The origin of the word grail is not completely clear: Most likely the derivation from Occitan grazal , old French graal 'vessel', 'bowl', which presumably goes back etymologically to the Greek crater 'mixed vessel' over the Latin cratalis / gradalis . In old Spanish is grial as in Altportugiesischen grail is a common term for a mortar or a mortar-shaped drinking vessel .
Earlier derivations ( e.g. from sang real , 'blood of the king', or le Saing-réal , 'the real blood') are unlikely.
The legend of the Grail Quest
All traditions describe the Grail as a miraculous vessel in the form of a bowl, a chalice or a stone ( lapis ). Together with a bleeding lance , he is guarded in an inaccessible castle by the Grail King and the Grail Knights. It is said to offer bliss, eternal youth and food in infinite abundance.
This miraculous and sacred vessel that gives eternal life force is surrounded by a community that suffers from a lack. This is expressed in various images: the infirmity of the king, the sterility of the empire (motif of the terre gaste , the 'barren land'), the sterility of the Grail community. Therefore, the Grail Community is waiting for a hero who can redeem and replace the Grail King.
This hero, Parzival (also: Perceval, Peredur , Perlesvaus), Gawain , Galahad or Bors , in whom the greatest heroism and purity are combined, grows up away from the world. He lacks a sense of reality, which is why he is also called "dumb fool" or "great fool".
The hero leaves his sheltered home and wishes to become the most important knight of his time. At the court of King Arthur he is knighted and accepted into the community of the round table . The hero gains respect through his daring use of weapons and through his naive manner when he simply sits on the "place of danger".
The storylines of the individual Grail legends now diverge: Either the hero goes alone in search of the Grail, or the Holy Grail appears as a radiant vision at the table of the round table, so that all knights begin the search for its secret together. In the following, the adventures of the knights who have to solve various tasks are described in various variations. The hero has to keep asking himself new puzzles, for example asking the right question, staying true to himself, conquering a castle or avenging injustice. Since in some Grail legends the magician Merlin is seen as the actual initiator of the search for the Grail, he intervenes to help.
Knights who are tainted with a stain fail in the search for the Grail. The hero changes during the search for the Grail, he also gains experience for his courage and innocence. Finally, the knights together or the hero alone succeeds in revealing the secret of the Holy Grail. Through the actions of the hero, the guardian of the grail, who is injured or sick, is healed and the ruined land blossoms again into a paradise. The hero becomes the keeper's successor.
Origins and elements of the legend
Various traditions converge in the Grail myth. It is a mixture of Celtic , Christian and Oriental sagas and myths. In the high medieval Grail myth, concerns of Christianity and the feudal nobility as well as set pieces of the Christian liturgy ( chalice ) and the cult of relics ( holy lance ) mix with the archetypal images and oral traditions of Celtic and oriental origin.
For several centuries, northern France was a melting pot of Gallic-Celtic, Romanesque, Frankish and Norman population groups and their traditions. The Arthurian legend came about in this environment .
The pilgrimage and war expeditions to the Holy Land , the relics and places of the Passion story sought there, the constant endangerment of Christian rule in Jerusalem , the establishment of orders of knights such as the Templars to protect this rule all contributed to the legend.
Outside of the Grail novels there is a church tradition that connects Joseph of Arimathea with the chalice. This goes back to the Bishop Amalarius of Metz († around 850), who began to interpret the Eucharist allegorically . The altar here becomes the tomb of Christ, the altar cloth the shroud. This tradition becomes tangible in theologians of the 12th and 13th centuries such as Rupert von Deutz , Hildebert von Tours and Guillaume Durand . From these, in turn, Robert de Boron took over his Grail material (cf. Allen Cabaniss: Studies in English. 1963). In the figure of Joseph of Arimathea a Christian tendency is expressed that stands apart from the teaching of the Church. It represents a distant echo of early Christianity , which lives on in the image of the Grail Congregation and its cult activities around the Grail vessel. The newly emerging trend of mystery piety was embodied around him (around the 8th century ), which only entered literary records at the time of its suppression by the official church.
Very early on, the Grail was associated with the Christian tradition of the Eucharist : The Grail was understood as the chalice that Jesus Christ used at the Last Supper with his disciples and in which Joseph of Arimathea is said to have caught the blood of Christ under his cross, as he did earlier reported in apocryphal scriptures. The Grail is thus represented as one of the numerous medieval relics ( Longinus lance , Turin shroud , the Veronica's handkerchief , the Eucharist miracle by Lanciano , the blood miracle of Januarius in Naples ).
Similar to these traditions, the development of the legend of the Grail belongs to the history of mentality in the development of the increasing piety of the Eucharist on the 12th and 13th centuries. Century. The development of the doctrine of transubstantiation (at the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) the word "transsubstantiare" was first used in an official ecclesiastical document, although its exact meaning has not yet been determined in a binding manner) and the Feast of Corpus Christi (1264 by Pope Urban IV. Raised to the feast of the universal church).
The doctrine of the true presence of the blood of Christ in the Eucharist and its salvific effect, expressed in the Grail legend, transubstantiation doctrine , Corpus Christi (feast of the bodily presence of Christ in the sacrament of the altar) is, in spiritual history, determined by the main scholastic controversy in the dispute between "realism" and "nominalism", the so-called " Universalienstreit " - which, by the way, is literarily reflected in the novel The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco .
As in the Arthurian novels, Celtic motifs have also flowed into the legend of the Grail.
There is a close connection between the myth of the Holy Grail and the various legends surrounding King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table . The story of Paradise lost and the subsequent quest for the Grail as the attempt to regain Paradise are often the focus of Arthurian legends. They often form the background for numerous other legends, such as: B. also for the story of the magician Merlin , the life story of Lancelot or the stories of the island of Avalon . The food miracle of the Grail is also traced back to ideas of a magical drinking horn or cornucopia in Celtic mythology .
The grail in medieval poetry
The motif of the Grail appears in European literature for the first time at the end of the 12th century.
Chrétien de Troyes
The oldest known story of the Grail is the unfinished mystical-religious Perceval verse novel ( Le Conte du Graal ) by the French poet Chrétien de Troyes (before 1150 - around 1190), written for the Count's Court of Flanders between 1179 and 1191. It is not known which preforms of the saga he was able to rely on, the only thing that is certain is that Chrétien refers to a pre-existing source, a book in the library of the Count of Flanders. So one can only speculate whether the Grail was connected with the figure of Perceval and the Arthurian legend even before Chrétien, or whether Chrétien put these building blocks together independently. Chrétien and his contemporaries knew the Arthurian legends who formed the so-called “Matière de Bretagne”, the British saga . The legends of this saga were interwoven with encounters with the supernatural and with magical and mystical powers. It is believed that Chrétien also learned about the Irish realrai or Aventures, the first Celtic legends brought to mainland Europe by refugees.
For Chrétien, the Grail is a gold bowl adorned with precious stones, in which the father of the suffering King of the Grail (he is called Roi Pêcheur , the Fisher King ) is brought in a solemn procession a consecrated host, which is his only food. Perceval is supposed to redeem his uncle, the paralyzed King of the Grail , with a specific question. Out of ignorance, however, he fails to ask the question and fails; the novel breaks off.
Robert de Boron
The origin and meaning of the Grail, which Chrétien kept in mysterious obscurity, was first endowed with Christian aspects by Robert de Boron at the end of the 12th century : The Grail was the chalice that was used at the Last Supper and in which Joseph of Arimathea the The blood of Christ caught on the cross, as reported in the Gospel of Nicodemus . Later he fled to England with the Grail from the Romans . The dates of life of Robert de Boron and the time of the novel de l'estoire dou Graal written by him can no longer be clearly determined today. It is believed that he wrote it almost simultaneously with Chrétien de Troyes.
The work Joseph d'Arimathie , also by Robert de Boron, is very revealing , which text critics place earlier than the novel de l'estoire dou Graal and which is therefore the first work that defines the Grail as the cup of communion. Research into the text of this work shows that it is based on the Acta Pilati , often referred to as the Gospel of Nicodemus since the Middle Ages. The content of the Acta Pilati, which was widespread in Byzantium, probably came to the West through quoting sources such as Vindicta Salvatoris or Cura sanitatis Tiberii . A comparison of the text shows that where a linen grave cloth is mentioned in the Acta Pilati, de Boron replaced it with the cup of communion. In particular, the place where Joseph is visited by Arimathia through Christ and given an object by him is reproduced in both works with similar words, with the difference that the object in the Acta Pilati is the shroud and in Joseph d'Arimathie the cup of communion is. In Acta Pilati, 15: 6, a handkerchief is mentioned next to the shroud, while de Boron writes that Joseph of Arimathia survived through the chalice and was then freed by Vespasian , whom the handkerchief of Veronica healed; d. In other words, de Boron took over the handkerchief unchanged from the sources, whereas the shroud was transformed into the cup of communion. The Vulgate Queste , written around 1225 , which in turn is a variant of the works of Robert de Boron, allows a naked Christ to appear from the Grail, which is hardly imaginable as a chalice in the Grail, but as a shroud in the Grail.
Wolfram von Eschenbach
The subject appeared in German-language literature between 1200 and 1210 through Wolfram von Eschenbach's translation of Chrétien's novel Parzival . Wolfram, however, extends the narrative with countless additional sources. Not only does he tie his heroes to the Anglo-Norman dynasty of Anjou ( Plantagenet ) on his own initiative and with great emphasis and draw a second line from the Grail to the princely clan of Gottfried and Balduins von Bouillon , but also mentions to create confusion or for the sake of a literary game , a poet named "Kyot, the Provençals" (probably Guiot de Provins , ca. 1140 / 50–1210) as his main source. His "original Parzival" is also the mysterious book in the library of the Count of Flanders, to which Chrétien de Troyes referred, but who misunderstood many things. Kyot, in turn, is said to have discovered and translated a “pagan” manuscript in Toledo , which is said to have been written by a Jewish astronomer named Flegetanis .
If the Grail is a vessel with Chrétien, then with Wolfram it is called a stone or stone vessel, which bears the name lapis exillis , gives food and drink to the knights of the grail , causes the burning and rebirth of the phoenix , just by looking at it a week before death and before Age protects and is invisible to the unbaptized. He owes his strength to a host brought down from heaven by a dove every Good Friday, a clear Eucharistic symbolism. The names of those called to the Grail appear on the stone.
Hélinand von Froidmont (around 1160 – around 1230) reports in his chronicle from before 1204 that a hermit living in Britain had a vision of the keeper of a chalice, Joseph of Arimathia . With this cup, Joseph of Arimathia is said to have caught the blood of Christ on the cross.
Modern grail myths
The mythical idea of the Grail of the High Middle Ages continues uninterrupted into the modern age. To this day, attempts are being made to uncover its history.
The Grail and Mary Magdalene
The BBC reporters Henry Lincoln , Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh interpret in their popular science book The Holy Grail and His Heirs from 1982 the French San Greal as a deliberately encoded chant real , i.e. as 'royal blood', an alleged reference to the kinship with Jesus Christ. According to this, Maria Magdalena would be a consort or even wife of Jesus Christ.
The authors refer, among other things, to the apocryphal Gospel of Philip , where Proverb 55 says: “And the consort of Christ is Mary Magdalene. The Lord loved her more than any other disciples, and he kissed her on the mouth many times. The other disciples […] said to him: 'Why do you love them more than all of us?' ”Historically, however, this is speculation, since the passage in the Nag Hammadi find (4th century) was handed down at least 100 years after Life of Jesus was written down by an unknown author.
It was also speculated that Magdalena fled to Gaul with Joseph of Arimathea after his death on the cross and was pregnant by Jesus. She is said to have carried the seed of Christ to Europe during her flight. The child resulting from this connection is thus the real Holy Grail and the greatest mystery of Christianity. Jesus Christ and his blood live on in this child and his descendants to this day. In addition, an attempt is made to prove a relationship between the Merovingian royal family and the house of David or Jesus.
The cause of these speculations were well forged documents by the French Pierre Plantard (1920-2000), which the BBC reporters had found to be credible and had taken up. Plantard began systematically to forge documents in the 1960s and to impute them to credible entities such as museums, in some cases forging certificates of authenticity. These documents all pointed to a secret society Prieuré de Sion , which kept family trees of alleged descendants of Jesus and Mary Magdalene. The Frankish Merovingian kings and Pierre Plantard himself should belong to these descendants.
In his novel -Bestseller sacrilegious attacks Dan Brown on these ideas and also indicates the Apostle John delicately depicted in the painting The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci as Mary Magdalene. Brown's story uses as elements the special position of Mary Magdalene in the circle of Jesus, mentioned in some Gnostic apocrypha , and the legend that Mary Magdalene spent her twilight years in what is now southern France. This novel was released in 2006 as the movie The Da Vinci Code - Da Vinci Code .
Likewise, Peter Berling in his "Gralszyklus" (5 books with history 8 books) included this story in which he this Priory of Sion transfers the protection of two children whose descent once on the Staufferkaiser and partly to the house Trencavel (Carcassonne ) and thus goes back to the Sang Real, Sangral, the Holy Blood and which are supposed to establish a kingdom of peace. The "Children of the Grail" were saved shortly before the fall of Montségur . A group of knights ( Knights Templar and Teutonic Knights ), Muslims, Cathars, and assassins support this secret society in the implementation of the "Great Plan".
The grail as a bowl
In another interpretation, the Grail is a bowl that, by divine providence , was hidden in a cave under the crucifixion hill of Golgotha in the era of King David . She is said to have caught drops of blood that fell from the cross of Jesus. Such an antique agate bowl , once issued as the Grail, is kept in the treasury of the Hofburg in Vienna .
The Holy Chalice (Spanish: Santo Cáliz ), which is regarded as the Grail and is kept in the Cathedral of Valencia , is said to have served in a different function, as Jesus' Lord's Supper cup . In her dissertation, the Spanish art historian Ana Mafé García claims that this vessel is authentic with "a probability of 99.9%".
The same applies to the Doña Urraca chalice exhibited in the Basilica of San Isidoro in the northern Spanish city of León , which, according to studies by the historians Margarita Torres and José Miguel Ortega del Rio, is the real Grail. It is said to have been kept in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem for a period of seven hundred years before being brought to Spain . The agate bowl in the upper part of the chalice, which was made between 200 and 100 AD , was venerated in Jerusalem as a drinking vessel for Jesus. There it was stolen and first came to Cairo . In the period that followed, it was decorated and expanded into today's chalice. An emir in the then Islamic part of Spain received it because he had helped Egypt during a famine. He then gave it to King Ferdinand , Doña Urraca's father, as a present. Investigations of two Egyptian parchments from the Middle Ages, which were discovered in 2011, would have shown all of this.
The church historian Diarmaid MacCulloch from the University of Oxford, on the other hand, described the connection drawn between the chalice and the grail as "idiotic". It was recognized that the bowl came from ancient times, but nothing more. In Europe alone, around two hundred objects are claimed to be the true chalice of the Grail.
The Templars as Guardians of the Grail
Wolfram von Eschenbach calls the Knights of the Grail in his Parzival "Templeisen", from which some authors concluded that the Templars could have owned and guarded the Holy Grail for a while.
Around the same time, the anonymous French prose novel Perlesvaus made the Grail disappear after the Grail Castle was destroyed. Perlesvaus ( Perceval ) finds the Grail on a mysterious island, where it is guarded by knights wearing a red cross on white tunics. The Grail came into the possession of the Templars in 1244 when Montségur , the fortress of the Cathars , was taken; the story of the Perlesvaus is understood as a reference to a shipment of the Grail to America . There are no reliable sources for these hypotheses.
The Grail Castle - Identification Attempts
There is no indication that the Grail Castle designates a specific fortress. The legends say that it is hidden near a river or lake. After the devastation of the land, it can only be seen by a pure-hearted person. The interior of the castle is richly adorned with jewels and precious stones in some late versions.
The Grail Castle was always searched for. Mainly churches, towers, castles and fortress ruins in England and Wales are associated with the Grail Castle , but Grail legends are also linked to places in the Spanish and French Pyrenees. The later (especially English) amalgamation of Arthurian and Grail sagas led to the fact that the Grail is also sought in places with which Arthur is said to have had a special relationship (e.g. Glastonbury , Winchester Castle ).
The following places are often mentioned:
- The area around Glastonbury in south-west England, where a miraculous thorn bush is said to be in bloom in the abbey at Christmas time and where the remains of Arthur and Guinevere are said to have been discovered in 1190 . At the site of St. Mary's Chapel in the same place , Joseph of Arimathia is said to have built the first church in Europe. At the foot of Glastonbury Gate is the Chalice Well . The fact that the well has never dried up since time immemorial is said to be related to the fact that the Holy Grail was once hidden in it.
- Winchester Castle in southern England, today a round table from the 13th century is shown in the one who as one of the least since the 16th century Round Table of King Arthur was.
- St. Michael's Mount in Cornwall .
- Montségur in the French Pyrenees , the last fortress of the Cathar Knights, which was captured in the Albigensian Crusade in 1244 . According to Otto Rahn , some Cathars escaped from the besieged citadel and were able to save "the treasure of the Cathars".
- Wolfram von Eschenbach calls the Grail Castle Munsalvaesche (Occitan. Montsalvasch , 'Heilsberg', or Montsauvage , 'Wilder Berg'). It is unclear whether this is supposed to be a place in the Spanish Pyrenees.
- It is largely certain that Wolfram von Eschenbach wrote his Grail story Parzival in part at Wertheim Castle and Wildenberg Castle in the Odenwald . He mentions the two places in chapters 4 and 5.
- Munsalvaesche has also been associated with the castle ruins of Montsalvens in the Swiss Gruyère region .
- San Juan de la Peña , a monastery in the Spanish Pyrenees , hidden under huge overhanging rocks at the bottom of a deeply cut river valley. According to the monastery documents, the oldest of which dates from 1134, pilgrims there venerated the relic of Santo Cáliz (now in Valencia ) as the Holy Grail in the Middle Ages . As Hans-Wilhelm Schäfer in Kelch und Stein and Michael Hesemann show in The Discovery of the Holy Grail , there are parallels between the descriptions of the Grail Castle and San Juan de la Peña, which lies at the feet of Mons Salvatoris , which is also in the Occitan language of Aragon Mont Salvatge was called. There is also the Grail King Amfortas here in the form of the Aragonese King Alfons I "el Batallador", called Anforts in the local language , who was brought to the monastery to die in 1134. His most loyal companion was the French knight Rotrou Perche de Val , whom Michael Hesemann identified as the historical Perceval .
- In the cathedral of Valencia an agate chalice ( Santo Cáliz ) is kept in a side chapel , which is venerated by the faithful as the Holy Grail. It bears an Arabic inscription. The Spanish archaeologist Antonio Beltrán read li-z-zāḥira , Schäfer, however, al-labṣit aṣ-ṣilliṣ , which agrees with Wolfram 's statement lapsit exillis . The latter, however, is pointless from the Arabic vocabulary, lapsit exillis is probably a lapis ex coelis ('stone from heaven') corrupted by tungsten, which does not speak Latin .
Experts date the mortar-shaped stone cup to the 1st century BC. Hesemann also submits the hypothesis that the chalice kept in Valencia was Jesus' communion chalice, which was kept by the popes in Rome in early Christian times and from there came to Spain. During a visit by Benedict XVI. in Valencia in July 2006, the "Santo Cáliz" was presented to the Pope, who celebrated Holy Mass with him the next day in front of a million people.
- The late antique agate bowl , one of the two "inalienable heirlooms of the House of Habsburg ", is in the treasury of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in the Vienna Hofburg . For a long time, the bowl was believed to be the Holy Grail because it has fine veins that have been interpreted as mysterious writing.
The grail in art
Since then, Grail and Parzival motifs have appeared in many variations in European literature and art. One of the best-known artistic representations is the work Parsifal by Richard Wagner, which premiered in 1882 as a stage dedication festival in Bayreuth . The legend of the Holy Grail also plays an important role in Wagner's opera Lohengrin , especially in the Grail narrative at the end of the third act (“In a distant land, unapproachable your steps”).
In numerous films, the heroes go in search of the Grail or its equivalent. A selection:
- Documentaries on the Holy Grail:
- Parsifal - Indiana Jones and Richard Wagner (Austria 2005)
- Terra X - Under the Sign of the Holy Blood. 40 minutes, Germany 2001, zdf neo
- Terra X - King Arthur - The Search for the Holy Grail (Germany, 2000)
- Film adaptations of the Arthurian legend, in which the search for the Grail occurs:
- Films and series in which the Holy Grail plays a central role:
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (US 1989)
- Merlin (13-part TV series, Germany 1980)
- King of the Fishermen (USA 1991)
- The Blood of the Templars (Germany 2004)
- The Da Vinci Code - The Da Vinci Code (USA 2005/2006)
- The lost labyrinth (two-part television film, Germany / Great Britain / USA 2012)
- Fate / stay night (Japan 2005)
- Fate / Zero (Japan 2011)
- Knightfall (TV series) (US 2018)
Computer games that address the holy grail:
- The Holy Grail (1984)
- Lancelot (1988)
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)
- Grailquest (1989)
- Conquests of Camelot: The Search for the Grail (1990)
- Monty Python & The Quest for the Holy Grail (1996)
- Gabriel Knight 3 (1999)
- Fate / stay night (2004)
- The Da Vinci Code (2006)
- Stronghold Legends (2006)
- The First Templar (2011)
Peter Berling :
- Knight to the holy grave. 2009 (Prehistory to the Grail Cycle)
- Francis or the second memorandum. 1990 (Prehistory to the Grail Cycle)
- The heretic . 2000 (Prehistory to the Grail Cycle)
- The children of the grail. 1991 (Grail Cycle Volume I)
- The blood of kings. 1993 (Grail Cycle Volume II)
- The crown of the world. 1995 (Grail Cycle Volume III)
- The black chalice. 1997 (Grail Cycle Volume IV)
- The princess' kilim. 2005 (Grail Cycle Volume V)
Marion Zimmer Bradley :
- The Mists of Avalon . Frankfurt / Main 1984
- Dan Brown :
- Vera Chapman:
- The three Desmoiselles. Munich 1984
- Bernard Cornwell : The Grail Quest
- Rob MacGregor:
- Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Munich 1989
Mary Stewart :
- Flaming crystal. Munich 1989
- The Heritage. Munich 1989
- Merlin's farewell. Munich 1989
- TH White :
- Umberto Eco :
- Helene Luise Köppel :
Kate Mosse :
- The lost labyrinth. German edition: Droemer Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-426-19660-3 .
- Rainer M. Schröder :
- Bettina Lehmann:
- Anholtica, Edition 1, The Holy Grail. Ostina Verlag, Hinsdorf 2007, ISBN 978-3-9809604-2-7 .
JJ Preyer :
- Grail trail. Oerindur Verlag, Steyr 2007, ISBN 978-3-902291-20-2 .
- Simon Cross:
- It will call you. Blue Screen Entertainment, Ludwigsburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-9810305-7-0 .
- Iny Lorentz :
Pierre Dietz :
- "King" Arthur and the Secret of Avalon. Historical novel, Edition AV, Bodenburg 2019. ISBN 978-3-86841-235-2 .
- Philippe Walter, Daniel Poirion (Ed.): Le Livre du Graal. tome I, Joseph d'Arimathie - Merlin - Les Premiers Faits du roi Arthur. Bibliothèque de la Pléiade , 2001, ISBN 2-07-011342-6 .
(First of probably three volumes. Exceptionally well-stocked new edition; extensively annotated, bilingual original and new French)
- Chrétien de Troyes : Le Roman de Perceval ou Le Conte du Graal. The Perceval novel or The Tale of the Grail. translated and edited by Felicitas Olef-Krafft. Stuttgart (Reclam) 1991, ISBN 3-15-008649-3 .
- Thomas Malory : The story of King Arthur and the knights of his round table. Translation by H. Findeisen after K. Lachmann. Frankfurt am Main 1977.
- Wolfram von Eschenbach : Parzival. Reclam ISBN 3-15-007451-7 .
- Richard Barber: The Holy Grail. History and myth. Düsseldorf / Zurich 2004, ISBN 3-538-07203-5 .
- Adolf Birch-Hirschfeld: The saga of the Grail - your development and poetic training in France and Germany in the 12th and 13th centuries, a literary historical investigation. Wiesbaden 1969.
- Konrad Burdach : The Grail. Research on its origin and its connection with the Longinus legend. Darmstadt 1974, ISBN 3-534-06808-4 . (first Stuttgart 1938)
- Roger S. Loomis: The Grail. From Celtic Myth to Christian Symbol. 1963.
- Volker Mertens: The Grail. Myth and Legend. Reclam, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-15-018261-1 .
- Hans-Wilhelm Schäfer: chalice and stone. Investigations into the work of Wolframs von Eschenbach. Frankfurt am Main 1983.
- Ingeborg Dillenburger: The Grail Legends - their roots and their changes. Publishing house Dr. Kovac, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8300-5046-9 .
Popular and pseudoscientific literature
- Ulrich Bahrs: Grail Wanderer. 1928.
- Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh, Henry Lincoln: The Holy Grail and Its Heirs. Origin and Presence of a Secret Order. His knowledge and his power. ( The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail . English first editions 1982 and 1983) Translated by Hans E. Hausner. Bastei-Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1984, ISBN 3-7857-0370-8 ; 19th edition in 2004.
- Julius Evola : The Mystery of the Grail. ISBN 3-926370-39-4 .
- Laurence Gardner: Bloodline of the Holy Grail. ISBN 1-85230-870-2 .
- Wolfgang Greiner: The Grail Secrets. Berlin 1926.
- Malcolm Godwin: The Holy Grail - Origin, Secret and Interpretation of a Legend. Bechtermünz Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-453-08025-4 -
- Michael Hesemann: The Discovery of the Holy Grail - The End of a Search. Munich 2003, ISBN 3-629-01659-6 .
- Bertram Kircher (Ed.): The Book of the Grail - Myths, legends and poetry about the greatest secret of the medieval West. Munich 1989.
- Hans-Jürgen Lange: Otto Rahn and the search for the Grail. ISBN 3-927940-45-3 .
- Hubert Lampo: Arthur and the Grail. Munich 1985.
- John Matthews: The Grail - The Search for the Eternal. Braunschweig 1992.
- Mieke Mosmuller : The Holy Grail. Occident Verlag, Baarle-Nassau 2007, ISBN 978-3-00-021871-2 .
- Otto Rahn : Crusade against the Grail. ISBN 3-927940-71-2 .
- Trevor Ravencroft : The Chalice of Fate - The Search for the Grail. Basel 1982.
- Tilman Spreckelsen: Hopefully he'll never be found. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. May 31, 2009.
- Anton Hungari (ed.): Osterglöcklein. Uplifting conversations for the Easter festival group in the Catholic church years. JD Sauerländer, Frankfurt am Main 1862, pp. 238–250 ( The Holy Graal ); here: p. 238 f.
- Siegfried G. Richter : The Coptic Egypt. Treasures in the shadow of the pharaohs. (with photos by Jo Bischof). Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2019, ISBN 978-3-8053-5211-6 , pp. 110–111.
- Art historian: Holy Grail in Valencia is real In: Katholisch.de . March 1, 2019, accessed March 8, 2019.
- Is that the Holy Grail? In: Merkur-online.de . March 31, 2014, accessed April 1, 2014.
- tourists: Looking for a new place for the alleged chalice of Jesus. In: Spiegel online. April 1, 2014, accessed on the same day
- Tom Whipple: No rabbits guarding this 'Holy Grail'. In: The Australian . April 2, 2014, accessed on the same day. Originally published under the title Is this garish goblet the true Holy Grail? published in the Times on April 1, 2014 (English)
- Holy Grail quest ended? ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Tenplay , undated , accessed April 2, 2014 (English)
- Eduard Studer : Of various difficulties to find the Grail. Farewell lecture, held at the University of Friborg Switzerland on June 22, 1988. Universitätsverlag, Friborg im Üechtland 1989, ISBN 3-7278-0639-7 , p. 34.