Königstein key

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The Königstein Key specifies how the individual states of the Federal Republic of Germany are to be involved in joint financing. The share that a country has to bear is based on two thirds of the tax revenue and one third of the population .

The key is recalculated annually by the Joint Science Conference (GWK) and owes its creation to the Königstein State Agreement of March 31, 1949. The state agreement received constitutional protection through the inclusion of Art. 91b sentence 2 in the Basic Law in 1969 (now: Art. 91b para. 3 GG).

The meeting place at which the agreement was signed was the Hessian town of Königstein im Taunus , which is the namesake for both the Königstein Key and the Königstein State Agreement.

scope of application

The Königsteiner key replaced the financing model for the German Research University, which was agreed in the state agreement on the establishment of a German research university in Berlin-Dahlem and the financing of German research institutes of June 3, 1947 between the states of Bavaria, Württemberg-Baden and Hesse. The factual failure of the German Research University and the need to find a model for research funding in all West German countries, not just in those in the American zone, led to the Königstein State Agreement with an expanded financing model. In March 1949, a new distribution key was determined for this purpose within the framework of the State Agreement in order to distribute the costs of nationally important research institutions fairly among the individual countries.

The current area of ​​application far exceeds that of the past. Numerous agreements or agreements are now based on him. The provision of Article 104a, Paragraph 6, which was incorporated into the Basic Law with the federalism reform of 2006, regulates the question of the proportion of the federal and state governments to which they are liable for the violation of supranational or international obligations. The prescribed there execution law that Lastentragungsgesetz (LastG) of 5 September 2006, also uses the Königstein.

As with the distribution of repatriates and ethnic German repatriates to individual federal states, the Königstein key is also used for the initial distribution of adult asylum seekers (in accordance with Section 45 AsylG ). The Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) uses the EDP system EASY for the initial distribution but also for the registration of asylum seekers . The admission rates for the individual federal states are calculated by EASY with the help of the Königsteiner key. The admission of an asylum seeker to a certain initial reception facility is carried out by the IT system taking into account the calculated quotas and his country of origin. According to the law to improve the accommodation, care and care of foreign children and adolescents , the Königstein key has also been applicable to the distribution of unaccompanied minor refugees to the individual federal states since November 1, 2015 .

With the Hospital Structure Act of December 13, 2015, a structural fund amounting to EUR 500 million was set up to support the federal states' projects to improve hospital structures; According to Section 12 of the Federal Hospital Financing Act, the federal states can access the funds proportionately in accordance with the Königstein key.


For the 2015 financial year, the data on tax revenue and population figures from 2013 are used. Due to its population, North Rhine-Westphalia is the main provider of joint financing, followed at some distance by Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg . For example, the initial distribution of asylum seekers to the initial reception center of the individual countries is carried out in detail as follows ( BAnz AT 10.12.2014 B3 ):

country Share in% (2018) Share in% (2017) Share in% (2016) Share in% (2015) Share in% (2014) Share of the population in the total population of Germany (December 31, 2014)
Baden-Württemberg 13.01280 13.01651 12.96662 12.86456 12.97496 13.20
Bavaria 15.56491 15.55039 15.53327 15.51873 15.33048 15.63
Berlin 5.13754 5.09267 5.08324 5.04927 5.04557 4.27
Brandenburg 3.01802 3.02571 3.03655 3.06053 3.06053 3.02
Bremen 0.96284 0.95115 0.95331 0.95688 0.94097 0.82
Hamburg 2.55790 2.55847 2.55752 2.52968 2.52738 2.17
Hesse 7,44344 7.36424 7.39885 7,35890 7.31557 7.51
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 1.98419 2.00161 2.01240 2.02906 2.04165 1.97
Lower Saxony 9.40993 9.36559 9.33138 9.32104 9.35696 9.64
North Rhine-Westphalia 21.08676 21.14355 21.14424 21.21010 21.24052 21.72
Rhineland-Palatinate 4.82459 4.83466 4.83089 4.83710 4.83472 5.06
Saarland 1.20197 1.20344 1.21111 1,22173 1.21566 1.22
Saxony 4,99085 5.02467 5.05577 5.08386 5.10067 4.99
Saxony-Anhalt 2.75164 2.77158 2.79941 2.83068 2.85771 2.75
Schleswig-Holstein 3.40526 3.41725 3.39074 3.40337 3.38791 3.49
Thuringia 2.64736 2.67851 2.69470 2.72451 2.74835 2.66
All in all 100 100 100 100 100 100

Modified Königstein key

If the federal government bears part of the costs for financing measures, the modified Königstein key is used. The federal government assumes the same amount as the state with the highest share according to the standard key. Which results in the following list:

country Share in% (2018) Share in% (2017)
Baden-Württemberg 10.75 10.74
Bavaria 12.85 12.84
Berlin 4.24 4.20
Brandenburg 2.49 2.50
Bremen 1.80 0.79
Hamburg 2.11 2.11
Hesse 6.15 6.08
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 1.64 1.65
Lower Saxony 7.77 7.73
North Rhine-Westphalia 17.41 17.45
Rhineland-Palatinate 3.98 3.99
Saarland 0.99 0.99
Saxony 4.12 4.15
Saxony-Anhalt 2.27 2.29
Schleswig-Holstein 2.81 2.82
Thuringia 2.19 2.21
Federation 17.41 17.45
All in all 100 100

Similar procedures in other countries

In the United Kingdom, central government public expenditure that only affects certain sub-states (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland) is determined using the Barnett Formula .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Internet presence of the Max Planck Society ( http://www.mpg.de ), accessed on January 27, 2015.
  2. Glossary in the online presence of the BAMF , accessed on November 24, 2015.
  3. Ministry of the Interior and Municipalities of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia: Project report Accommodation of asylum seekers in North Rhine-Westphalian reception facilities ( Memento of the original from December 10, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . December 23, 2013. p. 29. Retrieved November 24, 2015 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.mik.nrw.de
  4. Youth welfare services for unaccompanied minor refugees Scientific services of the German Bundestag , August 27, 2018
  5. Distribution of asylum seekers , accessed on October 19, 2015