Population register

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The register of residents is an official register in which the permanent or temporary residence of persons is recorded, insofar as it is subject to the obligation to register.


Ordinance on Registration (Reich Registration Ordinance) of January 6, 1938

Legal framework

In Germany, the population registers are kept as a public register by the municipalities. In this way , information from the register of residents , which is subject to a fee, can be obtained by anyone through third parties. The registration authorities provide information about the requirements and the costs of this information. The costs are regulated by the administrative cost laws of the federal states or statutory ordinances based on them. In almost all federal states , the municipality itself is the registration authority in the legal sense. The German population registers are currently administered by 5,283 residents' registration offices . As part of the federalism reform in 2006, the exclusive legislation on the right to report was transferred to the federal legislature. The legal basis for the collection, storage, use and deletion of the data is the Federal Registration Act, the registration laws of the federal states and statutory regulations.


In accordance with Section 3 of the Federal Registration Act (BMG), the register of residents contains the following data:

  • Family names , previous names, first names
  • Doctoral degree , religious name, artist name
  • Date and place of birth, gender
  • Legal representative / parents of underage children (first name and family name, doctoral degree, postal address , date of birth, date of death if applicable)
  • Citizenship (s)
  • legal affiliation to a religious community
  • Current and previous addresses, main and secondary residence, date of moving in and out
  • Marital status , in the case of married persons or civil partners, additionally the day and place of marriage or the establishment of a civil partnership, spouse or civil partner (first name and family name, doctoral degree, date of birth, address, date of death if applicable), minor children
  • Issuing authority, date and period of validity of the identity card / passport
  • Transmission blocks (such as in the event of danger to life, health or personal freedom)
  • Date and place of death
  • The fact that the person concerned is excluded from voting
  • tax data
  • possibly the fact that there are reasons for a passport refusal, a passport refused or withdrawn or an order has been made that the ID no longer entitles the holder to leave the Federal Republic of Germany .


On January 6, 1938, the National Socialists issued a "Reich Registration Code", which introduced standardized registration for the first time within the German Reich.


Logo of the ZMR

See also: Registration Act 1991

The registration data has been kept in the Central Registration Register (ZMR), an electronic register of the Federal Ministry of the Interior , since 2002 . The data sovereignty lies with the local registration authority. It is authorized to record the registrations and de-registrations of all persons ( registration form ) and provides registration information . Some, especially larger, municipalities also keep a local population register (LMR), but the data are compared with the ZMR. People who live in Austria must report their place of residence to the registration office within 3 days. Failure to report is a criminal offense. In principle, any person can inquire about the main residence of another person who can be clearly identified at the registration office for a fee, but an application can also be made to block information. This registration information (for other people) and confirmation of registration (for yourself) can also be obtained online, provided you have a citizen card or mobile phone signature .


The data include:

  • Name , maiden name , gender , dates of birth (date, place with federal state if located in Germany or with state if located abroad)
  • Population register number (ZMR number) and the national (s)
  • in the case of non-Austrians, the type, number, date of issue and issuing authority with the state of the travel document
  • Postal address of residence : street / house number / stairs / door , postcode, municipality with state
  • Date of registration or de-registration, name of the accommodation provider (usually the landlord or the main tenant), move-in and default dates
  • marital status


A general regulation on the reporting system was first introduced with the Ministerial Ordinance of February 15, 1857 RGBl. No. 33, issued.
In 2002 the Central Residential Register was set up. In 2006 the standard document register was embedded in the ZMR. The data of the birth certificate ,
certificate of citizenship , marriage certificate and death certificate are recorded in this register . In future, this should shorten and simplify authority processes for authorities and citizens in line with the one- stop shop principle in e-government .

The Central Civil Status Register (ZPR) and Central Citizenship Register (ZSR) have been in force since November 1, 2014 .


In Switzerland , the body responsible for residents 'registration is also called the residents' office or registration office . In addition to providing proof of a certificate of residence for the city authorities, she is also responsible for receiving applications for the Swiss identity card and issuing certificates. It also accepts various requests in connection with the aliens police regulation of the residence of foreigners, checks them and forwards them to the cantonal migration office.

According to the municipal laws of the cantons, a move, move or departure must be reported to the residents' registration office within 8 to 14 days. At the online counter (not available in every canton) it is possible, for example, to order a home ID from an internet-enabled computer or to request address information.


There are two types of reporting requirements in Liechtenstein .

  • For Liechtenstein citizens: The Liechtenstein residents 'registration system generally requires notification to the residents' registration office of the respective municipality both when moving in and when moving out.
The relevant authorities in the communities are responsible: Balzers - Mäls, Eschen - Nendeln, Gamprin - Bendern, Mauren - Schaanwald, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg - Steg - Malbun , Vaduz
  • for foreign citizens: The Liechtenstein legal system provides for either registration or approval procedures for almost all housing and income constellations with regard to foreign persons . Even when moving within Liechtenstein, foreigners must also have their residence permit adjusted.

See: Central Register of Persons .

Other European countries

Bosnia and Herzegovina

There is a reporting system in Bosnia and Herzegovina . The registration data is kept by the respective interior ministries of the two entities Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Serbian Republic.


All residents of Denmark are registered in the Central Register of Persons (CPR), called the folkeregister. Everyone receives their own CPR number there. For a stay of longer than three months, a residence permit is required for German citizens. In addition, you must register with the responsible residents' registration office (folkeregister) at your place of residence.


In France there is no reporting system comparable to that in Germany. A home address is indicated on the identity card (Carte d'Identité), but the citizen only has to prove this with an electricity or telephone bill or similar documents. After moving, the address in the ID card does not need to be changed, which is why various invoices usually serve as proof of address in everyday life. With the “Certificat de Residence” there is proof of residence including address, which the local prefecture issues.

In addition, every resident in France has a personal INSEE registration number , which is required in the sense of a social security number on many occasions and which is recorded in the national identification register (Numéro d'inscription au répertoire national d'identification des personnes, NIR). However, only name, date of birth, place of birth and birth sovereignty (Acte de naissance) are recorded there.


There is a central population register in Finland .

Great Britain

In Great Britain there is no registration system with residents' registration offices similar to that in Germany. In a certain way, the electoral register takes on the function of a register of residents, even if there is no obligation to register. According to the plans of the Labor government, the issue of identity cards should begin in 2008 - initially on a voluntary basis. Immediately after the general election in May 2010, the new Conservative-Liberal Democrat government decided to stop the introduction, which was very unpopular among the population, and to announce the abolition of ID cards.


There is a central register of residents in Iceland .


In Italy, there has been a central electronic register of residents called Anagrafe Nazionale della Popolazione Residente (ANPR) since 2017 , which is maintained by the Ministry of the Interior and updated by the municipalities on the basis of mandatory registration. In the ANPR, the municipal registration registers and the register for Italian citizens living abroad ( AIRE ) have been incorporated.


In the Netherlands there is a central registration register BRP (Basisregistratie Personen). Every resident in the Netherlands is obliged to register with municipalities and provide an address.


Data on persons staying in Norway permanently, i.e. longer than three months, are stored in the central residents' register ( folkeregisteret ).


In Portugal there is an obligation to register (Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras)


In the Russian Federation there are local population registers, separate for citizens and foreigners or stateless persons. These are operated by the Federal Migration Service FMS (Федеральная миграционная служба), which also issues residence permits. Without a valid change of registration, many other services of the district cannot be used. A change of residence must be reported within seven days. Citizens must report a temporary place of residence after 90 days at the latest; for foreigners and stateless persons, temporary accommodation must be reported by the host within 7 days.


In Sweden there is a population register ( SPAR, Statens personadressregister ) at the tax authority Skatteverket , in which the Swedish personal number is kept. It consists of ten digits: the first six represent the date of birth. This is followed by a three-digit birth number, which used to say something about the region of birth. The tenth digit is a control digit that mathematically codes the authenticity of the number. Almost all larger companies such as banks, telephone companies, energy providers etc. have automated data access to the address data in this register. Therefore, a change of address in Sweden (e.g. after moving) usually only needs to be communicated to Skatteverket, the data of all affiliated companies are then automatically updated. On the one hand this represents a considerable relief for the citizens, who then mostly only have to give their new address in the private sector, on the other hand it raises concerns about data protection ("transparent citizens").

Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic , all citizens of the Czech Republic, foreigners with a permit for long-term or permanent residence in the Czech Republic, as well as persons with Czech asylum entitlement are entered in the register of residents ( registr obyvatel , ROB for short ). For each person, the surname, first name, address of the usual place of residence, date and place of birth, nationality (s), numbers of the valid domestic machine-readable identity cards and travel documents, as well as correspondence address and date / place of death, if applicable.


In Hungary there is a central population register, Központi Adatfeldolgozó, Nyilvántartó és Választási Hivatal, Igazgatási és Felügyeleti Föösztály in Budapest, in which all residents of Hungary are registered: Hungarian nationals do this at the responsible mayor's office (the foreign nationals are registered comparable to the German immigration authority), which also issues the residence permit.

States outside Europe


As of July 2000, there was no identification or registration requirement in Australia .


The hukou is actually a family register.


Japan has a Koseki Family Register and a Juminhyo Individual Register . Foreign nationals have to register within 90 days, their registration data was administered until July 9, 2012 in a separate foreigner register. On that day, the Aliens Register was abolished and registered aliens have been kept in the same person register with Japanese nationals since then.

The Japanese resident registration system "Juki Net" started operating in August 2003. The name, date of birth, gender and address of each citizen are saved together with records of any changes in a state database and can be queried by the participating administrations using an eleven-digit personal code. The Japanese government hopes that the new system will increase the efficiency of the public service and simplify administrative processes, which will primarily benefit the citizens. The use of the ID number should significantly shorten many administrative channels.

New Zealand

There is no ID or registration requirement in New Zealand . Eligible voters, including foreigners with permanent residence permits (permanent residents), must, however, be entered in the electoral roll.

South Korea

In South Korea, every resident receives a resident number (Korean: 주민등록번호, Hanja: 住民 登錄 番號), which is also noted on the identity card. It consists of 13 posts and is required for many administrative purposes, for example for banking or employment law. Foreigners are assigned a foreigner number by the local registration office.

United States

In the USA there is no compulsory registration, so there are no registration offices in the narrower sense. Anyone wishing to take part in elections must first try to be entered in the local electoral roll; this may then only be used to hold elections and to appoint jury members.

However, the driver's licenses issued by the US states may have to be . a. contain the current address of the owner. This is also stored centrally by the responsible authorities of the respective state . The owner is usually obliged to notify the responsible authorities of changes within a short period of time - in California within 10 days. Information similar to information from the register of residents in Germany can therefore be obtained via the relevant registers about driver's license holders.

The driver's license is regularly required and recognized in the USA as a standard document for checking identity and current address. Therefore, even people who rarely or never drive a motor vehicle usually have to keep their data up to date. Against the background of this situation, which means that practically every citizen in the USA is dependent on a driver's license, it is often argued that de facto there is indeed some kind of mandatory registration. It should be noted, however, that a driver's license is of course not really compulsory, so you have the option at any time to consciously withdraw from this form of registration, for example to make it more difficult to reliably determine your personal identity. All states must issue a document that corresponds to the driver's license, but does not contain a driver's license, for non-drivers who wish to do so; the possession or carrying such a “Nondriver's License” is also not compulsory. It is also possible to have multiple driver's licenses from different states.

In the census, which takes place every 10 years, the place of residence must be indicated. Among other things, it serves to cut constituencies for the United States House of Representatives .

However, certain population groups are subject to reporting requirements:

Register-based census

In the European Union, for the Europe-wide census , the register-based census is also permitted, in which the personal information from the constantly updated population registers is used, combined with a statistical correction through a small census, whose personal questions are collected on a much smaller scale. Denmark switched to the register-based census for the first time in 1981; Germany, Austria and Switzerland are planning to switch to the “register-based” model for the 2011 EU Census.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. BMI: The German Registration System Today - Figures and Facts at a Glance on Germany Online (PDF, 202KB)
  2. Press conference on the Central Resident Register of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, February 27, 2002
  3. Central register of residents. In: series of municipalities. Austrian Association of Municipalities, 2001, accessed on January 21, 2019 (German).
  4. ^ RIS - Registration Act 1991 § 2 - Consolidated Federal Law. Retrieved January 21, 2019 .
  5. § 18 Registration Act
  6. ^ Republic of Austria: HELP.gv.at: Registration information for private individuals and companies. Retrieved January 21, 2019 .
  7. Marius Maurer, 105 / SN-117 / ME, pp. 9-11. (PDF; 2.5 MB)
  8. ^ Italian Ministry of the Interior on the ANPR
  9. ANPR portal of the Ministry of the Interior
  10. Page of the Japanese Immigration Service on the Abolition of the Aliens Register (English)
  11. ^ California Vehicle Code § 4159
  12. Sacramento County grand jury 2009-2010 Final Report (PDF; 9.1 MB), pg. 173