency accommodation for the evacuated people. But on September 2nd the Astrodome was already overcrowded and could not accept any more refugees. Reports of rescue helicopter gunfire have since been denied by a Federal Aviation Administration spokeswoman for ABC News .

The Strongest Hurricanes in the United States
Strength is only given based on the air pressure in the center.
rank hurricane season Air pressure
(in mbar )
1 Labor day 1935 892
2 Camille 1969 900
3 Irma 2017 914
4th Katrina 2005 920
5 Andrew 1992 922
6th Indianola 1886 925
7th Florida Keys 1919 927
8th Okeechobee 1928 929
9 Miami 1926 930
10 donna 1960 932
Source: HURDAT, Hurricane Research Division

The evacuation of the Superdome was interrupted again on September 3rd because there were still too few buses available, and it was completed the next day.

With media coverage of the scandal on the ground, the city appeared to be anomalous and the police and military were trying desperately to bring the situation under their control. At times, all rescue operations in the city were canceled as there were repeated attacks on the rescue teams.

Two hospitals were reported to be occupied by looters. 10,000 to 20,000 people have fled to the Convention Center . These facilities were completely neglected in the first few days after the disaster. The people there had to get by without any provision at all. Reports circulated that gangs raped and killed teenagers at the convention center that night . The evacuation of the Convention Center began on September 3 and was completed the following day.

The risk of epidemics from the polluted water, in which corpses, rubbish, chemicals and feces drifted, increased steadily. Bacterial intestinal infections and hepatitis A were particularly feared. A few cases of dysentery have been reported. The risk of an outbreak of cholera and typhus was still classified as relatively low.

There were two detonations on the east bank of the city on the morning of September 2 . On September 3, CNN reported two major fires in the Mississippi industrial area.

Mayor Ray Nagin said it would take three to four months before people could return to the city. However, consideration was also given to giving up the city entirely or at least in part. The Republican Congressman Dennis Hastert said it was pointless to invest in a city that lies below sea level. Three years later, 120,000 of the original 450,000 residents were still living across the United States, and rents rose by up to 50 percent. Almost every second of these evacuees was still living in emergency accommodation or was receiving rental vouchers until March 2009. The city decided to drastically reduce the population density in the socially disadvantaged residential areas, not to renovate the residential complexes for this purpose and, above all, to demolish the inner city locations in order to rebuild them for a mixed class of tenants. Of the five public schools, four remained closed in 2008 and only half of the hospitals were up and running again.


A destroyed bridge viewed from Air Force One

The Mississippi Gulf Coast suffered massive damage from the effects of Hurricane Katrina on August 29. A total of 238 fatalities were counted and 67 were missing. Most of the city of Biloxi was destroyed. The material damage ran into billions. After Katrina first met land in Louisiana for a short time , she left the sea for good on the Louisiana-Mississippi border. The storm moved as a level 3 hurricane over the cities of Bay St. Louis and Waveland with sustained winds of 195 kilometers per hour. The strong front right quarter of Katrina stretched across the central and western coastal areas of Mississippi, causing a storm surge that penetrated up to ten kilometers inland in many areas and up to 20 kilometers in locations along the bays or rivers. In some areas, the storm surge even reached Interstate 10.

Katrina devastated the Mississippi coast for over 100 miles; the damage continued as far as Alabama . Over many hours the water level rose by 9 meters or over 12 meters and was accompanied by large waves. The winds lasted for almost 36 hours.

A total of 65,380 homes were damaged or destroyed in Mississippi, around 19,900 of them in Biloxi alone. In many blocks, not a single house withstood the hurricane. Boats and household appliances were often only found kilometers away after the storm. Wind, rain and the storm surge razed some residential areas that were directly on the beach to the ground. An apartment complex with about 30 residents who were looking for accommodation collapsed. Initial estimates by state officials calculated that 90 percent of the structures within one kilometer along the coast were completely destroyed. More than half of the total of 13 casinos in the state that had been launched on show ships in order to evade the state's gambling law on the mainland, the waves drove hundreds of meters inland.

Rest of the Southeast of the United States

Although Katrina landed in the Mississippi and Louisiana region, a major storm surge and tropical gusts also hit Alabama and northwest Florida . Sustained winds at speeds of 107 kilometers per hour have been recorded in Mobile, Alabama . The storm surge was about ten feet high there. The flood caused large floods along Mobile Bay , which penetrated several kilometers into the mainland. A total of four tornadoes also occurred in Alabama.

Satellite image taken by NOAA on August 29, 2005

A derrick under construction on the Mobile River broke at its mooring and was driven two kilometers north before hitting the Cochrane Bridge near the town of Mobile. The damage on Dauphin Island was severe as the flood destroyed several houses and cut a new canal through the western part of the island. An offshore derrick also ran aground on the island. Just like in Mississippi, the storm surge caused beach washouts along the Alabama coastline. In Alabama, more than 600,000 people lost their belongings as a result of Hurricane Katrina, and two people were killed in a traffic accident.

Along northwest Florida, the storm surge was more than five feet high for most of the time; on the central west coast of Florida it was significantly lower at about half a meter. In the city of Pensacola , winds were registered on August 29th at a speed of 90 kilometers per hour. The winds caused some damage to trees and infrastructure, and northwest Florida was also slightly flooded. In addition, a Katrina traffic accident in Walton County also left two fatalities.

The north and central parts of Georgia were hit by heavy rains and violent storms as the storm moved inland; in several areas the rainfall was more than seven and a half centimeters.

Rest of the US and Canada

Hurricanes hit the US with the highest number of deaths
rank hurricane season victim
1 "Galveston" 1900 8000-12000 1
2 "Okeechobee" 1928 > 2500 1
3 Katrina 2005 1836
4th "Cheniere Caminada" 1893 1100-1400 1
5 "Sea Islands" 1893 1000-2000 1
6th "Florida Keys" 1919 778
7th "Georgia" 1881 700 1
8th Audrey 1957 416
9 "Labor Day" 1935 408
10 "Last Island" 1856 400 1
1 estimated, total
Source: NOAA

Hurricane Katrina gradually weakened as it moved inland. However, were even on 30 August at the height of Fort Campbell ( Kentucky still tropical wind gusts) registered and the storms damaged even trees in the state of New York . The remnants of the storm brought heavy rains to large areas in the eastern United States and in parts of a total of 20 states the rainwater was five centimeters high. On August 30 and 31, 62 tornadoes formed in eight states as a result of Katrina , although they only caused minor damage.

A storm had caused flooding in Kentucky the previous weekend, which has now been exacerbated by the rains from Katrina. Ernie Fletcher , the governor of Kentucky, declared three counties disaster areas and declared a state of emergency. A person was killed and parts of a high school collapsed in Hopkinsville . Floods in West Virginia and Ohio led to a series of evacuation operations there, and the rains in Ohio resulted in two deaths. Katrina also caused power outages in many areas, particularly in the greater Memphis and Nashville areas . In total, more than 100,000 consumers in Tennessee were temporarily without power.

The remnants of Katrina joined a frontal system over Ohio, but the moisture moved north and did the rest in Canada on August 31st . In Ontario there have been isolated reports of four-inch rainfall, as well as isolated reports of damage caused by fallen trees. Floods occurred in both Ontario and Québec , cutting off a number of remote villages from the outside world.


City and state response

In the federal system of the USA, state power is generally exercised first at the local level, then by the state. The federal government is primarily responsible only for certain tasks or emergency situations. Accordingly, the city administration under Mayor Ray Nagin was initially responsible for the emergency response in New Orleans . The Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan prepared for emergencies caused by hurricanes, however, was not started by the mayor: Several hundred school buses were already ready, suitable for transporting tens of thousands of people; however, they were not used by the mayor. Several hundred local police officers left their posts and were therefore jointly responsible for the collapse of the security situation; in individual cases they even took part in looting. Governor Kathleen Blanco was also largely passive. The evacuation of New Orleans was only ordered under massive political pressure from the actually incompetent US President Bush.

US Government Response

President Bush in Air Force One over the disaster area

A disaster recovery response began before the storm when the Federal Emergency Management Agency made preparations. When the storm hit the country, a network of volunteers was helping both locals and people who were in New Orleans at the time. This aid continued for more than six months after the storm.

US President Bush flew over the crisis area on August 31 on the way back to Washington from his ranch, where he had stayed for three days after the hurricane subsided. In a speech he promised that all necessary help would be provided and that any exploitation of the emergency situation, be it usury in fuel prices or looting, would be punished. The New York Times criticized the speech for being one of the worst in his life and that nothing in his behavior indicated that he understood the gravity of the situation. It wasn't until September 2 that Bush traveled to the disaster area, where he announced that Congress had provided US $ 10.5 billion in emergency aid. Ray Nagin , Mayor of New Orleans, had sharply criticized the government in Washington the day before in an interview with radio station WWL, whose aid was too hesitant. Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco joined the criticism. Bush then said the criticism was "inappropriate and unacceptable".

After severe criticism, on September 9, 2005, Bush relieved the director of the Federal Agency for Disaster Management ( FEMA ), Michael Brown , from his on-site coordination work. Brown resigned on September 12, 2005. As surprising as the President said, the scale of the disaster was not. As early as October 2001, Scientific American published an article in which the scenario was described in detail.

In October 2006, the Insurrection Act , which until then only allowed a military operation in the interior of the USA in the event of uprisings, was extended to natural disasters, terrorist attacks, epidemics and other national emergencies. The United States Northern Command then established the Joint Task Force (JTF) Katrina , which was based on Camp Shelbey. Up to 51,000 members of the National Guard were activated to remedy the aftermath of the storm, and troops came from all 50 US states. President Bush once again received support from former Presidents Bill Clinton and his father George Bush , who had raised more donations as early as 2004 after the seaquake in the Indian Ocean .

Energy crisis

Gas station without a roof

There are a few hundred oil rigs and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico . A total of 30 oil rigs were either damaged or destroyed by Katrina. Over a quarter of America's oil and gas is produced in this region. Oil production there, which accounts for approximately 24 percent of annual production, was halted for the next six months after Katrina. The refineries there represent the majority of US capacity. Large oil companies have had to shut down some of the production facilities at risk from Katrina . Eight refineries remain closed and another is operating at low capacity. Many pipelines were also destroyed. This drove the price of crude oil on the New York Stock Exchange to all-time highs of over $ 70 a barrel .

Due to the failed refinery capacities, fuel prices rose sharply worldwide, as a global increase in production capacity was no longer possible (see Peak Oil ). In the USA, the price of gasoline climbed from a good $ 2 / gal (approx. € 0.43 / l) to around $ 3 / gal (approx. € 0.65 / l). In some places the price rose at times up to $ 8 / gal (€ 1.72 / l). Even twelve months after the storm, 15 percent of oil and 11 percent of gas production had still not been restored. The reason for this was the extensive repair work that had not yet been completed.

In the weeks immediately after Katrina, fuel was heavily rationed, especially in the central south. Almost all petrol stations had to temporarily stop refueling, as petrol and diesel fuels could only be delivered to the petrol stations sporadically and were only given to a limited extent per vehicle (exceptions were emergency and rescue vehicles). Another consequence of the scarcity of fuel was the temporary closure of numerous stores, particularly fast food outlets in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Both personnel and products barely had the necessary means of transport. Normalization did not set in until four weeks after Katrina.

In Germany , the price of petrol rose within days by 18 cents / l and thus reached a high of around € 1.45 (CHF 2.21) per liter of premium petrol on September 3rd. In Switzerland , lead-free 95 prices rose by around 14 cents / l, which, depending on the region and brand, amounts to record highs between 1.69 and 1.83 francs (1.10 € - 1.20 €) per liter. The V-Power Shell approaches in some places even the 2-franc limit. In Austria , regular petrol cost around € 1.20 (CHF 1.83). At least in the USA there was an energy crisis due to the hurricane, for example 13% of the daily kerosene requirement could no longer be met because of the storm. To contain the energy crisis, the US government suspended gasoline cleanliness regulations, which regulate the level of sulfur in gasoline, as cleaning gasoline reduces its usable amount.

Environmental impact

Katrina has had a profound impact on the environment. The storm surge caused significant erosion on the coasts , and in some cases these were completely devastated. On Dauphin Island, about 150 kilometers east of where the hurricane hit the mainland, the sand that makes up the local sandbar was transported across the island into the Mississippi Sound , shifting the island towards the mainland. The storm surge and waves also wreaked havoc on the Chandeleur Islands , which had been hit by Hurricane Ivan the year before .

The lost land also served in part as a breeding ground for marine mammals, brown pelicans , turtles and fish, as well as for migratory birds such as the red headed duck . A total of 20 percent of the local marshes were inundated by water as a result of the storm. Katrina also resulted in the closure of 16 nature reserves, among which the Breton National Wildlife Refuge had suffered the greatest damage, as half of the area alone was washed away. The hurricane also affected the habitats of sea ​​turtles , sandhill cranes , cockade woodpeckers and Alabama coast mice .

Eventually, as part of the cleanup effort, the flood waters that had ravaged New Orleans were pumped into Lake Pontchartrain , which took a total of 43 days. That water contained a mixture of sewage, bacteria , heavy metals, pesticides , toxic chemicals, and about 6.5 million gallons of oil that made scientists fear massive fish deaths would follow.

Lack of supplies and violence

Shortly after the hurricane resumed August 30, some of the New Orleans residents who stayed in the city had to go to stores for food and water, or things that were no longer available because of the devastation. Even the police took advantage of the situation for pure looting.

There were continuous reports in the sensational media of car thefts, murders, break-ins and rape; later the veracity of most of the reports was questioned. Thousands of National Guard and federal troops were rounded up and sent to Louisiana along with a number of law enforcement officials from across the country. Louisiana's Governor Kathleen Blanco said, according to the Associated Press , “They have M16 rifles that are locked and loaded. These troops know how to shoot and kill, and they are more than motivated to do that, and I expect they will. " Louisiana Democratic Congressman William J. Jefferson said on ABC News ," The Shootings continued. The snipers continued their mischief. Law and order only gradually returned to the city in the first week of September. "

U.S. soldiers from the 82nd Airborne Division patrol the streets of New Orleans

There were multiple shootings between police and New Orleans residents. According to estimates by civil rights activists, white vigilante groups shot "several hundred of the 1,800 Katrina dead". Corpses lying on the streets for weeks after the flood were buried in mass graves by a private company commissioned by the government. According to the civil rights activists, there were no public prosecutor's investigations.

In Welcome to New Orleans (2006), filmmaker Rasmus Holm documented the behavior of white vigilante groups from a white suburb, the Algiers Point district, who openly talk about their hunt for African Americans . The vigilantism of guests at a barbecue party was brought up emotionally here : "I would never have dreamed that one day I would walk through the streets of New Orleans with two .38 revolvers in my pockets and a shotgun over my shoulder (... ) That was great, it was like pheasant hunting in South Dakota . If it moves, you shoot it (...) “The police from Grentna and vigilante groups used their firearms to prevent the flood victims from escaping from the flooded part of the Mississippi across the bridge to safe Parish. In total, a large number of people were arrested, and a prison for around 700 prisoners was temporarily built at the station, made of wire mesh cages.

In Texas, where more than 300,000 people had been displaced, officials carried out checks on 20,000 displaced persons in order to sort out the convicts. Helpers who supported the officials and people who had made their apartments available were also affected. However, most of the controls did not reveal any findings that were worrying for the police.

Effects of the natural disaster on the social structure in New Orleans

" Racism + Classism = Katrina". A graffiti about Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans

The hurricane led to a radical change in the social structure in New Orleans. Above all, tenants of social housing in the inner city area have been locked out of their residential areas and the so-called public housing projects by private real estate companies have meanwhile been demolished. On the lucrative properties, model settlements for citizens with a mixed income are being built with subsidies. Only a small part of the former tenants will get an apartment there.

Over 99 percent of the affected residents are African American and especially single mothers, people with a handicap and the elderly.

In 2008, Geo magazine said: “According to official estimates, the rebuilding and renovation of these facilities would cost around $ 400 million, while demolition would cost around $ 700 million. Nevertheless, the official concept for New Orleans is: lower the population density in these neighborhoods. "

The affected public housing projects include:

  • The St. Bernard Public Housing Development, which was sealed off after Hurricane Katrina and later demolished (built 1942–1943, 2000: 1,436 residential units, residential units made accessible to residents after Katrina: 0)
  • The CJ Peete Public Housing Project (built in 1941, 2000: 1403 residential units, residential units made accessible to residents according to Katrina: 0)
  • The BW Cooper Project (built 1942–1943, 2000: 1546 residential units, residential units made accessible to residents according to Katrina: 261)
  • The Iberville Project
  • The Tremé / Lafitte Project (built in 1941, 2000: 896 residential units, according to Katrina, residential units made accessible to residents: 0)
  • The BW Cooper Project (built in 1954, 2000: 1546 residential units, residential units made accessible to residents according to Katrina: 0)
  • The St. Thomas Public Housing Development in New Orleans, which was renovated in the 1990s.


A National Guard truck with relief supplies
US Air Force
Boeing C-17 Globemaster unloading relief supplies in Mississippi, August 31, 2005
US Coast Guard searching for survivors in New Orleans
US Navy dropships , including
LCAC hovercraft , bring heavy equipment into the heavily devastated Biloxi

Aid for the time after the storm started before the storm. FEMA in particular made preparations that ranged from the storage of relief supplies to the mobilization of a mobile morgue on refrigerated trucks. More than 20,000 soldiers from the National Guard and 7,200 soldiers on active duty provided aid in the disaster area.

At the request of President Bush, the Senate initially approved $ 10.5 billion in emergency aid. On the evening news on September 1, 2005 , NBC News announced that the United States had declined offers of assistance from other states.

International aid

Numerous states offered international aid, including many so-called developing countries or emerging economies such as India and China , both of which provided five million dollars each, and Qatar , which donated as much as 100 million dollars. These included poorest countries such as Bangladesh (one million dollars), Sri Lanka , which was still suffering from the aftermath of the 2004 seaquake , as well as Afghanistan and even Iran , Cuba and Venezuela . Even Canada , Mexico , Singapore and Germany delivered stock, troops, ships and water pumps to defuse the situation in the affected areas. After initial hesitation, the US was ready to accept foreign aid. However, the goods offered were often still stored for days at the airports of the offering state or the USA, as the aid was poorly coordinated. The United States initially rejected Russia's offer to provide two jet aircraft , but later accepted it. The offers of help from France were initially rejected, but later accepted as well.

The Red Cross and other organizations called for donations that were passed on to American partner organizations. Germany had sent helpers from the Technical Relief Organization to New Orleans, who provided help with 15 large pumps from September 9, 2005. The THW was accompanied and supported by a small medical team from Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe , which took care of the medical and emergency medical care of the THW emergency services. Allegedly because of the risk of BSE , the US Department of Agriculture banned the import of emergency rations for the German Armed Forces on September 10, 2005 . German aid deliveries were no longer allowed to be distributed.

The European aviation and defense group EADS NV supported the establishment of medical care in the areas devastated by Hurricane Katrina in the USA with a mobile, air-conditioned rescue station. The rescue station originally developed by EADS, which could be borrowed from the German Armed Forces, was provided with a transatlantic flight of the large-capacity transporter Beluga , which usually transports components from the Airbus series.

National Guard

The first National Guard mobilization was hampered because about a third of the Louisiana National Guard was deployed in Iraq at the time, as were equipment such as flood- resistant humvees , useful in floodplains. To compensate, Louisiana requested and received intergovernmental aid in the form of troops and equipment as early as the preparatory phase. Since the hurricane hit Alabama, Mississippi, Florida and Louisiana, more than 10,000 Guards have been mobilized.

Coast guard

The United States Coast Guard had assembled as many helicopters as possible in the disaster area. 500 reservists were called up, and smaller boats were sent in from across the country to help.


The United States Navy also quickly began providing assistance. Several ships made their way, including the aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman , which was to serve as the command post for naval operations in the disaster area, and the amphibious assault ships USS Bataan and USS Iwo Jima with their support groups. These ships carry transport helicopters of the type CH-53 Sea Stallion and SH-60 Sea Hawk and landing and transport boats which can land at almost any beach and are therefore suitable for assistance to destroyed coastlines of what they already in January 2005 after the tsunami in Sri Lanka had demonstrated. In the meantime, the USS Bataan was anchored off the Mississippi coast and the USS Iwo Jima as a floating command center on the pier in the port of New Orleans. The hospital ship USNS Comfort , equipped with 1000 beds, was ordered to the region and was moored in the port of Pascagoula , Mississippi. Lt. Gen. Russel L. Honoré of the United States Army at Camp Shelby , Mississippi.

Non-military use

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) sent ten teams from across the country to look for survivors, as well as 23 medical teams. With the help of the Ministry of Transport, 1,700 truckloads of water, ice cream and ready meals were brought in. Another 390 trucks brought water, tents, living containers and forklifts. After Katrina moved through, it was worked hard to reopen Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport for relief flights.

A credit card program for flood victims - namely the issuing of cards that entitle them to withdraw US $ 2,000 per household - has been stopped and, after initial announcements, will only be continued for the resettled people in the Astrodome.

Amateur radio

The radio amateurs , who have joined forces in the Salvation Army Team Emergency Radio Network ( SATERN ) and in the West Gulf ARES Emergency Net , started emergency radio operations and provided additional communication channels with their amateur radio stations to enable a rapid flow of information. Local governments across the United States sent aid in the form of ambulances, search teams, and relief supplies. Housing for refugees was created as far as Utah .

Grassroots organizations

A large number of independent groups have been doing reconstruction work in the areas that have been completely destroyed after almost a year since the flood. The Common Ground Collective for New Orleans deserves special mention , a grassroots group founded at the beginning of September in which more than 200 volunteers have been working continuously since then (up to July 2006 a total of 10,000 volunteers). The work of Common Ground includes ecological reconstruction, renovation of houses and schools, medical care with district clinics, educational work, awareness-raising work, but also political actions. Common Ground's work is being restricted by the New Orleans Police and the National Guard, and several Common Ground employees were arrested during remediation work.

On the coast, grassroots groups like Four Directions work with the Native Americans .


A car at Mardi Gras that criticizes the pioneers' achievements in building dams
Protest in the French Quarter on January 12, 2006
Signs in front of a house in New Orleans (Inscription: Please stop "helping" me - Thank you / Go away )

Due to the industrial use of the wetland east of New Orleans for oil drilling, a large part of the cypress trees there has been cut down and large areas have been submerged through the laying of canals. Environmentalists and scientists believe that Hurricane Katrina would have reached New Orleans with less intense industrial use of this area with less force. The most optimistic scenarios even say that if the hurricane had been slowed down, it would have caused less damage.

On the third and fourth day of the disaster, the aid provided by the government, and particularly by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, was increasingly criticized. She had z. B. According to the spokesman, only found out on September 1 that, in addition to the Superdome, the Convention Center had also been the target of around 15,000 refugees. They stayed there for days without support. Violence, lack of water, insufficient medical supplies and unsanitary hygienic conditions claimed their lives. The criticized FEMA referred to the unusually large dimensions of the disaster. The Congressional Black Caucus , a non-partisan committee in the US Congress to represent the interests of blacks in the US, expressed concern on September 2, 2005 about the lack of help. Obviously, the poor, the elderly and black citizens are in need. It could not be that these factors decided the fate of the victims. The Mayor of New Orleans, Ray Nagin , also addressed the press in an emotional address and sharply accused the government and aid organizations of inadequate measures. Rapper Kanye West used a fundraising program on NBC to launch unsolicited, harsh attacks on the US government. He saw racism in the representations of the media, which on the captions characterized whites as "people who supply themselves with the bare necessities" and blacks as "looters".

The media discussed whether there was still subliminal racial segregation and pronounced class segregation in the United States. While wealthy people were able to flee the disaster area within a very short time, the poor had to stay in the city of New Orleans. A renewed discussion about such unequal conditions and the associated consequences in the event of disasters is now called for by many representatives on the political stage in the USA.

In Washington, on September 4, the flags were hoisted at half mast to honor the presiding judge of the Supreme Court , William H. Rehnquist , who died of cancer on September 3 . The death toll from the hurricane was not officially recognized.

The press coined the term Katrinagate for the failures of the Bush administration, following the Watergate affair , and thus put pressure on the president.

The flooding of large parts of New Orleans was discussed not only as a natural event, but also as the result of political misjudgments by the US governments. National Geographic magazine warned of a catastrophe in an article in the fall of 2004.

In 2011, the US disaster relief agency FEMA sued the Warren Buffett- owned company Clayton Homes for measuring elevated levels of formaldehyde , which can cause respiratory diseases in children and is carcinogenic in the United States , in the residential containers it delivered to house victims of the disaster is classified.

After almost a year, the districts in which the poorer Afro-American population lived were still completely destroyed. No reconstruction work was done on the part of the government. Hundreds of thousands of New Orleans people were still in other states waiting to return. Settlements like St. Bernhard, in which more than 3,000 people lived, were fenced off by the city and are to be replaced by a mixed settlement, which, however, was not affordable for many of the former residents. Districts such as the 9th Ward were without medical and school care. In these parts of the city the schools were not rehabilitated by the government, but by grassroots groups, although children here have not been to school for a year.


Exactly 16 years to the day after Katrina, Category 4 Hurricane Ida also hit land near New Orleans with winds of 150 mph.


  • Arjen Boin, Christer Brown, James A. Richardson: Managing Hurricane Katrina: Lessons from a Megacrisis. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge 2019, ISBN 978-0-8071-7092-2 .
  • Michael S. Falser: The Reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Thoughts on the status of civil society in the context of natural and cultural disasters. In: Hans-Rudolf Meier, Michael Petzet and Thomas Will (eds.): Kulturerbe und Naturkatastrophen / Cultural Heritage and Natural Disasters. Risk Preparedness and the Limits of Prevention. TUDpress Dresden, 2008, ISBN 978-3-940046-64-2 , pp. 109-122.
  • Christian Jakob & Friedrich Schorb: Social cleansing. How New Orleans gets rid of its underclass. Unrast Verlag, Münster 2008, ISBN 978-3-89771-484-7 .
  • Christian Jakob & Friedrich Schorb: Disaster as a catalyst . In: analysis & criticism . No. 522, November 16, 2007.
  • Dan Rather (foreword), Jenni Bergal, Sara Shipley Hiles, Frank Koughan, John McQuaid, Jim Morris, Katy Reckdahl, Curtis Wilkie: City Adrift - New Orleans Before And After Katrina , Louisiana State-University Press, Baton Rouge 2007, ISBN 978 -0-8071-3284-5 .
  • Eugenie L. Birch, Susan M. Wachter (Eds.): Rebuilding Urban Places After Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2006, ISBN 978-0-8122-1980-7 .
  • Ernest J. Gaines: Katrina's Legacy. A year ago, the hurricane destroyed large parts of the southern states. The suffering of the people still persists. In: National Geographic Germany . August 2006, pp. 84-107.
  • There Is No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster: Race, Class, and Hurricane Katrina , hrg. by Chester Hartman and Gregory D. Squires, Routledge 2006, ISBN 0-415-95487-8 .
  • ACCENT Global Change Magazine for Schools: Tropical Cyclones . Special edition on the occasion of the hurricane "Katrina". September 2005.
  • John Brown Childs (Ed.): Hurricane Katrina. Response and Responsibilities. New Pacific Press, Santa Cruz 2005, ISBN 0-9712546-2-1 .
  • Jerroldyn and Roland Hoffmann with Christiane Landgrebe: In the eye of the hurricane. How the New Orleans hurricane made us homeless. Bastei Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 2005, ISBN 978-3-404-61595-7 .


  • When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts. Directed by Spike Lee , 2006 ( information at Home Box Office )
  • BIG EASY to Big Empty - The Untold Story of the Drowning of New Orleans , Greg Palast 2006
  • Engineering Disasters: New Orleans , The History Channel (about the failure of the levees, the freeway bridge over the lake, and the Superdome roof)


  • With the song Wide Awake from the album Revelations (2006), the band Audioslave criticized the behavior of the government, especially of George W. Bush .
  • The band Linkin Park helped victims build houses with their Music For Relief project , and their song The Little Things Give You Away is about the wrongdoing of the government during the disaster.
  • The band Rise Against dedicated the video for their song Help is on the Way from their album Endgame , which was released in 2011, to the victims .
  • The bands Green Day and U2 sang The Saints Are Coming for the victims .
  • The electro project Assemblage 23 referred with the song Madman's Dream from the album “Meta” (2007) to the natural disaster and its consequences, especially the insufficient crisis management of the government.
  • The jazz trumpeter Terence Blanchard dedicated his album A Tale of Gods Will (Requiem for Katrina) to the victims . This is also the score for the documentary When the Levees Broke , in which Blanchard himself also appears.
  • The musician and actor Mos Def deals with the anger of the black population in his song Dollar Day (Katrina Klap) .
  • The musician Prince donated the entire proceeds of his single SST (2005) to the victims of the hurricane.

See also

Web links

Commons : Hurricane Katrina  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files


  1. (p. 1140)
  2. Malberg, H. (2007): Meteorologie und Klimatologie. Springer Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg. P. 155f. ISBN 3-540-37219-9
  3. Malberg, H. (2007): Meteorologie und Klimatologie. Springer Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg. 156. ISBN 3-540-37219-9
  4. Wetterlexikon - Hurricane entry on
  5. (p. 1140)
  6. Spiegel Online : New Orleans: Shots at helicopters - evacuation of the superdome stopped . September 1, 2005
  7. ^ Reason : The Deadly Bigotry of Low Expectations? Did the rumor mill help kill Katrina victims? . September 6, 2005
  8. ^ National Hurricane Center: Atlantic hurricane best track (Hurdat) ( English ) Hurricane Research Division. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research. April 2018. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  9. National Hurricane Center: Continental United States Hurricanes (Detailed Description) ( English ) In: . United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research. February 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  10. ^ Spiegel Online : New Orleans: Evacuation is delayed again . September 3, 2005
  11. ^ A b Spiegel Online : New Orleans: Superdome and convention center have been cleared . September 4, 2005
  12. Guardian : Aftermath of Katrina: "It reminds me of Baghdad in the worst of times" . September 3, 2005
  13. Washington Post , "It Was as if All of Us Were Already Pronounced Dead . " September 15, 2005
  14. CNN : Evacuees wait as relief efforts build ( Memento of March 15, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). September 4, 2005
  15. n-tv : "Flatten New Orleans" - Bush friend in fat bowl ( Memento from April 29, 2009 in the Internet Archive ). September 3, 2005
  16. a b c Geo : Hurricane "Katrina": The poor should stay outside . 2008
  17. Christian Jakob, Friedrich Schorb: Social cleansing. How New Orleans gets rid of its underclass. Unrast-Verlag, Münster 2008, ISBN 978-3-89771-484-7 , p. 10
  18. FEMA : Hurricane Katrina Flood Recovery (Mississippi) ( Memento of the original from September 17, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . May 30, 2006  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  19. CBS News : Mississippi Coast Areas Wiped Out. "Nothing Left" In Small Town; Public Health Crisis Along Coastline . September 1, 2005
  20. US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) : Mississippi Development Authority. Homeowner Assistance Program. Partial Action Plan. March 31, 2006 ( PDF ( Memento of the original from October 12, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note. ) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  21. The deadliest, costliest and most intense United States tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2010 (and other frequently requested hurricane facts) ( English , PDF) In: NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6 . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. August 10, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  22. CNN : Bush: "First priority is to save lives" . August 31, 2005 (transcript)
  23. ^ New York Times : Waiting for a Leader . September 1, 2005
  24. Spiegel Online : Visit to the disaster area: Bush promises quick reconstruction . September 2, 2005
  25. Interview as MP3 ; CNN : Mayor to feds: "Get off your asses" . September 2, 2005 (transcript); Spiegel Online : Angerrede: "Finally get your butt up" . September 2, 2005 (excerpts)
  26. Mark Fischetti: Drowning New Orleans. In: Scientific American . Vol. 285, no. 4, pp. 76–85 ( PDF  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ); German translation: When New Orleans is sinking. In: Spectrum of Science . January 2002@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  27. ^ New York Times : They Saw It Coming . September 2, 2005
  28. ^ William B. Boehm, Renee Hylton, Major Thomas W. Mehl: In Katrina's Wake . The National Guard on the Gulf Coast 2005. Ed .: Historical Services Division, National Guard Bureau. Arlington, Virginia 2010, ISBN 978-0-16-085261-9 , pp. 59 (English, [PDF; 4.4 MB ; accessed on May 30, 2021]).
  29. "They have M-16s and they're locked and loaded. (...) These troops know how to shoot and kill, and they are more than willing to do so, and I expect they will. “ USA Today : From catastrophe to chaos in New Orleans September 2, 2005. Translated and quoted from Christian Jakob & Friedrich Schorb: Social cleansing. How New Orleans gets rid of its underclass. Unrast-Verlag, Münster 2008, ISBN 978-3-89771-484-7
  30. Christian Jakob & Friedrich Schorb: Social cleansing. How New Orleans gets rid of its underclass. Unrast-Verlag, Münster 2008, ISBN 978-3-89771-484-7 , p. 24
  31. ^ Welcome to New Orleans. Internet Movie Database , accessed May 22, 2015 .
  32. Quoted from Christian Jakob & Friedrich Schorb: Social cleansing. How New Orleans gets rid of its underclass. Unrast-Verlag, Münster 2008, ISBN 978-3-89771-484-7 , p. 22
  33. Cf. Christian Jakob & Friedrich Schorb: Social cleansing. How New Orleans gets rid of its underclass. Unrast-Verlag, Münster 2008, ISBN 978-3-89771-484-7 , pp. 21-23
  34. ^ Spiegel Online : Hurricane: Flood aid stuck in the office felt . September 7, 2005
  35. EADS press release: EADS sends mobile rescue station to the USA ( Memento of the original from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . September 15, 2005  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  36. New America Media: American Indians Continue to Rebuild After Katrina American Indians Continue to Rebuild After Katrina ( Memento of the original from April 16, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . January 7, 2006  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  37. Four Directions: Accomplishments in Louisiana
  38. ARTE documentation on BP's global activities ( Memento of the original from June 30, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  39. National Geographic Magazine: Louisiana's Wetlands ( Memento of the original from September 11, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . October 2004
  40. Friday : This is how Baghdad came to New Orleans ( Memento of August 24, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). September 9, 2005
  41. The Shelters That Clinton Built , Isabel Macdonald and Isabeau Doucet, The Nation , July 11, 2011
  42. Hurricane Ida makes landfall in Louisiana with winds stronger than Katrina's . In: Los Angeles Times , August 29, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2021.