education for Sustainable Development

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Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is an international education campaign that is supported by various actors. This will enable, according to the statements of various participants allow the individual to actively participate in the analysis and evaluation of development processes with ecological , economic share and socio-cultural significance on the criteria of sustainability to orient in one's life and sustainable development processes together with other local and global to set in motion.

From 2005 to 2014, with the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development , the United Nations committed itself to anchoring the principles of sustainability in their education systems. The German Commission for UNESCO coordinates the German activities for the UN Decade. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research promotes the work. Since 2005, the German UNESCO Commission has awarded awards to over 1,500 projects and 14 municipalities as well as numerous nationwide measures. The title is awarded for two years, after which a new application is reviewed.

Campaign development

1972: Founding of the UN Environment Program (UNEP) at the first environmental conference in Stockholm.

1987: Publication of the Brundtland Report : It is a perspective report on sustainable, environmentally friendly development on a global scale that played a decisive role in the international debate on development and environmental policy.

1992: Conference on Environment and Development of the United Nations in Rio de Janeiro (UNCED) and Agenda 21: At the conference, over 170 governments decide on a development and environmental action program for global sustainable development: Agenda 21.

2002: World Summit Rio + 10 - Johannesburg and proclamation of the World Decade of "Education for Sustainable Development": The United Nations decide to proclaim the years 2005 to 2014 as the World Decade of "Education for Sustainable Development", with the resolution to make intensive efforts to achieve the model to anchor sustainable development in all areas of education worldwide.

2003: Hamburg Declaration by the German Commission for UNESCO: Appeal to the federal government, the federal states, municipalities as well as economic institutions, research and teaching institutions and civil society to come together to form an “Alliance to learn sustainability”.

2004: German UNESCO Commission is charged with implementing the UN Decade in Germany: On the basis of a unanimous decision of the Bundestag, the German UNESCO Commission is charged with implementing the UN Decade in Germany. To this end, it appoints a national committee as the central steering and coordination body. At the invitation of the National Committee of the UN Decade, around 100 important initiatives in education for sustainable development come together once a year for the Round Table of the UN Decade in Germany. The German UNESCO Commission is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for the implementation of the UN Decade.

2005: Publication of the 1st National Action Plan with the aim of anchoring the idea of ​​sustainable development in all areas of education: The National Action Plan is published by the German Commission for UNESCO and defines the overarching goal of the UN Decade to anchor education for sustainable development in all areas of education. It is updated regularly.

2007: International conference in Berlin and launch of the Internet portal As part of the German EU Council Presidency, the international conference "UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development - Europe's Contribution" takes place in Berlin. The aim of the conference is to identify the European contribution to the global project UN Decade "Education for Sustainable Development" and to take into account Europe's global responsibility. Over 200 representatives from all EU countries, from other regions of the world and from international organizations take part in the conference. As a further contribution to the UN Decade, the German UNESCO Commission is realizing the Internet portal for education for sustainable development.

2008: First nationwide days of action and new version of the National Action Plan: On the initiative of the National Committee of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, the nationwide days of action on Education for Sustainable Development with more than 320 different events take place for the first time.

2009: World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development: The World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development kicks off the second half of the UN Decade. UNESCO (Paris) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research are organizing the conference. The cooperation partner is the German UNESCO Commission (Bonn). 700 participants from all over the world take part in the conference.

2011 New version of the National Action Plan (German / English): In addition to the updated sub-goals, the third version of the National Action Plan of the UN Decade "Education for Sustainable Development" in Germany also includes the strategy for the second half of the decade jointly developed by the actors. It also focuses on a collection of the most important policy papers that were published in the run-up to the decade or that were developed in the course of the decade.

February 2012 International Workshop “Horizon 2015”: 50 experts from five continents call on the United Nations to ensure the continuation of the UN Decade of “Education for Sustainable Development” beyond 2014 and recommend that the UN General Conference adopt a resolution as soon as possible.

April 2012 Funding of follow-up activities to the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014) are to be initiated: With its resolution of April 26, 2012, the German Bundestag calls on the Federal Government to support follow-up activities to the current UN Decade. Education for sustainable development (ESD) puts people in a position to acquire the values, competencies, knowledge and skills that are required today for the design of a sustainable society in accordance with the model of sustainable development, according to the CDU / CSU, SPD, FDP and Alliance 90 / The Greens approved the motion.

June 2012 Rio + 20 summit and the key role of education for sustainable development: The final document of the Rio + 20 summit emphasizes the importance of "education for sustainable development" several times. Important tasks are assigned to the educational institutions. But also beyond the education sector, the UN member states should ensure that ESD becomes even more conscious of the people. Particular emphasis is placed on UNESCO as a driving force in this area.

29./30. September 2014: National conference at the end of the UN Decade of ESD in Bonn. In the Bonn Declaration, perspectives for the world action program Education for Sustainable Development (from 2015) are resolved, which contain 5 priorities: political support, institutional approach, teachers, multipliers, youth and local development.

November 12, 2014 in Aichi-Nagoya (Japan) The UNESCO World Conference “Education for Sustainable Development” decided on similar goals and started the World Action Program Education for Sustainable Development (2015-2019). The roadmap for the ESD global action program was then published.

Beginning of 2016 : It was not until one year after the official start of the world action program that the German government laid the foundation for a national ESD action plan with new structures: the new national platform is the highest steering body. Specialist forums will be set up on various topics (early childhood education, school, vocational education, university, informal and non-formal learning / youth and municipalities). All working groups of the past UN decade for ESD have decided to continue working as partner networks in the WAP. A national agenda congress is to take place annually.

Origin background

On the basis of the sustainability concept of the Brundtland Report of 1987, Agenda 21 was adopted at the Rio Conference ("Environment and Development") of the United Nations in 1992 , in which sustainable development is the common model of humanity for the 21st century is documented. In Chapter 36, Agenda 21 is devoted to "promoting school education, public awareness and vocational training and further education" and thus represents the first official link between sustainable development and education.

The authors consider this link to be necessary for various reasons: Controlled change processes at the political level and innovative production processes as well as other nature-friendly measures at the economic level are not sufficient on their own to achieve sustainable development. In addition, a commitment to sustainable development, changed consumption and behavior patterns as well as a changed sense of justice and environmental awareness is necessary on an individual and social level. Overall, all of this can only be achieved through a comprehensive mental and cultural change. This mental change as a process of changing the awareness of individuals to transform social models is not feasible without a global educational initiative, because "self-change requires a targeted control policy - and institutions that can bring about such changes."

The objectives of Agenda 21 have been conceptually developed as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) or Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) since the mid-1990s. ESD connects two social problem areas: ecological necessities and insights from development policy. It therefore brings together aspects of environmental and development policy in a corresponding educational concept.

In the area of ​​environmental issues, due to the increasingly observable and forecasted crisis phenomena since the 1960s, a threat scenario with regard to possible future scarcity of resources (through waste of resources), increased environmental damage and catastrophes of all kinds with irreversible ecological consequences for humans and nature on a global scale and an increasing one Diagnosed with extinction. It was predicted that these phenomena would be exacerbated by the rapidly growing world population. These aspects outline the content that was incorporated into educational concepts such as environmental education or eco-education in terms of content and didactics. In contrast, development education focused on injustice with regard to the distribution of life opportunities and wealth between the richer, industrialized north of the world and the poorer developing and emerging countries of the southern hemisphere.

A balance between north and south is considered urgently needed. In addition, it should be taken into account that the economy and way of life in the north cannot simply be globalized for ecological reasons, since the available resources are insufficient and environmental pollution would increase rapidly. Instead of starting from the threat scenario of environmental education and the misery scenario of development education, education for sustainable development pursues a positive strategy: It is about conserving natural resources "about the fair distribution of life opportunities" or the natural basis for a decent life "for all people currently living on earth (intragenerational justice) and about the fair opportunities for future generations (intergenerational justice) ”. But this is to be achieved without at the same time foregoing economic prosperity; rather, economic prosperity in many countries is a prerequisite for the creation of fairer conditions. In ESD, environmental education and global learning are thought together against this normative background.

Development of ESD in Germany

In Germany, the principle of sustainability was enshrined in 1994 as a national goal in Art. 20a of the Basic Law , but without any explicit mention of education. The first conceptual work on education for sustainable development in the 1990s comes from environmental education. The first official educational policy publication on education for sustainable development in Germany was the orientation framework "Education for Sustainable Development". The publication Education for Sustainable Development - Expert Opinions on the Program followed, also on behalf of the Federal and State Commission , which forms the basis for the BLK Program 21 , which gave schools a major boost in education for sustainable development. With the Bundestag resolution “Education for Sustainable Development” of 2000, the Federal Government was requested to align the overall policy of Germany with the model of “sustainable development” and to implement this objective with concrete measures in the field of education.

With regard to the amalgamation of the areas of environmental education and global learning , progress has initially been slow in placing them under the “umbrella” of education for sustainable development, which is accepted by all relevant actors. After all, in June 2007 a paper published or adopted by the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK) took up both lines: Together with the Federal Government, the KMK agreed on an “Orientation Framework for the Learning Area of ​​Global Development”. The recommendation on “Education for Sustainable Development in Schools”, adopted by the KMK together with the German UNESCO Commission one day later, was included in the publication of the orientation framework. The framework itself explicitly refers to education for sustainable development. A criticism that has recently been expressed here and there, according to which education for sustainable development and the orientation framework do not deal enough with the consequences of colonial power relations and the power asymmetry between North and South, meets with some sharp criticism. The question of which feelings are addressed within an ESD when it comes to climate change, for example, has recently been addressed. Related questions have been avoided so far (Overwien 2019).

Development of ESD in Switzerland

In Switzerland, too, the principle of sustainability was firmly anchored as a national goal in Article 73 of the Swiss Federal Constitution. The task of education (for sustainable development) is not explicitly mentioned at this point. It is the Federal Conference of Directors of Education (EDK), which makes a contribution to the integration of education for sustainable development in schools and lessons by coordinating projects.

The focus is on cooperation with federal offices that are active in the field of education for sustainable development, as well as with the éducation21 foundation. The aim is to coordinate the use of the available funds at national level and to support specific projects. The agreements on this take place in the Swiss ESD Coordination Conference. The éducation21 foundation is the sponsor of the newly created national competence center for education for sustainable development. éducation21 emerged in September 2012 from a merger of the Education and Development Foundations (SBE) and Environmental Education Switzerland (SUB).

At the tertiary level, the demand for ESD became increasingly louder by representatives of ecological and social justice concerns. Initial approaches to institutionalization took place under the term general ecology in the 1980s and 1990s. Across Switzerland, the demands for ESD at universities were documented by the academies in 1997. Proposals for action were formulated in 2010. The former institution Interfaculty Coordination Office for General Ecology (IKAÖ) was integrated into the interdisciplinary Center for Sustainable Development and Environment (CDE) . In 2016, the University of Bern presented guidelines for all degree programs for integrating sustainable development into teaching.

Development of ESD in Austria

On November 12, 2008, the "Austrian Strategy for Education for Sustainable Development" was adopted by the then Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Culture (today Federal Ministry for Education and Women ), the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management and the Federal Ministry for Science and research (today the Federal Ministry for Science, Research and Economy ) introduced to the Austrian Council of Ministers and decided.

In implementing Education for Sustainable Development in Austria, the participation of all stakeholders was given top priority from the start. Existing activities and projects should flow into the national discussion process so that the experiences and positions can be used. The decade office was installed for coordination.


The aim of ESD is that individuals acquire skills in order to be able to actively and independently shape the future in terms of sustainable development . In this context, rational, emotional and action-related components and the acquisition of judgment also play a decisive role.

Target recommendations - competencies

Comparative analyzes show that there is a wide variety of target formulations for education for sustainable development worldwide. In the following, only a few examples can be presented and their importance assessed (a detailed analysis can be found in Rieß, 2010). At the international level, the target formulation proposed by UNESCO for the proclamation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is the most frequently cited: “The vision of education for sustainable development is a world where everyone has the opportunity to benefit from quality education and learn the values, behavior and lifestyles required for a sustainable future and for positive societal transformation ”. Closely based on this, the National Action Plan for Germany proposes as the overarching goal of the World Decade of ESD and thus of ESD in principle: To acquire values ​​and to learn the behavior and lifestyles that are necessary for a future worth living and positive social change ”.

Both formulations of objectives are met with great approval at national and international level.

Another group of target formulations is based on the concept of competence. A statement by the OECD education ministers states: "Sustainable development and social cohesion are crucially dependent on the skills of the entire population - the term 'skills' encompassing knowledge, skills, attitudes and values." A comprehensive approach to bundling with the term ESD Competencies were developed and formulated in Germany under the concept of design competence by Gerhard de Haan . “Design competence is the ability to apply knowledge about sustainable development and to recognize problems of unsustainable development. That means, from analysis of the present and future studies, to be able to draw conclusions about ecological, economic, social, additionally also political-democratic and cultural developments in their mutual dependency and to be able to make, understand and implement decisions based on them individually, collectively and politically ... "The design competence can be broken down into 12 sub-competencies:

  1. Being able to show empathy for others
  2. Being able to plan and act together with others
  3. Gain interdisciplinary knowledge and act
  4. To be able to participate in collective decision-making processes
  5. Being able to reflect on one's own models and those of others
  6. Motivate yourself and others to take action
  7. Recognize and weigh up risks, dangers and uncertainties
  8. To be able to plan and act independently
  9. Analyze and assess developments with foresight
  10. Being able to use ideas of justice as a basis for decision-making and action
  11. Building open-minded and new perspectives integrating knowledge
  12. Being able to consider conflicting goals when reflecting on strategies for action

Rost, Lauströer and Raack provided an alternative to this: "Education for sustainable development should enable schoolchildren and motivate them through the assessment of environmental changes to participate in a social development that brings the quality of life of the people living now into line with one another and the opportunities for development." future generations ”. In order to enable people to do this, according to the authors, they need three sub-competencies: a) a system competence (understood as the ability and willingness to recognize individual phenomena as belonging to a larger system, to recognize system boundaries and sub-systems and to form the functioning of systems to understand and to be able to make predictions about the development of systems), b) the design competence (see above) and c) an assessment competence (understood as the ability to recognize different values ​​in decision-making situations, to weigh them against each other and to allow them to flow into the decision-making process).

Overall, one can come to the following provisional judgment with regard to the stated target formulations: a) The target formulation "design competence" currently dominating in Germany has hardly received any international response. There you orient yourself more towards the formulation of UNESCO; b) Nevertheless, the endeavor to translate the overarching target formulations of ESD into measurable competencies is a necessity if, for example, one wants to prove the effects of concepts of education for sustainable development or give well-founded recommendations for the design of education for sustainable development. Unfortunately, the competency formulations available so far do not yet meet the criterion of measurability.

Practical examples

The former BLK program 21 and its follow-up project Transfer 21 show, among other things, how the promotion of these design skills could look in practice . Their workshop materials and project proposals are strongly oriented towards the design skills and mainly move in the areas

  • interdisciplinary learning,
  • Participation in the local environment
  • and innovative structures in the school.

The topics relevant to ESD are extremely varied, from customs and traditions in other countries to the biotope in their own community to the school-internal kiosk, in which organic snacks and fair trade are sold. Methods such as interdisciplinary project weeks, student companies , cooperation between schools and companies, parental participation or business games (e.g. simulated city council meetings) are becoming increasingly important with regard to the goals of ESD.

Outside of school, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Natur und Umweltbildung Deutschland eV (ANU) has been carrying out projects since 1999, predominantly funded by the BMU , in order to anchor the topic of sustainability in educational practice - especially in out-of-school environmental education institutions. As a result, a large number of practical contributions have been created, which are structured according to key topics and are continuously updated.

The important topics of education for sustainable development in the extracurricular area include in particular building and housing, energy and climate protection, money / economy / economic education, mobility, water, nature conservation, agriculture / nutrition / health, consumption, participation. It is important to address the target group precisely. a. must be based on the living environment, the value orientations and attitudes of the training participants. Participatory methods such as B. Open space, future workshop or philosophizing with children.

In addition to the formal and non-formal education sectors, the area of ​​informal learning is becoming increasingly important. This is more “casual” learning that uses different methods than the typical teacher-student relationship, but can also be designed in a pedagogical manner. Examples are competitions or a family visit to a zoo.


In the German Society for Educational Sciences (DGfE) there has been a commission "Education for Sustainable Development" since 2003. In 2004 she set up and established a research program for ESD. Four research fields are carried out there: a) survey research, b) innovation research, c) quality research and d) teaching and learning research.

The foundations of empirical research on education for sustainable development are formulated by Rieß (2006). Accordingly, research on education for sustainable development can be assigned to the group of real sciences . As a central subject, it examines actions in the context of education for sustainable development and their effects. Depending on the object of investigation, very different research methods (qualitative and quantitative methods) of empirical social research can be used. The overarching goal of research in the field of education for sustainable development is, as in the other sciences, to gain knowledge.

Accordingly, four subtasks can be identified:

  1. the description of the facts (description) to be determined in the area of ​​ESD (e.g. the determination of the number of teaching hours that are held annually in the context of ESD at public schools),
  2. the explanation (causal analysis) of cause-and-effect relationships between circumstances in the area of ​​ESD (e.g. determining the effectiveness of teaching methods to promote sustainability-friendly attitudes),
  3. the prognosis, in which future events are predicted on the basis of known cause-and-effect relationships and knowledge of the current circumstances (e.g. in connection with the question of what effects a sustainability audit will have on the members of an institution), and
  4. the creation of a technology in the form of tried and tested procedures, resources, methods and rules for the creation of desired facts in the field of ESD (e.g. recommendations for the work of employees in extracurricular learning locations within the framework of ESD).

See also


  • Becker, Gerhard: Urban environmental education in the context of sustainable development. Theoretical foundations and school perspectives . Ecology and Educational Science Vol. 7, VS Verlag, 2001, ISBN 3-8100-2834-7 ( with digital extensions 2015)
  • Beyer, Axel (Ed.): Fit for Sustainability? Biological-anthropological foundations of education for sustainable development. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2002. ISBN 3-8100-3293-X .
  • de Haan, Gerhard (2004): Results and perspectives of the BLK program "21". In: Documentation of the closing event of the BLK program "21". Berlin. Pages 25-31.
  • Gorbachev, Michail : My manifesto for the earth. Frankfurt / M. 2003 ISBN 3-593-37215-0 .
  • Kultusministerkonferenz: Orientation framework for the learning area global development. Bonn 2007, see Orientation framework for the learning area global development ( Memento of December 8, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF, 2 MB)
  • Kyburz-Graber, Regula; Hofer, Kurt & Wolfensberger, Balz (2006): Studies on a socio-ecological approach to environmental education - a contribution to a critical position in the education for sustainable development discourse. In: Environmental Education Research, 12 (1), 101-114. doi: 10.1080 / 13504620500527840
  • Lillie, AL, & Meya, J. (2016). Contribution of political education to education for sustainable development. polis , 17 (1), 10-13.
  • Lude, Armin (2001): Nature experience and nature conservation awareness, Studien-Verlag, Innsbruck / Vienna / Munich.
  • Maack, Lisa (2018): Obstacles to Education for Sustainable Development. Actors between immanence and reflexivity. Publishing house Julius Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn. ISBN 978-3-7815-2216-9
  • Overwien, Bernd, Rathenow, Hanns-Fred (eds.): Globalization calls for political education. Political learning in a global context. With the collaboration of Ghassan El-Bathich, Nils Gramann, Katja Kalex. Opladen 2009.
  • Overwien, Bernd: Dossier political education: Environment and sustainability. Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education 2014, see: [2]
  • Overwien, Bernd: Environment, climate change, globalization - fear in political education ?. In: Besand, Anja; Overwien, Bernd; Zorn, Peter (Ed.): Political education with feeling. Bonn: BpB 2019, pp. 304-318
  • Peter, Horst; Moegling, Peter; Overwien, Bernd: Political education for sustainable development. Education in the field of tension between economy, social justice and ecology. Immenhausen 2011.
  • Reheis, Fritz: Sustainability, Education and Time. On the importance of time in the context of education for sustainable development in schools. Hohengehren: Schneider Verlag 2005.
  • Rieß, Werner & Apel, Heino (2006) (Ed.): Education for sustainable development. Current research fields and approaches. Wiesbaden: VS publishing house for social sciences. doi: 10.1007 / 978-3-531-90192-3
  • Rieß, Werner (2010): Education for Sustainable Development. Theoretical analyzes and empirical studies. Waxmann, Münster 2010, ISBN 978-3-8309-2311-4 .
  • Riess, W. (2013): Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and promotion of systemic thinking. - ANLiegen Natur 35: 55-64, running. PDF 0.4 MB.
  • Wenger, Anne: Education in a Forming World Society: A Key to Promoting Sustainable Development. Inventories and perspectives. 2008.
  • Federal-State Commission for Educational Planning and Research Promotion Education for Sustainable Development: Orientation Framework, BLK-Heft 69, 1998 (PDF 220 kB)
  • Federal-State Commission for Educational Planning and Research Promotion Education for Sustainable Development. Report on the program by Gerhard de Haan and Dorothee Harenberg, Free University of Berlin , BLK-Heft 72, 1999 (PDF 320 kB)
  • ökopädNEWS , magazine for environmental education, education for sustainable development (ESD) and global learning.

Web links




Individual evidence

  1. International Workshop on Education for Sustainable Development "Horizon 2015" ( Memento from September 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  2. Bundestag resolves to secure education for sustainable development in the long term ( memento of September 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), April 30, 2012.
  3. Rio + 20 Summit Recognizes Key Role of Education for Sustainable Development ( Memento of September 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), June 28, 2012.
  4. ^ National conference "UN Decade with Effect - 10 Years of Education for Sustainable Development in Germany" ( Memento from January 28, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), Bonn, September 29 and 30, 2014.
  5. UNESCO: World Conference on Education for Sustainable Development , Aichi-Nagoya, Japan, 10. – 12. November 2014.
  6. BLK-Heft 72, 1999, p. 25f.
  7. ^ Gerhard de Haan: Political Education for Sustainability
  8. BLK booklet 72, p. 18
  9. BLK booklet 72, p. 14
  10. a b Reheis 2005, p. 14
  11. BLK booklet 69
  12. BLK booklet 72
  13. Bundestag printed paper 14/3319, May 10, 2000 (PDF; 80 kB)
  14. Cf. Wenger, Anne: Education in a global society that is forming: A key to promoting sustainable development. Inventories and perspectives. 2008, p. 305 ff.
  15. cf. KMK / BMZ 2007.
  17. éducation21
  18. Hannes G. Pauli : The "Spider" model. Vision and proposal of the working group for the promotion of general ecology, in: UniPress 67, Bern 1990
  19. Visions of the researchers. Research on Sustainability and Global Change - Science Policy Visions of Swiss Researchers . ProClim, Bern 1997
  20. Sustainable development: Theses on sustainable development in teaching and research at universities in Switzerland. Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences. Bern 2010 ( PDF  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. )@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  21. Integrating sustainable development into university teaching - a guide with in-depth knowledge for the University of Bern . Basics. Bern 2016
  22. Rieß, Werner (2010). Education for Sustainable Development. Theoretical analyzes and empirical studies. Münster: Waxmann.
  23. (UNESCO, 2005, p. 26)
  24. (National Action Plan, 2005, p. 1)
  25. Definition and selection of key competences , p. 6 (PDF 380KB)
  26. a b Program Transfer 21: Orientation Guide Education for Sustainable Development in Secondary Level I (PDF; 358 kB) English: Transfer-21 Program: Guide Education for Sustainable Development at Secondary Level (PDF; 259 kB)
  27. (Rost et al., 2003, p. 10)
  28. Materials from Transfer-21 ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) and overview of workshop materials (PDF; 112 kB)
  29. Current projects , at
  30. Learn sustainability , at
  31. Hamburg learns sustainability / informal learning ( Memento from September 10, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  32. ^ Commission ESD in the DGfE
  33. Riess, Werner (2006). Basics of empirical research on education for sustainable development (ESD). In W. Rieß & H. Apel (eds.), Education for Sustainable Development. Current research fields and approaches (pp. 9–16). Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag.
  34. see [1]