City of Bayreuth
|Height :||350 m above sea level NN|
|Postal code :||95445|
|Area code :||0921|
Street Kreuz seen from the western end, vehicles parked across the site of the former Rabenstein
Location and name
The district of Kreuz lay, mainly on a slope and hillside, on the western edge of the city of Bayreuth into the 20th century. Due to the further expansion of the city, it has now lost its peripheral location.
The name probably goes back to the chapel of the Holy Cross, which was first mentioned in 1410, but of which all traces had already disappeared in 1545. It was near the beginning of the Kreuz street on Kulmbacher Strasse. Today's Evangelical Church of the Cross was only built in 1960, the Catholic Holy Cross Church was completed in 1972. In the Bayreuth Monumental Plan from around 1910, the district bears the name Hl.
Structure and history
The origin of the settlement lies on Kulmbacher Straße (formerly Steinweg) on the western bank of the Mistelbach . The mirror mill was mentioned in a document as early as 1398 and the stone mill in 1464. Farmers , drapers and day laborers lived there in the early 19th century . The oldest buildings include the executioner's house from 1668 (99 gardens 10) and the property of the farmer Hörl (cross 31; 1722 or earlier). A police station was located on the ground floor of Kulmbacher Strasse 25 until after 1945.
Major axis and the center of the district is the same crossroads in the history of the former national road High Road, which runs through it from east to west. The former municipal hospital, which was put into operation in 1905 and fulfilled its function until 1986, is close to the beginning. Therefore, many Bayreuthers are native cruisers. The building, which cost 630,000 marks, replaced the gloomy hospital on Dammallee. The gynecological clinic was completed in September 1955 and the children's clinic was handed over in May 1960. In the meantime, the Federal Archives for load balancing and municipal offices are housed there, and there are also technical schools for medical staff on the site. In 2007 the BRK-Ruhesitz nursing home was inaugurated on the part facing away from the city .
Following the course of the street you pass the "Angermannschen Bierkeller" (today Gasthaus Zur Linde), where Richard Wagner was a frequent guest (note: "Auf dem Keller" means "in the beer garden " in Upper Franconia ). Diagonally opposite stands the house of the former Bayreuth executioner from 1668. The nearby restaurant Zentralhalle , a structurally remarkable brick building, was demolished in 1995, although it was worth preserving. Used as a meeting place for the workers' movement after its establishment in 1897, it was historically not insignificant.
At the western end of the street was the Rabenstein, a "man-sized, about eight step in square measured gebretterten dais ", one of the public execution sites of the city. Until its demolition in 1848, the delinquents were killed there with the sword. Not far from there, on Preuschwitzer Straße, the gallows was erected from 1719 (today the location of the Catholic Church). There was also the wheel on which those condemned to be wheeled were placed. The execution by heads was moved to the "Henkers-Au" (hospital meadow) on the Mistelbach , on the edge of the Kreuz district , in 1848 . From 1855 to 1887 the guillotine was set up there if necessary ; The first delinquent to be beheaded with it was an eighteen-year-old young man on the morning of September 13, 1855, in the presence of numerous onlookers.
The allotment garden of the same name from 1917 is located at Straße 99 Gärten . Numerous private gardens are already shown there on a map from 1745. There, as on the nearby Kulmbacher Strasse, beer cellars carved into the hill form a network of tunnels several hundred meters long. At the beginning of the 19th century there were around 200 brewing rights in Bayreuth. The bottom-fermented beer was stored in the cellars at constantly low temperatures. Two breweries still exist on the eastern edge of the district.
Bayreuther Bierbrauerei AG , popularly known as “Aktienbrauerei” , is located on Kulmbacher Strasse, which has lost its function as an arterial road in the Kreuz district . It was founded in 1831 as the first private brewery in Bayreuth and converted into a stock corporation in 1872 . In the former threshing floor of the brewery, a vaulted cellar used for gastronomic purposes, the Old Baily disco was located in the 1970s . Music groups often performed there , including a. Colosseum II , Aera and Jörg Evers ' legendary Bayreuth band The Box .
The head office of the Gebr. Maisel KG brewery , built in 1886/87, with the Maisel's Brewery and Büttnereimuseum is located in the city center . In the striking building of the Kreuz-Bräu on the lower street Kreuz, however, no brewing has been done for decades. Braumeister Schmidt took over the former Schott brewery in the late 19th century and expanded it. In 1904 a malt house was added to the company . Schmidt gave up beer production in 1923 and set up a mill for rye and wheat in the brewhouse built in 1895 . The Schoberth Brewery (99 Gardens 14-18) only existed from around 1880 to 1920, the buildings were demolished in the 1920s.
The only flowing water is the Mistelbach, which runs along the southern edge of the district. Until the second half of the 20th century it had a side canal with the Mühlgraben , also called "Rießenbach" after an adjacent farmer. It ran along the edge of Street 99 Gardens and supplied the mill wheels of the stone mill and the mirror mill (also called "Spitalmühle") with water. The three Schoberthsweiher, from which breweries fetched their ice, were located between the two watercourses, on the former hangman's sow. The Maisel brewery intends to build part of this area with residential buildings. In 2018, the building committee gave its approval for the continuation of the approval procedure, although the Mistelbachtal as the “green finger of the city” represents an important fresh air corridor.
Until well into the period after 1945 , farms were able to survive in the district . The farms of the full-time and part-time farmers were mainly located on the streets 99 Gardens and Cross as well as on Hügelstrasse (since 1947: Karl-Hugel-Strasse after Karl Hugel, who was born there ). Many of these properties have since been demolished.
There were three public drinking water wells in the cross, the last of which was dismantled in 1952. They were on Kulmbacher Strasse (roughly at the exit to the Herzog restaurant), at the confluence of Carl-Burger-Strasse with Strasse Kreuz and at Strasse 99 Gardens next to the lower entrance to the garden colony.
Development and history from 1897
In the 20th century, the cross extended to the former railway line to Thurnau and the southeastern part of the Red Hill . The Protestant Kreuzkirche was consecrated in 1960, which did not prevent the population from celebrating the well-known festival "Kreiza Kerwa" (Kreuzer Kirchweih), first in and in front of the central hall, later on the grounds of the SC Kreuz, extensively since 1897.
Whitsun 1904, the 6th Bavarian Workers' Association was held in the Kreuz for four days . A wooden festival hall with five thousand seats was built especially for this event for the guests who traveled in nine special trains, which was by far not enough for the number of visitors.
The Herzoghöhe railway stop on the Bayreuth - Thurnau railway line was popular because it avoided the time and money-consuming southern bypass of the city. Opened in 1909, in 1973 it was the first of the ten Bayreuth railway stations at the time that were shut down when the line was abandoned. The peasant women walking along the Mosinger Strasse - Kreuz road to the city center with their full "hummingbirds" were a familiar sight for decades.
The area above Lippacherstraße remained largely undeveloped until the 1920s. In 1908 the Thurnauer Hof inn, better known under the name "Die Lauß" (after the first landlord Johann Lauß), was the first building at the train station. In April 1945 the house was destroyed in a bomb attack. After 1920, the planned construction of a residential estate for war invalids in the First World War was built on the Rabenstein street. The single-family houses on Galgenberg in the vicinity of Elias Räntz- Strasse date from the early 1930s. To the north-east of Mosinger Strasse, the agricultural area "Hörls Peunt" (note: Peunt denotes an enclosed property) was built on with blocks of flats by the non-profit Bayreuth Building Cooperative (GBW) from 1950 .
On April 5, 1945, the area was affected by an American air raid . Although most of the bombs fell on largely undeveloped land west of the railway line, houses were also destroyed in the area of Mosinger Strasse and Elias-Räntz-Strasse. Several fatalities were to be mourned, five dead in the property at Mosinger Strasse 13. On the evening of April 14th, the US troops reached the Kreuz and set up a telephone switchboard at the house at Kreuz 62.
The street Kreuz, especially around the star-shaped intersection with Lippacherstraße, Mosinger Straße, Preuschwitzer Straße, Rabenstein and 99 Gardens, functions as a “district supply center”. There you will find, among other things, a self-service savings bank, a post office, a pharmacy, a bakery and a butcher's shop, as well as a grocery store not far from it on Scheffelstrasse. At the site of the former petrol station west of the Hörl property, the row houses Kreuz 33a-f were built in 1983/84. The Bavarian Family and Social Center is located in the Kreuz 25 office building from 1961 .
The northern part of the Kreuz district is called Herzog or (lower) Herzoghöhe. As the first work of the architect Hans Reissinger on the Herzog, the war- damaged settlement Herzoghöhe was built between Dr.-Würzburger-Straße (then Mosinger Weg) and Fröbelstraße from 1919 . In 1973, the demolition of the 24 single-family houses was ordered, in their place the Bauverein Bayreuth erected multi-storey apartment blocks in prefabricated construction . On both sides of Fröbelstrasse, among other things on the site of the municipal vegetable market, the GBW settlement Untere Herzoghöhe was built between 1937 and 1940. The predominantly three-storey residential buildings in the form of rows of houses were designed with simple furnishings for poorer social classes. To the north and north-east of the Kreuzkirche there is a predominance of one- and two-family houses from before 1945.
The houses at Fröbelstraße 19 to 25 and Von-Platen-Straße 1 to 11 (each with odd house numbers), built between 1938 and 1940, were demolished in the winter of 2016/2017. They were replaced by a residential block and four point buildings, the 79 apartments of which should be ready for occupancy by mid-November 2018. Four blocks of flats on Lippacherstraße are to be demolished in spring 2019 to make room for row houses. Von-Platen-Straße is to be converted into a model street with level zones for pedestrians and other traffic in 2019.
Jean Paul was already enthusiastic about the summer festivals at the Duke . In 1889 the beer garden called Herzoggarten north of the Aktienbrauerei was supplemented by a colonnade-like summer hall. The architectural style of the building goes back to the garden architecture of the 17th century. On the occasion of the inauguration of the Ludwigsbrücke, which was demolished again in 1968, King Ludwig III. from Bavaria stop there. After the economic crisis in the 1920s, the bar was closed and the building was used as a warehouse from then on. The Herzogkeller garden restaurant has been in operation again since 1990. In summer 2015 it was included in the Bavarian list of monuments .
At the north-western end of Hindenburgstrasse, on the slope of the Duke, are the municipal youth center and the communal youth center Komm. The building complex was built in the Third Reich as a HJ home. After the Second World War , it was first used by the city administration, the Association of German Scouts and the Catholic Church . The Herzoghöhe sanatorium on western Kulmbacher Strasse, also known as the “Main Castle”, was built in 1894 by the Jewish doctor Albert Würzburger and was demolished in 1959. One of the patients was the doctor and writer Oskar Panizza .
Branching off from the Mistelbach, the Mühlgraben water led to the two mills in the lower cross. The mirror mill was originally called the Schaub or Schaupmühle, later also known as the Holy Cross Mill. It was powered by a medium-sized waterwheel that was later converted into an overshot one. It changed owners or leaseholders several times before it was sold to the hospital in 1555 . The current name Spiegelmühle probably results from the colloquially incorrect pronunciation of the word Spitalmühle, which was documented in 1561.
In 1633 the Bavarian general Johann von Werth had the unprotected suburbs burned down, the hospital mill was destroyed. The house built there in 1785 was given a new top floor in 1991 and has served as a restaurant ever since . In 1840 the mill building with the gear train burned down again. In 1943 the mill was shut down and the property was continued as a farm for a few years.
The stone mill probably got its name after the nearby stone path. It was not a stone mill , but a grain mill with an overshot water wheel and an overbuilt wheel room. The mill, first mentioned in 1446, was initially also called "(Upper) Mill of the Holy Cross". The Reiss family is documented as the owner as early as 1776. The last miller, Georg Reiss, worked as such until 1955, the associated agriculture was given up in 1967. The house with half-timbered gable from the time before 1800 has been preserved, only a street name reminds of the Mühlgraben, which was abandoned in 1955.
Between 1923 and 2004, the Schmidt art mill in the former Kreuz-Bräu was the only large mill in the Bayreuth area.
Trade and commerce
In addition to the mills and breweries, there were other businesses in the district, most of which have disappeared. None of the fifteen agricultural properties survived the 1960s. The premises of the forwarding company Gebrüder Müller (Kulmbacher Straße 17) and the Sägewerkrautel (Kreuz 3; 1901 to 1983 - from 1866 to 1901 steam cutting saw white) were rebuilt.
At the end of the 1960s the following companies still existed (in brackets their number in 1991):
- eight joineries (one)
- six carpentry shops (three)
- four cobblers (one)
- nine bakeries (two)
- seven butchers (four)
- six hairdressing salons (three)
There were also several delicatessen and grocery stores, a drugstore, a haberdashery, a cattle and horse dealer, a locksmith's shop, a watchmaker and jewelery shop, a haulage company, a coal shop, a paint shop, bicycle shops, painting shops, a Automobile workshop and a gas station. The post office (until around 1975 Kreuz 52) has been located as a post agency in the house Kreuz 62 since 2009.
A grocery store, a television workshop, a pharmacy, medical and veterinary practices were added, and most of the catering establishments remained. The branch of Sparkasse Bayreuth (Lippacherstraße 31) was reduced to machine operation in 2013 and closed in 2016.
The railway station, called "Bahnhof" Herzoghöhe in Kreuzer parlance, existed from 1909 to 1973. It was of minor importance for the residents, as the trains circumnavigated the city in a wide arc on their way to the main station . For this reason it was used by the rural population downstream of the Red Main and from the Thurnau area. In the first decades, most passengers reached the city center on foot along Hügelstrasse, after the construction of the GBW housing estate Untere Herzoghöhe they had to switch to Mosinger Strasse.
As a stop, the station only had one through and one loading track. Only in 1945 did it become the terminus for trains from Thurnau from April to August due to the destruction of the railway systems in the city. The station building made of corrugated iron was located near the current confluence of Fröbelstrasse and Scheffelstrasse. The station master Karl Heuberger had been working there since 1929. In 1968, when it was converted to an unoccupied stop , he retired as the oldest railway worker in Germany at the age of 83.
From the two original axes, the Kulmbacher Straße was robbed of its function as an arterial road by the Hindenburgstraße running in the Rotmaintal. The Kreuz street lost part of its traffic to the expanded axis 99 Gardens - Am Mühlgraben, the districts of Roter Hügel , Oberpreuschwitz and Dörnhof are now also accessible via other routes. Running parallel to the former railway line, Scheffelstrasse now bears the main load of road traffic.
The bus lines 306 (every 20 minutes, five stops), 303 and 307 (each 30 minutes, three stops) from Stadtwerke Bayreuth provide access to the district as part of the Greater Nuremberg Transport Association (VGN). After its renovation, the former railway line will be used as a cycle path that connects the cross with the old town and Birken districts as well as the university and the Kreuzsteinbad .
Destruction of historical buildings after 1945
Towards the end of the 19th century, the development comprised mainly the Kulmbacher Straße up to the Aktienbrauerei, the streets Herzog, Kreuz and 99 Gardens, the Karl-Hugel-Straße (then: Hügelstraße) and the north side of the lower Preuschwitzer Straße. While the houses of the fifteen rural properties were mainly built in sandstone and half-timbered construction, exposed brick walls on sandstone plinths are typical for the following residential developments .
In addition to the central hall, other historic buildings were destroyed after 1945. Sharing the fate of many houses in the city, almost all of the farms on Street 99 Gardens fell victim to road construction. In the lower part between Carl-Burger-Straße and Am Mühlgraben there is hardly an old house. Elsewhere too, houses have given way to road traffic, new buildings or parking lots. The lower street Kreuz and the Karl-Hugel-Straße are particularly affected. It can increasingly be observed that the appearance of the old building is changed by plastering and thermal insulation measures .
Buildings that disappeared after 1945 (selection):
- Dr.-Franz-Straße: Chapel of the Municipal Hospital (after 1987)
- Karl-Hugel-Strasse 8 (2016)
- Karl-Hugel-Straße 18 (Rausch property; 2007)
- Cross 5 (barn stone mill, sandstone building from 1837; 1980)
- Cross 8
- Cross 10 (Confitüren Andree, built before 1800; 1974)
- Cross 12 (Metzner shoemaker; 1980)
- Kreuz 24 (Kratzer property, built before 1875; 1979)
- Kreuz 26 (Lebensmittel-Rausch; after the murder in November 1992 of the then 85-year-old owner Johann Rausch in her shop)
- Kreuz 28 (town house with barn; 1965)
- Cross 31 (Hörl barn; after 1990)
- Cross 32 (central hall; 1995)
- Kreuz 44 (Opel estate; 2003)
- Kreuz 56 (Depser estate; 1960)
- Kulmbacher Straße 25 (former police station; 2007)
- War victims settlement Herzoghöhe (Kulmbacher Strasse 61 and following; 1973)
- Mosinger Straße 29 (Reuschel property, built 1874)
- Am Mühlgraben 2 (Lauterbach)
- 99 gardens 3 (Großmann estate; after 1976)
- 99 gardens 5 (Braun property; after 1976)
- 99 gardens 4 and 14
- 99 Gardens 7 (Wittauer / Kieß)
- 99 Gardens 8 (Greiner Estate)
- 99 Gardens 12 (Vogel Estate)
- 99 Gardens 22 (Kolb Estate; 1991)
- 99 gardens 26 (bathing fun)
The cruiser parish fair "Kreiza Kerwa" traditionally takes place on the first weekend in September. It is not based on the building of a church, the origins of the first Bayreuth workers' festival go back to the Zentralhalle restaurant and its first host Fritz Görl. Until 1965 - apart from the first years after the Second World War , during which the restaurant and the associated hall building served the US armed forces as a club - there was a celebration there and in the street in front of it. There were stalls in the street selling specialties and sweets. In the hall of the central hall there was a dance, at the "Modaseck", the location of the former Rabenstein, there was a carousel.
The Kerwa has been held on the SC Kreuz sports field since 1966. It begins on Thursdays with horseradish meat , on Friday the parade of the Kerwaburschen and "madla" leads through the district. In addition to a beer tent and a beer garden, there are stalls and rides. The Kerwa is one of the city's well-known events, it is very popular beyond the district.
Kindergartens and schools
In 1929, the Evangelical Children's School opened on Fröbelstrasse, the first kindergarten that still exists. In 1938 the National Socialist People's Welfare Association (NSV) wanted to take possession of the facility. The board of directors of the sponsor, the Protestant children's school association, succeeded in a flash at the last moment in preventing this takeover by selling it to the Protestant church. As a result, the children's school was banned by the police for the month of November 1938.
Since 1972 there is another kindergarten of the Catholic parish Heilig Kreuz. The building of the Protestant kindergarten in Fröbelstrasse is to be rededicated by the general church administration to Diakonie Bayreuth, demolished in spring 2019 at the latest and then replaced by a new building.
The primary and secondary school pupils, once called “elementary school pupils”, were assigned to the Graserschule, the Luitpold School or the Old Town School , depending on their address . It was not until 1960 that the district received its own school building with the Herzoghöhe School, which was expanded in 1969 by two school pavilions.
Technical schools for medical-technical laboratory assistants, physiotherapy and care for the elderly were located on the site of the former municipal hospital.
freetime and sports
On February 2, 1928, the Kreuz sports club was founded in the Münsterer restaurant (Hügelstrasse 1). The footballers initially played on the location of today's Rotmainhalle, the first club-owned space was at the current Geschwister-Scholl-Platz. In 1931 the “Golden Star” in Elias-Räntz-Straße became a club bar. The workers' sports club was dissolved in 1933 during the Nazi era .
In 1946 the American military government approved the new establishment. For the time being, the game was played on an agricultural meadow on the Red Hill. In March 1953, after extensive construction work due to the hillside location, the first sports field on Preuschwitzer Strasse was handed over. At the inauguration game, SpVgg Bayreuth defeated the second division VfB Helmbrechts in front of 2500 spectators with 2-1 goals. In 1956 the first sports home with a restaurant in wood construction was opened, the current sports home dates from 1971. In August 1991 the club received a new grass field, in 1992 a team from the City of Bayreuth played there against Bundesliga club 1. FC Nürnberg . The club owns four soccer teams. The “Kreiza Kerwa” and, since 1991, the summer vacation program for children “Mini-Bayreuth” take place on the club's premises every year.
The Bayreuth Turnerschaft (BTS), the city's oldest and largest sports club, relocated its sports facilities to the 99 gardens in 1976. In 1983 two clay tennis courts were laid out, and in 1990 a tennis hall was added. The departments offered include hockey, archery, rugby and handball.
- Karl Hugel (1865–1937), member of the Reichstag from 1912 to 1918 , Second Mayor of Bayreuth from 1919 to 1930, lived at Hügelstrasse 15 until 1937 (since 1947: Karl-Hugel-Strasse).
- Kurt Herterich (1928–2015), author of publications on the history of the city about Bayreuth, was born and lived on Kreuz Street.
- District plan with the BayernAtlas
- Plan Kulmbacher Strasse and Duke from 1850 at bayerische-landesbibliothek-online.de
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth Cross . Ellwanger, Bayreuth 1992, ISBN 3-925361-13-8 .
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth Cross II . Ellwanger, Bayreuth 2009, ISBN 978-3-925361-71-5 .
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered . Ellwanger, Bayreuth 2007, ISBN 978-3-925361-60-9 .
- Monumentalplan Bayreuth, printed in the Nordbayerischer Kurier of January 11, 1994, p. 94 (special topic: 800 years of Bayreuth)
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered. P. 135.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II. , P. 24.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II. , P. 31.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered. P. 138.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 12.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 102.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 118.
- Fränkische Zeitung of May 23, 2012, p. 7.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II. II, p. 49.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz, p. 10
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz, p. 9
- Bernd Mayer : Bayreuth as it was. Flash lights from the city's history 1850–1950 . 2nd Edition. Gondrom, Bayreuth 1981, p. 14 .
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 47 f.
- Aktien-Keller at bayreuther-bier.de, accessed on October 30, 2014
- Old Baily at pophistory-oberfranken.de, accessed on October 30, 2014
- The Box at pophistory-oberfranken.de, accessed on June 5, 2015
- New life in the Kreuz-Bräu. In: Nordbayerischer Kurier. November 30, 2013, accessed June 26, 2014.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Cross. P. 53.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 111.
- Noise protection wall and saber rattles in: Nordbayerischer Kurier, November 8, 2018, p. 14.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 28.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 57.
- Bernd Mayer: The great festival of the workers singers. In: Heimatkurier of the North Bavarian Courier. 2/2004, p. 5.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 23 ff.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered. P. 139.
- Herbert Popp: Bayreuth - rediscovered. P. 140.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II. , P. 64.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II. , P. 71 f.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II. , Pp. 48–51.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth in the twentieth century , p. 30.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 90.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II. , P. 71.
- Now it is being torn down in: Nordbayerischer Kurier of August 30, 2016, p. 11.
- Hardly finished - already gone in: Nordbayerischer Kurier of October 5, 2016, p. 11.
- A monument to beer culture in: Nordbayerischer Kurier from January 18, 2016, p. 10
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 50.
- Rainer Trübsbach: History of the City of Bayreuth , p. 223 f.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 40.
- Karl Müssel: Bayreuth in eight centuries. P. 68.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 38.
- Robert Zintl: Bayreuth and the railway. P. 99.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 21.
- 25 years ago in: Nordbayerischer Kurier bom July 13, 2018, p. 10.
- Bernd Mayer: Bayreuth à la carte. Ellwanger Verlag, Bayreuth 1987, ISBN 3-925361-03-0 , p. 164.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth-Kreuz II , p. 70
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz, pp. 16-20.
- Bernd Mayer, Helmut Paulus: A city is denazified. The Gau capital Bayreuth in front of the Spruchkammer . Ellwanger, Bayreuth 2008, ISBN 978-3-925361-67-8 , pp. 178 .
- New kindergarten in the cross in: Nordbayerischer Kurier of April 26, 2018, p. 11.
- Website of the SC Kreuz Bayreuth , accessed on June 28, 2014.
- Website of the City of Bayreuth ( Memento of the original from July 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed June 28, 2014.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - cross. P. 76 ff.
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz II , p. 59
- Kurt Herterich: Bayreuth - Kreuz , p. 6