Dresden School of Applied Arts
The Dresden School of Applied Arts was founded in October 1875 under the name "Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts " and developed into one of the most important German training centers for the applied arts at the turn of the century . It experienced its heyday in the new building on Eliasstrasse , today's Güntzstrasse.
On October 1st, 1920, the "Royal School of Applied Arts in Dresden" was converted into a State Academy for Applied Arts . It was thus equated as an academy with the rank of the Dresden Art Academy . In 1950 the School of Applied Arts was attached to the Dresden University of Fine Arts .
Royal school of modeling, ornament and pattern drawing
In October 1814 an industrial school was set up in Dresden for teaching the artistic issues of handicrafts and trades. The school was initially part of the art academy and was then affiliated to the technical educational institute founded in 1828, later the polytechnic school . In 1865 the industrial school received an independent administration as the “Royal School for Modeling, Ornament and Pattern Drawing”. Michael Wentzel taught at the industrial school from 1839 to 1863 and Carl Gotthelf Krumbholz (1819–1907) from 1863 to 1881 . In 1875 the Royal School for Modeling, Ornament and Pattern Drawing had 45 students.
Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts
In order to meet the increased demand for draftsmen and designers in the course of industrialization , the Royal Ministry of the Interior reorganized the school and in October 1875 it was converted into the “Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts”, which is located in the polytechnic building School on Antonsplatz . The architect Carl Ludwig Theodor Graff from Vienna was appointed director in 1874 . Graff took up his post in Dresden on October 1, 1874. Graff had previously been involved as an architect in the implementation of the World Exhibition in Vienna in 1873 , which dealt in particular with the topics of the industrial age and the arts and crafts .
In January 1876 a newly founded public arts and crafts library was incorporated into the arts and crafts school, and in September 1876 the Dresden arts and crafts museum. Under the direction of Graff, the Dresden School of Applied Arts developed into an important German training center for the applied arts .
In 1875 Herrmann Beck and Max Rade were appointed as teachers. The range of training offered by the School of Applied Arts was opened in October 1876 with the “Department for figurative modeling”, in October 1878 with the “Department for architectural arts and crafts”, in May 1881 with the “Department for general and theater decoration” and in April 1883 with the “Department for Metalltechnik "expanded. In October 1885 the "subclass for decorative painters and pattern-makers" followed and in October 1886 the "department for colored printing, lithography and porcelain painting". Evening courses were offered from October 1889. In November 1893 a "studio for craft designs" was set up. In 1898 Graff succeeded in bringing Karl Groß, one of the leading Munich representatives of the modern reform movement, to Dresden.
Graff made the suggestion to build a new building complex for the arts and crafts school and arts and crafts museum in Dresden due to lack of space. A lengthy planning phase began as early as 1899, in which experts from the Ministry of the Interior and Finance, Max Hans Kühne and Carl Graff were involved. After a second competition for facade design, the architectural office Lossow and Viehweger received the order and in 1901 construction could begin, which was completed in 1908.
On September 11, 1899, the Ministry of the Interior gave its general approval and, on July 4, 1900, the specific order that a "female department with separate classrooms" should also be provided in the planned new building for the arts and crafts school. Due to the multi-year construction period, the opening of the schoolgirls department was not planned before autumn 1906. The admission to the schoolgirls department of the arts and crafts school was based on an entrance examination. The candidates had to have two years of professional training. The minimum age for entry was 18 years. The duration of the training at the arts and crafts school was set at three years.
In 1902 Wilhelm Kreis was appointed to the Department of Spatial Art. This newly introduced subject was taught in an already completed section of the new arts and crafts school building. More and more teachers from the field of modern reform and style tendencies ( Art Nouveau ) were hired. From 1904 Otto Rennert headed the newly created glass painting department . At Karl Groß's instigation, two kilns were purchased to strengthen practical training in glass and porcelain painting .
In 1905 Richard Guhr was employed as a teacher of figure painting and drawing. At the end of September 1905, Carl Graff left and Max Rade took over the management duties on a temporary basis.
On July 1, 1906, William Lossow took office as the new director. Further reform-oriented teachers were hired under Lossow. Josef Goller took over from Otto Rennert in 1906. In October 1906, three positions were advertised for the general schoolgirls department, which was newly established in January 1907 in the new building of the Royal School of Applied Arts . Were hired Erich Kleinhempel for general arts and crafts, Max Frey for the graphic arts class and Margaret Young for the textile trade class. Johannes Türk taught life drawing in all three classes.
The practical workshops could be expanded due to the improved spatial situation. In 1909 a test workshop for metal and ceramics was established. In addition, additional looms were purchased for the implementation of the textile designs. The School of Applied Arts was represented at the Third German Applied Arts Exhibition in Dresden, which was central to the reform movement, in 1906 and took part in the IV International Congress for Art Education, Drawing and Applied Arts in Dresden in 1912. The students' works and designs were regularly published in leading specialist journals and awarded prizes through competitions.
After Lossow's death in 1914, Karl Groß was appointed director of the arts and crafts school. Groß was one of the main exponents of the reform movement in Dresden and was heavily involved in all associations that are important for the arts and crafts , such as the Dresden arts and crafts association , the guild and the Dresden artists' association . In 1914, under the direction of Groß, the arts and crafts school and the arts and crafts museum were administratively separated. In 1915 the general school women department was abolished and from then on pupils were taught together.
State Academy of Applied Arts
After the First World War , on October 1, 1920, the "Royal School of Applied Arts in Dresden" was converted into a State Academy for Applied Arts. It was thus equated as an academy with the rank of the Dresden Art Academy . Karl Groß also worked on structural plans for a merger of arts and crafts and academic training. However, these ideas met with incomprehension and resistance from the students and teachers of the Dresden Art Academy.
Under Karl Groß, the connection between school and practice was greatly expanded. The academy carried out commissioned work on request. Industry and companies were called upon to organize prize draws and competitions in the arts and crafts school. In 1924 Walter Nitschke was appointed to the glass workshop, followed a year later by Walter Flemming as head of the metal workshop.
Karl Groß led the school through the economically difficult 1920s and 1930s. On September 1, 1931, under the pressure of the global economic crisis , an emergency ordinance ordered the merger of the two academies. Karl Groß and Georg Lührig, as directors of the Academy for Fine Arts, agreed in June 1932 on a common organizational plan and statutes . However, the implementation of the proposal failed again due to the resistance of the college of art. In 1933 Richard Müller became rector of the art academy. Müller was a sharp opponent of a merger.
After the seizure of Nazi allegations against United and the orientation of the Academy were raised, whereupon he resigned on 1 October 1933, his office. The painter Wilhelm Albert Walther was appointed his successor . The amalgamation of the academies has been postponed for the time being. It took place on February 23, 1940 by order of the Reich Governor . For the first rector of the new National Art School Dresden, College of Fine and Applied Arts was Wilhelm Kreis appointed. At the same time a state master crafts school was founded .
State University of Applied Arts
After the Second World War , the former arts and crafts school was re-established as the State College for Craft Art under the direction of Will Grohmann . In 1948 Mart Stam was appointed its rector. On June 7, 1950, the State University of Applied Arts and the State Academy of Fine Arts merged to form the Dresden University of Fine Arts under the direction of Fritz Dähn . The Dresden Museum of Applied Arts has been based in Pillnitz Castle since 1964 .
Former teachers and professors
This compilation is incomplete. The basis is the tabular overview of the teaching staff at the Dresden School of Applied Arts between 1914 and 1933 according to Gamke.
|Name first Name||entry||exit||Subject area|
|Albiker, Karl||1920||1933||Specialized class for applied plastics|
|Anger, Alvin||1894||1924||Annual course general department; Shadow theory, perspective and architecture|
|Balzer, Wolfgang||1926||1931||Lectures and seminars on the subject of art history|
|Baranowsky, Alexander||1913||1933||Specialized class for decorative theater painting; Specialist class for textile art; Ornamental and nature painting, pattern drawing and decorative painting|
|Barth, Friedrich Wilhelm||1884||1893||Shadow theory, perspective, sketching exercises and architecture|
|Beck, Herrmann||1875||Pattern drawing; Painting from nature|
|Berling, Karl||1892||Director's assistant; Director of the arts and crafts museum; General theory of forms, history of cabaret, art history and mythology|
|Bibrowicz, Wanda||1931||Weaving workshop|
|Biesold, Cesar||1905||1913||Figural drawing and painting in the evening department|
|Böckelmann, Walter||1934||Study assessor for the drawing teachers department|
|Böhme, Paul||1892||1894||Architectural drawing|
|Borner, Emil Paul||1937||1945||Drawing and painting|
|Bondi, Felix||1911||1914||Judicial council; Lectures on legal protection in applied arts|
|Born, Rudolf||1918||Specialist class for applied plastics; Stone processing workshop|
|Brandt, Marianne||1949||Wood, metal and ceramics|
|Bürckner, Richard||1906||1920||General Department|
|Dark, Kurt||1923||Evening department, plastic exercises|
|Diethe, Alfred||1867||1905 approx.||Figure painting and drawing|
|Dittrich, Hermann||1909||1933||Plastic anatomy of humans (at the same time at the art academy)|
|Donadini, Ermenegildo Antonio||1881||Department for figurative and craft modeling; Theatrical painting|
|Drescher, Arno||1909||1939||Specialist class for applied graphics; Bookbinding workshop|
|Eckert, Hermann||1879||1917||Annual course general department; Pattern drawing (lace, curtains, wallpaper, etc.)|
|Ellenberger, Wilhelm||1890||Was appointed professor at the Dresden Veterinary School in 1879. Lectures on animal anatomy at the art academy and the arts and crafts school.|
|Elssner, Felix||1897||Applied drawing|
|Enderlein, Karl||1913||1947||General department, evening department (drawing and painting)|
|Enking, Ottomar||1919||Lectures and seminars on literature and language|
|Erler, Georg||1913||1937||Specialist class for applied graphics; Printing workshop|
|Eye, August of||1875||1879|
|Fichtner, Fritz||1926||1934||Drawing teachers department|
|Flemming, Walter||1925||1945||Metalworking workshop|
|Frey, Max||1907||1934 approx.||Specialist class for applied graphics; Drawing teachers department|
|Geissler, Max||1888||1922||Annual course general department; Drawing teachers department; Sculptor for modeling|
|Goesch, Heinrich||1926||1930||Annual course for the education of the sense of beauty; Lectures and seminars on the relationship between art and craft, national economy|
|Goller, Josef||1906||1928||Specialist class for applied painting; Stained glass class; Poster design|
|Götz, Edmund||1924||Painting and drawing class in the evening department; later teacher of graphics|
|Grohberger, Bernhard||1887||1919||Annual course general department; Drawing teachers department|
|Great, Karl||1898||1933||Specialist class for applied plastics; Ceramic workshop|
|Guhr, Richard||1905||1934||Professional class for decorative and theatrical painting; Figure painting and drawing, materials science|
|Half rider, Adolf||1878||Head of the "Modeling and Ciseleur Department"|
|Haebler, Oskar||1914||1931||General Department; Weaving workshop|
|Hahnel, Heinrich Julius||1862||1889||Ornament modeling (sculpture)|
|Herrmann, Paul||1908||1933||Specialist class for applied graphics; Drawing teachers department|
|Hohrath, Alexander||1908||1913||Architect; Space art|
|Boy, Margarete||1907||1933||Specialized class for fashion and female handicrafts|
|Kleinhempel, Erich||1907||1912||General arts and crafts|
|Klemm, Jorg||1923||1933||Drawing teachers department|
|Circle, Wilhelm||1902||1908||In 1908 he was appointed director of the Düsseldorf School of Applied Arts . From 1940 rector at the Staatliche Kunsthochschule Dresden, University of Fine and Applied Arts ; Space art|
|Kriebel, Hilmar||1888||1891 approx.||Calligraphy and lettering painting|
|Kropp, Ernst||1926||Specialized class for furniture and interior art|
|Krumbholz, Carl Gotthelf||1863||1881|
|Kumsch, Emil||1876||"Disassembling the fabric and patronage"|
|Langner, Reinhold||1948||1949||Applied plastic|
|Lippmann, Richard||1905||General Department; Evening department (writing); Annual course for the education of the sense of beauty|
|Lührig, Georg||1910||1916||Schoolgirls department. From 1916 teacher at the art academy, 1932 to 1933 rector of the art academy. In 1934 he left the academy.|
|Malke, Otto||1884 approx.||Pattern drawing; Projection theory; (Mention in the yearbook 1880/81 and 1881/83)|
|Mebert, Richard||1891||1922||Decorative Painting Department; Department of Textile and Surface Art; Pattern drawing, nature painting|
|Menzel, Oskar||1913||1938||Specialized class for architecture and spatial art|
|Meyer, Wilhelm||1906||Architect; Architectural drawing|
|Meyer-Waldeck, Wera||1946||1948||Interior work|
|Müller, Karl Kurt||1921|
|Müller, Woldemar||1886||1924||Department of Graphic Arts and Porcelain Painting|
|Naumann, Paul||1875||1916||Annual course general department; Architectural arts and crafts; Department of Graphic Arts and Porcelain Painting|
|Nitschke, Walter||1924||Glass processing workshop|
|Pape, Jean||1878||1915||Department of Architectural Crafts; General Department|
|Preissler, Paul||1888||1924||Annual course general department; Drawing teachers department|
|Rade, Carl||1918||1933||As early as 1909, he was first proven to be a nude drawing teacher in the evening department. From 1918 specialist classes for porcelain painting, textile art, fashion and female handicrafts; Evening department (class for tailors, dressmakers and milliners); Drawing and painting room|
|Rade, Max||1875||1912||Ornament and decorative painting; Pattern drawing|
|Rakebrand, Hilde||1946||1949||Painting, graphics and ceramics|
|Rennert, Otto||1904||1906||Stained Glass Department|
|Judge, Harald||1883||1898||Sculptor and ciseleur for metal technology|
|Roessler, Paul||1913||1940||Watercolors and painting; Professional class for decorative and theatrical painting; Technical class for textile art|
|Schakowsky, Heinrich||1872||1887||Freehand drawing|
|Schmeil, Martha||1929||Workshop for dyeing and chemical etching techniques for fabrics, paper and leather|
|Schmelzer, Reinhard||1911||Museum inspector; Web lessons|
|Schmidt, Paul Ferdinand||1913/1914||1923|
|Schreitmüller, Johannes Daniel||1884 approx.||Figurative and craft modeling; (Mention in the yearbook 1880/81 and 1881/83)|
|Schu, Barbara||1934||Fashion and female handicrafts|
|Schuchardt, Edmund||1948||1950||Material science|
|Seibt, Maximilian||1934||Painter for the drawing teachers department|
|Seyffert, Oskar||1885||1927||Annual course general department; Figure drawing, geometric surface ornament|
|Siedamgrotzky, Otto||1886||1890||Plastic anatomy of animals (at the same time at the art academy)|
|Simmang, Karl||1901||Specialist class for furniture and interior design; Evening department (drawing exercises for carpenters, locksmiths and draftsmen); Drawing teachers department|
|Sinkwitz, Paul||1931||1945||General Department; Evening department; Graphic Department (from 1937)|
|Sunshine, Adolf||1910||Annual course for the education of the sense of beauty; Modeling room; Ceramic workshop|
|Player, Hugo||1885||1919||Department for figurative and craft modeling|
|Stitch, Richard||1879||1893||Lectures; History of cabaret|
|Stirl, Reinhold Walther||1885||1901||Nature drawing and painting|
|Terpitz, Herbert||1938||Specialized class for architecture and spatial art|
|Thieme, Oskar||1882||1891 approx.||Art history and mythology|
|Turgas, Hedwig||1912||Embroiderer; Female handicrafts|
|Türk, Johannes||1901||1924||Interruption of teaching around 1905 "in order to be able to carry out a longer study trip". New entry in 1907. Department for figurative and craft modeling; General Department|
|Wagner, Ernst||1929||1936||Lectures and seminars on cultural studies|
|Weisse, Richard Ludwig||1878||1910||Architectural drawing and craft design|
|Wieynck, Heinrich||1914||1931||Specialist class for applied graphics; Bookbinding workshop; General Department|
|Wissel, Bernhard||1883||1890||Pattern drawing for flower painting|
|Winds, Arthur||1918||1933||Specialist class for applied plastics; Woodworking workshop|
|Witte, Robert||1928||1931||Lectures and seminars on Christian art|
|Zschiesche, Erich||1919||Specialized class for furniture design and furniture construction; Furniture making workshop; Drawing and painting room; General Department|
- Gisela Haase : institutions of the arts and crafts in Dresden . In: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Kunstgewerbemuseum (Hrsg.): Art Nouveau in Dresden. Departure into the modern age . Edition Minerva, 1999, DNB 958114323 , p. 44-50 .
- Petra Klara Gamke: Karl Groß. Tradition as innovation? Dresden reform art at the beginning of modernism . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-422-06488-5 .
- Andreas Dehmer, Birgit Dalbajewa: Tradition and craft. The artistic training in Dresden after 1900 . In: Birgit Dalbajewa (ed.): New Objectivity in Dresden . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2011, ISBN 978-3-942422-57-4 , p. 66–75 (Contains additional information on the tabular “Overview of the teaching staff at the Dresden School of Applied Arts between 1914 and 1933” by Gamke).
- Joseph Kürschner (Ed.): King Albert and Sachsenland. A commemorative publication on the 70th birthday and 25th anniversary of the reign of the monarch . Schwarz, Berlin 1898 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Reports on the Royal Saxon Arts and Crafts School and the Arts and Crafts Museum . ( Digital copies - For the years 1880–1885).
- Reports on the Royal Saxon Arts and Crafts School and the Arts and Crafts Museum . ( Digital copies - For the years 1885–1901).
- Reports on the Royal Saxon Arts and Crafts School and the Arts and Crafts Museum . (For the years 1901–1913).
- The State Academy for Applied Arts Dresden. Report on the years 1914–1925 .
- State Academy for Applied Arts Dresden. Report on the years 1926–1930 .
- Report of the State Academy for Applied Arts Dresden. 1931-1934 .
- Applied Arts School. City wiki Dresden. Retrieved January 14, 2016 .
- Joseph Kürschner (Ed.): King Albert and Sachsenland. A commemorative publication on the 70th birthday and 25th anniversary of the reign of the monarch . Schwarz, Berlin 1898 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Gisela Haase: Institutions of the applied arts in Dresden . In: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden , Kunstgewerbemuseum (Hrsg.): Art Nouveau in Dresden. Departure into the modern age . Edition Minerva, 1999, p. 44 .
- Petra Klara Gamke: Karl Great. Tradition as innovation? Dresden reform art at the beginning of modernism . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-422-06488-5 , p. 75 .
- A female department at the Royal School of Applied Arts in Dresden . In: Exhibition newspaper of the 3rd German Applied Arts Exhibition in Dresden 1906 . April, No. 7 . Verlag Wilhelm Baensch, Dresden 1906, p. 109-110 .
- Report on the Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts and the Dresden Arts and Crafts Museum for the school years 1903/1904 and 1904/1905 . (The annual report contains contradicting information about Otto Rennert: Otto Rennert is listed in the table of the teaching staff with a starting date of 1904. In the descriptive text of the newcomers the starting date is October 1905. Gamke (2005) lists 1904 as the starting date).
- Decorative arts. Supplement . Xth year, October 1st. Bruckmann, Munich 1906, p. VII ("We are looking for teachers for female handicrafts, the painting department (practice for ceramic painting is desirable) and arts and crafts design for the new schoolgirls department of the Royal School of Applied Arts, which is to be set up in winter.").
- Cordula Bischoff: The first women's class at the Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts in Dresden . In: Marion Welsch and Jürgen Vietig (eds.): Margarete Junge. Artist and teacher on the move to the modern age . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2016, ISBN 978-3-95498-218-9 , pp. 84-103 .
- Petra Klara Gamke: Karl Great. Tradition as innovation? Dresden reform art at the beginning of modernism . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-422-06488-5 , p. 77 .
- Walther, Albert . In: Hans Vollmer (Hrsg.): General lexicon of fine artists from antiquity to the present . Founded by Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker . tape 35 : Libra-Wilhelmson . EA Seemann, Leipzig 1942, p. 119 .
- Petra Klara Gamke: Karl Great. Tradition as innovation? Dresden reform art at the beginning of modernism . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-422-06488-5 , p. 87 .
- School ofArts. City wiki Dresden. Retrieved January 14, 2016 .
- Petra Klara Gamke: Karl Great. Tradition as innovation? Dresden reform art at the beginning of modernism . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-422-06488-5 , p. 425-427 .
- Report on the Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts and the Dresden Arts and Crafts Museum for the school years 1909/1910 and 1919/1911 . (Gamke (2005) lists 1918 as the starting date for Carl Rade).
- Report on the Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts and the Dresden Museum of Applied Arts for the school years 1911/1912 and 1912/1913 .
- Report on the Royal Saxon School of Applied Arts and the Dresden Arts and Crafts Museum for the school years 1901/1902 and 1902/1903 . (Karl Simmang is listed for the first time with entry date 1901. Later the same is given as 1903, which suggests an interruption of teaching between 1901 and 1903).