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Coordinates: 48 ° 13 ′ 42 ″  N , 16 ° 24 ′ 36 ″  E

B8 Reichsbrücke
Reichsbrücke, seen from the left, northern bank
use Motor vehicles, underground trains in the basement,
cyclists, pedestrians
Convicted Lassallestraße – Wagramer Straße street (B8)
Crossing of Handelskai
Neue Donau
Donauuferautobahn A22
place Vienna , between Leopoldstadt (2nd district)
and Donaustadt (22nd district)
construction Prestressed concrete bridge, double deck bridge
overall length 865 meters
width 26.10 meters
opening November 8, 1980
Reichsbrücke (Vienna)
Above sea level 157  m above sea level A.
Location of the Reichsbrücke in Vienna

The Reichsbrücke is one of the most famous bridges in Vienna . It crosses the Danube , the Danube Island and the New Danube and connects the 2nd district of Vienna , Leopoldstadt , with the 22nd district, Donaustadt . The building extends from Mexikoplatz on Handelskai (2nd district) in a north-easterly direction to Donau City and the Vienna International Center (22nd district).

Today's Reichsbrücke was opened in 1980; it is the third Danube crossing in the same axis that bears the name Reichsbrücke. The first Reichsbrücke (also: Kronprinz-Rudolf-Brücke, as a project: Reichsstraßenbrücke), an iron river bridge on five piers, existed from 1876 to 1937. The second Reichsbrücke, a chain bridge with two 30 meter high pylons on two river piers, was opened in 1937 ; Along with St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Ferris wheel, it was one of the landmarks of the city of Vienna. After the Second World War it was the only intact Danube crossing in Austria downstream from Linz and developed into the busiest stretch of road in Austria. On Sunday, August 1, 1976, the bridge fell into the water across the full width of the Danube in the early hours of the morning. In the accident, which could not have been foreseen with the state of the art at the time , a person was killed. The importance and the emotional charge that the bridge had received for the Viennese population through its eventful past increased further through the collapse.


The Danube before its regulation (the location of the Reichsbrücke is shown in the middle)

A few years after the severe flooding in 1830, consideration was given to regulating the Danube and at the same time building several bridges over the resulting river bed. Among other things, a chain bridge was planned at the site of today's Reichsbrücke, the construction costs of which were estimated at two to three million guilders. However, these plans, as well as later intentions to build stable bridges over the unregulated Danube, did not come to fruition before the Viennese regulation of the Danube ; the projects did not get beyond the planning phase. All Danube bridges , whether for road traffic or since 1838 for the northern railway , were of a rather provisional character at the time: they were wooden yoke bridges that were regularly torn away by floods or ice jams and then rebuilt.

On September 12, 1868, the regulation of the Danube was ordered by an imperial decree. At the same time, “stable bridges” should be built. One of them should be a direct extension of the Jägerzeile (today: Praterstraße) and the Schwimmschulstraße (today: Lassallestraße ). With the choice of this location, a central urban development axis was to be continued, which extended from the Gloriette in Schönbrunn via St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Praterstern to the Danube. On the other side of the Danube, the bridge was supposed to connect to the Wiener, Kagraner and Leopoldauer Reichsstraße (since 1910 Wagramer Straße), which became an important transport link to the north-eastern areas of the monarchy. The name of the bridge was accordingly set to "Reichsstrasse Bridge".

First Reichsbrücke - 1876 to 1937

since November 6, 1919: Reichsbrücke
Kronprinz-Rudolf-Brücke since November 6, 1919: Reichsbrücke
Official name Kronprinz-Rudolf-Brücke (1876–1919), since then Reichsbrücke
use Vehicles, trams (from June 26, 1898,
single-track on the river bridge) and pedestrians
Crossing of Handelskai, Danube and flood plains
construction Iron lattice structures (river bridge), 341.20 meters
overall length 1019.75 meters (including bridge over Handelskai and flood plain)
width 11.40 meters
opening August 21, 1876
closure October 11, 1937
toll 32 cruisers or 64 hellers per vehicle (until 1904)

The Emperor Franz Joseph I commissioned bridge, the main part of the 2nd district with after the Danube regulation located on the left bank part of the district Kaisermühlen , with of the reorganized Old Danube and the self-employed to 1890/1892 community Kagran union, was from Passable from August 1876 to October 1937. It was renamed several times: During the construction period it had the provisional name Reichsstrasse Bridge, after its opening it was called Kronprinz-Rudolf-Brücke. The term “Reichsbrücke” soon caught on in common parlance, for example the stop of the Donauuferbahn at the bridge was officially called Kommunalbad -Reichsbrücke . After the fall of the monarchy, it was officially renamed the Reichsbrücke on November 6, 1919.

With a total length of almost 1020 meters, it was the longest bridge connection over the Danube at the time. It was 11.40 meters wide, with the carriageway 7.60 meters and the two sidewalks 3.80 meters. The original plan had envisaged a total width of eight fathoms (15.20 meters); shortly before construction began, parliament decided to reduce the width for reasons of cost.

The bridge consisted of three parts. The so-called Hubertusdamm that the March box protected against flooding and the created at the Danube regulation flood area (inundation) at the north, the left bank of the river were spanned by a stone, 432 meter long Inundationsbrücke consisting of 16 sheets of 23 or 39 meters internal diameter was . The so-called quay bridge made of stone with a length of 90.4 meters and four arches of 18.96 meters each spanned the trading quay on the southern right bank of the river. The actual river bridge was 341.20 meters long and consisted of four individual iron lattice structures that rested on five 3.80 meter thick pillars, three of which stood in the water. The distance between the pillars was 79.90 meters.


The river bridge seen from the north, left bank of the Danube (St. Stephen's Cathedral in the background); Photo taken before summer 1898, as there was still no tram track

Construction began in August 1872. At that time, the river bed of the Danube was largely completed, but not yet flooded. The Reichsbrücke, like the Nordbahnbrücke , the Stadlauer Brücke and the Kaiser-Franz-Josephs-Brücke (later: Floridsdorfer Brücke ), was built using dry construction.

The building of roads and water conservancy department was planned the kk Ministry of Interior, whose boss, Councilor Mathias Waniek Knights of Domyslow, was responsible for the construction management. Overall, the construction cost 3.7 million guilders . The metal construction had a total weight of 2,193 tons and was made from Belgian welded iron by Schneider & Co in Burgundy .

The two bridge piers on the banks were built about five meters below the river bed, the three piers standing in the water about eleven meters below the river bed on the so-called "blue Vienna Tegel " (a stiff to semi-solid soil similar to the clay that is typical for sedimentary rock the Vienna Basin is). The pillars of the two approach bridges (quay bridge and inundation bridge) were built flat in coarse gravel.

The Reichsbrücke was the only one of the four Danube bridges built at the time that had not yet been opened to traffic when the new Danube bed was flooded on April 14, 1875. It was not until 16 months later, on August 21, 1876, on the birthday of Crown Prince Rudolf , that the Imperial and Royal Governor of Lower Austria, Baron Sigmund Conrad von Eybesfeld , opened the bridge on behalf of the Emperor and, contrary to the original plan, gave it the bridge in honor of the Crown Prince Name "Kronprinz-Rudolf-Brücke". A delegation from Japan, Reich Minister of War Feldzeugmeister Count Artur Maximilian von Bylandt-Rheidt and the Mayor of Vienna Cajetan von Felder took part in the opening ceremony . The governor read out an imperial resolution in which Franz Joseph I announced that he was fully satisfied with the chief construction manager Waniek and several engineers and construction advisors were awarded the imperial knight's cross. As the highlight of the celebration, the keystone of the last pillar of the access ramp was inserted - several documents, photos of the bridge, coins and medals were walled in under it in a box.

Bridge operation

The quay bridge over the Handelskai on the southern right bank of the Danube, photo taken around 1907
The bridge ramp and the four brick arches over the Handelskai on the southern right bank of the Danube, followed by the bridge over the river (on the right in the picture), photo from 1876
Reichsbrücke from the east. The only known painting of the first Reichsbrücke. Oil on canvas (1929). Artist: Sergius Pauser . Privately owned.

After Crown Prince Rudolf's suicide in 1889, the bridge was popularly known as the “Suicide Bridge ”. In the first few years of its operation, it was not a particularly popular crossing of the Danube: Industry and commerce only slowly settled across the Danube. In addition, there were no significant trade routes to the north of Marchfeld : up to around 1900, only a wobbly wooden bridge led across the Old Danube , which would have had to be crossed for this.

In the first 28 years of operation, the crossing of the Reichsbrücke was chargeable: 32 Kreuzers or 64 Heller per vehicle had  to be paid, which was regularly criticized by Viennese newspapers. Only after the villages north of the Old Danube had been incorporated into the 21st district in 1904/1905 , the crossing was made free of charge and the bridge became more popular. From June 26, 1898, the bridge was used by trams . The reason for this was the 50th anniversary of the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph. The line initially led (over the river bridge only single-track) to the shooting range at Arbeiterstrandbadstrasse and was extended to Kagraner Platz on December 22, 1898 . The operator was the Wien-Kagraner-Bahn (WKB), which initially used six railcars taken over from Hamburg . In 1904, the Vienna City Transport Authority - Urban Trams took over the WKB.

The end of the bridge

In 1910 there were over two million inhabitants in Vienna. On the left, northern bank of the Danube, more and more settlements and businesses emerged. This also increased the importance and the traffic load on the Reichsbrücke. Neither the total load nor the lane width of less than eight meters were sufficient for this additional load. In 1930, damage to the bridge was discovered that would have made general renovation necessary in the foreseeable future. In the last few years of its existence, weight restrictions were imposed to protect the bridge. The Vienna city government initially planned to convert the old Reichsbrücke. In 1933 a new building was ordered under the Dollfuß federal government .

During the three-year construction work, the old bridge had to remain usable - so the existing 340-meter-long and 4,900-tonne bridge was moved 26 meters downstream in September 1934 and connected there to the banks. The move took only six hours, the disruption of traffic until it was reusable took a total of three days. The moved bridge was then in operation for three years. It was dismantled immediately after the opening of its successor bridge.

Second Reichsbrücke - 1937 to 1976

Second Reichsbrücke
Second Reichsbrücke
The second Reichsbrücke, around 1975, seen from the 2nd district. At the back left the construction site of the Vienna International Center .
Official name Reichsbrücke; from April 11, 1946 to July 18, 1956 bridge of the Red Army
use Individual traffic (2 lanes next to the tracks, 2 on the tracks), trams (2 tracks in the middle), pedestrians (2 sidewalks)
construction Across the river: “Logical”, self-anchored chain bridge with suspended horizontal thrust; Widening of the inundation bridge, which has been in use since 1876
overall length 1225 meters
width 26.90 meters (including sidewalks)
Longest span 241.2 meters in the central opening, 60.05 and 61.05 meters in the side openings
start of building September 1934
opening October 10, 1937
closure August 1, 1976 (collapse)

The second Reichsbrücke had a total length of 1255 meters. With a length of 373 meters and a maximum span of 241.2 meters, the river bridge was the third largest chain bridge in Europe when it was built . It had two steel pylons with a height of 30 meters above the top of the carriageway, which stood on two electricity pillars and carried two steel chains with the bridge superstructure loads.

The bridge was staged as a symbol of the wealth and size of Vienna. In the late 1930s, for example, it was declared Vienna's third city emblem, alongside St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Ferris wheel, and served as an internationally widespread symbol on all advertising material and invitations to the 1938 Vienna Fair .


First, the Ministry of Commerce announced a preliminary competition, which the architects Emil Hoppe and Otto Schönthal were able to win, but the result did not meet the expectations of the Ministry and the City of Vienna. The final competition for the rebuilding of the Reichsbrücke was finally announced in the spring of 1933 and awarded in November. The architect Clemens Holzmeister acted as architectural advisor to the eight-member jury . The jurors chose from 64 submitted proposals, one of which even provided for tunneling under the Danube. The winning project was a chain bridge by architects Siegfried Theiss and Hans Jaksch . This design only envisaged two pillars standing in the water. Three quarters of the full width of the river should be spanned freely. The bridge would connect directly to the inundation bridge of the first Reichsbrücke over the floodplain and Hubertusdamm, which would continue to be used and only had to be widened.


Construction began on February 26, 1934, two weeks after the February civil war . A third of the costs of 24 million schillings were imposed on the city of Vienna, and two thirds came from the federal budget. Only Austrian companies were involved in the construction. The two pillars were erected in the river using caisson construction, the supporting beam was riveted together on a temporary supporting frame made of sheet steel.

The old bridge was left in operation during construction because it was already too important for traffic in Vienna. The pillars of the old bridge were therefore lengthened and the superstructure of the old bridge moved 26 m in the direction of the Danube.

The first difficulties soon arose. The building ground, especially in the Danube, on which the bridge piers and anchor blocks for the chains were to be founded, turned out to be less stable than the planners had assumed. Originally, it was planned to have a large part of the weight of the river bridge, primarily the middle part of the bridge between the piers, carried by two chains that run over the two pylons on both sides and anchored directly in the river to heavy, fixed anchor blocks made of concrete should be. However, it was feared that these abutments would slide on the soft Danube floor due to the large tensile forces of 78.5 million N (8,000 t) per chain and could not be adequately anchored in the Danube floor.

Professor Paul Fillunger from the Technical University in Vienna developed into the greatest public critic of the building. He was of the opinion that not only the foundation of the anchor blocks, but also that of the pillars in the soft Danube floor was irresponsible, because the bridge would not have the necessary stability. His professor colleague, the soil mechanic Karl von Terzaghi , was of the opposite opinion . In his opinion, the condition of the Danube floor was suitable for the foundation of the pillars. The disagreement was part of a personal feud that was fought in public. Fillunger committed suicide with his wife in 1937 due to disciplinary proceedings against him at the Vienna University of Technology. The construction of the bridge was rescheduled according to Terzaghi's proposals: the chains were not attached to the floor of the Danube in anchor blocks, but anchored directly to the two main girders of the steel structure, i.e. to the bridge itself, so it was a so-called fake suspension bridge ( bridle strap ).

In June 1936, the building was overshadowed by a shipwreck: the DDSG's passenger steamer “Wien” was driven to a pillar. The ship broke up and immediately sank. Six people were killed.

The final link of the two chains, each consisting of 49 sheet metal stacks, was inserted on November 16, 1936. Then the lowering of the support frame began to put the chain in tension. The construction of the concrete deck for the bridge superstructure and the assembly of the sidewalks followed in the spring of 1937, and in the summer the iron parts of the bridge were painted dark green.

From October 1st to 3rd, 1937, the structure was subjected to a stress test during which the chains were stretched and the pylons were slightly rotated. As a stress test, 84  trucks and 28 trams loaded with stones were then driven onto the bridge and left there for a few hours. All measurements went off satisfactorily, so that on October 4th the first tram set of line 16 could drive over the Reichsbrücke. A day later, the bridge was unofficially opened to tram traffic. It was closed to car traffic until it opened.

Austrofascist propaganda

A labor-intensive and cost-intensive project like the building of the Reichsbrücke was entirely in the spirit of the Austro-Fascist regime: unemployment was 38.5 percent at the end of 1933. The construction of the second Reichsbrücke can therefore also be seen as a job creation project, similar to the construction of the Grossglockner High Alpine Road or the Vienna Höhenstraße .

The Reichsbrücke was officially opened on October 10, 1937. The corporate state government held a state ceremony with Federal President Wilhelm Miklas , Federal Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg , Cardinal Theodor Innitzer , Vienna's Vice Mayor Fritz Lahr and Trade Minister Wilhelm Taucher , who described the new Reichsbrücke as a “symbol of the creative life force of the new Austria”. In addition to architects, construction managers and designers, a delegation from the “New Life” plant of the Fatherland Front , all construction company workers involved in the construction and 10,000 school children were present. Soldiers of the armed forces lined the bank.

The Viennese urban researcher Peter Payer writes about the pompous production:

“The meticulously staged celebration clearly propagated the new social model of the Austrofascist government: the end of the class struggle and the overcoming of social barriers through meaningful work and cooperation between all professional groups. [...] The completion of the bridge was presented as an unprecedented cultural achievement, as a joint work of all those involved. "

- Peter Payer

The event was broadcast live on the radio and the newspapers reported widely about it. For the occasion, postcards and envelopes were issued, a special cancellation was used and even a separate "Reichsbrückenlied" was composed, which said:

“A thousand hammers, wheels, files,
a thousand hands had to hurry to create
the great work!
Salvation of the work that connects,
salvation to work, salvation to our country! "

- Reichsbrückenlied

The Reichsbrücke in World War II

During the Second World War , the German Wehrmacht placed two reinforced concrete support pillars under the Reichsbrücke in the Danube so that the structure would not fall completely into the water if it were hit, but could be repaired again. In addition, platforms for anti-aircraft guns were built on each of the two pylons .

Memorial plaques for the airborne guards and ...
... the guards landing party and the Red Army sailors

In early April 1945, in the last days of the war, Soviet armies were moving towards the city center from the south and west. The fleeing units of the SS gradually blew up almost all of Vienna's Danube bridges as they retreated north.

For the Nordwestbahnbrücke , the Floridsdorfer Brücke and the Nordbahnbrücke , the “defenders” of Vienna had obtained permission to blow up from the Fuehrer's headquarters on April 8, 1945; the Stadlauer Ostbahnbrücke was also blown up without explicit permission. At the Reichsbrücke, Hitler had ruled out the demolition several times up to April 11, 1945 and only allowed it on April 13th afternoon, at a time when the southern bridgehead had already been taken by the Red Army, the northern bridgehead without cover in their fire area and the German troops who had withdrawn to the left bank of the Danube withdrew to the northwest so as not to be surrounded by the Red Army. So there was no longer any chance of being blown up. The Red Army also occupied the northern bridgehead on the evening of April 13th.

On April 11th, at the height of the Battle of Vienna , the Russian troops with armored boats on the Danube had already advanced as far as the Reichsbrücke (officially called "Object 56" by the Russians) and fogged the area. They went ashore on the right bank of the Danube, about 500 meters northwest of the bridge, and slowly advanced towards the structure.

Even decades later, it was unclear why the Reichsbrücke was not blown up. The Red Army, the Austrian resistance movement O5 and members of the Wehrmacht later claimed that it was they who prevented the demolition. One version said that during the battle of April 11th, some Red Army soldiers were said to have reached the bridgehead, where they destroyed the explosive lines. Another version was that Red Army soldiers, led by a local Viennese canal worker, sneaked through the Viennese canal system to the bridge to prevent the blast. The evaluation of historical sources with the résumé created clarity in 2012: Ultimately, it was Hitler himself who had prevented the bridge from being blown up to the last moment.

The Reichsbrücke was now the only intact Danube crossing between Linz and the state border. This gave it a symbolic status, it stood as a symbol of Austria's resilience.

The city administration renamed the Reichsbrücke to the anniversary of the liberation of Vienna on April 11, 1946 in honor of the liberators in "Bridge of the Red Army". In addition, on this occasion, the city administration erected an obelisk (reddish-colored lightweight concrete on a wooden structure) to the left of the bridge driveway in the 2nd district with the Soviet star on top, which could be read in German and Russian:


- Obelisk, then plaque on the bridge

The obelisk was removed after 1955. The inscription was now placed on a bronze plaque mounted directly on the bridge. The bridge was renamed Reichsbrücke again on July 18, 1956.

The Reichsbrücke in the post-war period

Reichsbrücke, flood in 1975

Until the Floridsdorfer Bridge was rebuilt in 1946, the Reichsbrücke remained the only way to reach Vienna by road from the northeast. Although it was not blown up, it sustained numerous damage, primarily from shell hits. In 1946 the first repair of the war damage of the bridge took place, from May 1947 work was carried out on a larger scale. Five hanging poles were repaired and the vaults of the inundation bridge were repaired. The smoke protection blanket over the Danube embankment was replaced. A total of 26 slats had to be replaced on seven chain links. For this purpose, auxiliary piers were used on barges that stuck to the river bed. The work was finished in 1952. Wooden pavement was originally laid on the Reichsbrücke , which was replaced by granite pavement between 1958 and 1960 , which resulted in an additional load of 4688 kN for each pylon bearing. The enormous increase in individual traffic led more and more to the hindrance of tram traffic on the bridge; therefore, in the sixties, the tracks were declared to be parts of the lane not permitted for private traffic by blocking lines. Now traffic jams were the result.

Bridge inspection and planned repairs

In the autumn of 1975, as a result of a structural inspection, the preparation of a comprehensive bridge repair began. It was planned to renew the entire road structure with a low-noise asphalt surface, the renewal of both sidewalks and complete corrosion protection of the steel structures. An intensive review was carried out for the project by the MA29 with the help of a civil engineer who is renowned in steel construction. The tender for the entire work (general contractor tender) was in progress. On July 30, 1976 - two days before the bridge collapsed - the inspectors were still in the bridge girders to clarify the last technical details for the repair. The unexpected collapse ended the project.

The collapse of the Reichsbrücke in 1976

Collapsed Reichsbrücke seen from the Danube Tower
The southern right bank after the collapse, photo taken in August 1976
Debris from the bridge on the north, left bank, photo taken in August 1976

On Sunday, August 1, 1976, between 4:53 a.m. and 4:55 a.m., the Reichsbrücke fell almost the full length of the river bridge into the water. The first radio announcement was made at 5:00 a.m. An eyewitness described the collapse as follows: "The whole bridge suddenly rose half a meter and then sagged with a loud crash along its entire length."

On the quay bridge and on the inundation bridge, the girder and the roadway broke in several places, but both bridges held up. The river bridge itself broke into three parts, with the middle part falling as a whole into the water and the two outer parts hanging diagonally into the water. The south-facing pylon fell downstream and severely damaged the stern of a passenger ship, while the north-facing pylon fell in the other direction onto the floodplain.

At the time of the collapse, there were five people in four vehicles on the bridge: a bus driver in an articulated urban bus , two ÖAMTC employees in a breakdown vehicle, the driver of a VW Beetle who had requested breakdown assistance due to a defective tire after an accident , as well as the driver of a minibus who was employed as a chauffeur at ORF . The bus driver crashed into the Danube with his vehicle, but was rescued within a few hours unharmed because the bus did not sink, but remained on the rubble in the water. The ÖAMTC employees and the VW driver were on that part of the quay bridge that broke and sank, but was not completely destroyed, so that they could save themselves on foot. The ORF chauffeur was trapped in his van and only found dead the day after the collapse. He was thus the only fatality.

A quarter of all fire brigade vehicles available in Vienna were at the collapse site within an hour, and a level IV alarm was given. The police , ambulance and the armed forces were also represented with large numbers. The water pipes on the bridge, which supplied the north of Vienna with drinking water, flooded the Handelskai. In addition, there were fears of explosions because the gas pipes over the bridge had broken. There was a strict ban on smoking for days at the scene of the accident. Initially, numerous people north of the Danube were without gas, electricity, water and telephone. However, the supply was restored on August 2nd.

The first journalist on the spot was Kurt Votava , employee of ORF's Vienna studio . His very good contacts with the police and the rescue service meant that he immediately learned of the operation from the emergency services and was therefore able to go to the collapse site very quickly.

Causes of collapse

Broken bridge pier, one of the causes

Shortly after the collapse, the Vienna city government declared that outside interference was extremely unlikely. At the same time, the city government announced that the bridge had been checked a total of seven times in the year of the disaster, whereby no significant defects could have been found.

On August 9, an expert commission of professors from the Technical Universities of Vienna and Graz , which was convened immediately, presented its first interim report, in which the cause of the collapse was roughly narrowed down: According to the investigation committee, a blast, earthquake, general instability, tearing of the chains or hangers, a pulling out of the anchorages from the abutments and the corrosion of a load-bearing component are clearly the causes. According to the investigation report, the northeastern pylon collapsed first when the pillar sheared off just below the bridge support. The second pylon was then swept away.

Half a year later, the commission presented its 400-page final report, which did not deviate from the preliminary report, but only made it more precise. The central message of the report was that the collapse could not have been foreseen because a large number of factors had acted together and the technical means in 1976 were not sufficient to take all these factors into account. The main factors can be summarized as follows:

The support grid, which transferred the entire weight of the bridge bearings to the pillars, lay on a concrete base without reinforcement . When the bridge was built, this girder grate was actually encased in poor quality concrete containing lumps of sand. However, this concrete was not load-bearing - it only had the task of protecting the support grid from corrosion and also supporting the sheet metal girders. However, due to the inferiority of this filler concrete, water could penetrate into the pillar base, which led to "progressive disruption" ( creeping and shrinking ) in the concrete base. The commission considered it likely that this had caused cracks in the pillar concrete at an early stage - because the piers were surrounded by massive granite blocks, earlier inspections could not determine this.

In addition, the commission recognized several factors that adversely affected and contributed to the collapse. The most important of them:

  • The bridge piers were unusually slim, which meant that the contact points between the piers and the girder were extremely small.
  • The fixed bearings (those bearings that absorb all horizontal forces such as wind load or braking forces of the vehicles) had been attached to the downstream side of the pillar - which turned out to be unfavorable because the main wind direction is from northwest to southeast.
  • Originally, the Reichsbrücke was constructed as a pure suspension bridge. Because the soft Danube floor did not allow the chains to be anchored, the planners changed the design to a bridge anchored in itself, which adversely affected the structure of the structure.

Political Consequences

The Social Democrats ruling the city of Vienna were immediately caught in the crossfire of the opposition. The day after the collapse, the ÖVP announced that it would convene a special meeting of the Vienna City Council and demand the removal of the SPÖ City Councilor for Planning, Fritz Hofmann . Politicians from the ÖVP and FPÖ demanded the resignation of Mayor Leopold Gratz , who defended himself against these attacks, but did not protect City Councilor Hofmann. On August 5, Gratz finally announced his resignation in an internal meeting of the SPÖ. However, after talks with Federal Chancellor Bruno Kreisky and Transport Minister Erwin Lanc , he withdrew it.

Looking back, the discussion about City Councilor Hofmann seems a bit strange. He went on vacation on July 31, and it was considered likely that he knew nothing about the collapse of the Reichsbrücke. His exact whereabouts were unknown. Hofmann was wanted by the press and radio for several days. Only on August 5th there was a sign of life from him: He had spent the past few days in a mountain hut on the Matterhorn and had not used any media. In Zermatt , his license plate was recognized by a Swiss woman who had read the search requests in a Swiss newspaper. Hofmann was picked up by plane in Zurich , he arrived in Vienna on August 6th and immediately announced his resignation, which was accepted by Mayor Gratz. Due to the final report of the expert commission, Fritz Hofmann was considered rehabilitated, which in 1981 led to his renewed appointment as the executive city councilor.

Consequences for traffic

The Danube was impassable for shipping, photo taken in August 1976

In 1976, the Reichsbrücke was not only one of the busiest stretches of road in Vienna, it also crossed one of the most important shipping routes in Central Europe. Their collapse therefore had an impact on both road and ship traffic.

On the day of the collapse, the first measures for road traffic were presented at a press conference. All roads leading to the Reichsbrücke were cordoned off, tram lines 25 and 26 diverted to Kaisermühlen via Schüttaustraße and lines B and B K were shortened to Mexikoplatz. The Vienna City Government's crisis team immediately ordered the construction of two replacement bridges: one for the tram and one for car traffic. Contrary to the fears, there was no traffic chaos in Vienna.

While the DDSG's passenger ship traffic could be resumed without any problems on the day after the collapse because the landing stages were relocated accordingly (the DDSG only offered trips from Vienna or to Vienna), the ore, coal, petrol and heating oil were transported on the Danube came to a complete standstill in the first few weeks.

On August 1, the Austrian authorities ordered all foreign ships to anchor downstream at Passau and upstream at Budapest . Although the armed forces were commissioned to immediately blast a shipping channel into the rubble on the north bank, it was clear that it would take weeks before the Danube would be properly navigable again.

On August 9, the city government decided that small ships loaded with harmless goods were allowed to circumnavigate the collapse site through the Danube Canal . However, tankers were not permitted in the narrow body of water that flows past the city center. On September 20, the hundredth ship sailed the Danube Canal. On September 26th a ship crossed the Danube for the first time at the level of the Reichsbrücke, on September 30th the route Regensburg - Black Sea was officially reopened.

The collapse in art and media

The Austrian media reported horrified about the collapse and unanimously demanded political consequences, above all the resignation of the planning councilor Hofmann. Mayor Gratz and the entire city government were also sharply criticized. With the slogan “One must go!”, The Viennese courier asked at least one member of the city government to resign.

The catastrophe dominated European media coverage on August 2nd - in addition to Niki Lauda's accident at the Nürburgring . The Neue Zürcher Zeitung, for example, was amazed at the number of onlookers: under the title "Sunday fun for onlookers", it reported on the "Migration of the Viennese" to the site of the catastrophe: On August 1st, thousands made a pilgrimage to the site of the collapse to avoid those in the water The lying bridge and, as a special attraction, the articulated bus still standing on it - popularly known as the “Danube bus” after a few days. The "Brückenschauen" later became the subject of the folk song "Reichsbrückenmarsch" by the two Viennese song singers Kratochwil and Napravnik on a single that appeared fairly quickly after the bridge collapsed. (On the back of the single is "Donauwies'n"). The song says:

“Brückenschauen” - onlookers line the bank, photo taken in August 1976

“Today gemma Bruck'n look, see
how people jam. Tourist
guides stengan,
you can hear many a strange word.
Grand Rumores, die Bruck'n ist kapores,
Ladies and Gentlemen
please coming to me
um five Schilling can you looking,
through my looking-glass this Bruck'n
tomorrow is maybe
the Floridsdorfer Bridge'n hi. "

- Kratochwil + Napravnik, "Reichsbrückenmarsch", ariola 17 235

Days after the collapse, there was brisk business around the bridge, which was reminiscent of a devotional trade . For example, screws and rivets were collected and sold on the spot for 20 schillings each. A tobacconist from Kaisermühlen bought all the Reichsbrücke postcards she could get and sold them as the last souvenirs of the collapsed structure.

The collapse was later processed in several literary texts. For example, Gert Jonke and Peter Orthofer wrote literary essays on the catastrophe, Ludwig Roman Fleischer dedicated a novel to the bridge: The Reichsbrücken Rhapsody was published in 1994. The poet Christine Busta dedicated a poem to the bridge called “Obituary of a Bridge”, in which, among other things called:

"Defenseless she waited,
hesitated in vain, a cautious
hour is
the deadly confinement"

- Christine Busta , "Obituary of a Bridge"

Salvage and recycling of the bridge

Salvage and fragmentation of the steel parts, November 1976
The famous “Danube Bus”, photo taken in August 1976
The crashed articulated bus in the Remise transport museum

A total of 180 workers worked in several shifts to salvage the Reichsbrücke. The work lasted until January 1977.

The parts of the bridge on both banks were recognized as a priority, one of which blocked the Danube bank railway and thus impaired train traffic. First rescue attempts by the Austrian Armed Forces on August 6, 1976 failed: The armored recovery vehicles slipped on the banks. Several attempts by the fire brigade to fortify the ground also failed. Plans to break up the heavy parts of the bridge on the central bank with several large explosions were discarded after the test explosions: The pressure wave could have damaged the adjacent high-rise buildings. On August 11th, a total of 40 small blastings with a total of 15 kilograms of gelatine donarite were carried out in 120 boreholes. The blasts were carried out every thousandth of a second. After that, the shredded parts could be recovered one by one.

The recovery of the middle section, which had fallen into the water as a whole, turned out to be much more complex. In October 1976 the Viennese city government decided to pull the 240-meter-long remnant of the bridge out of the water in one piece: For this purpose, foundations for 14 hydraulic presses were built on the central bank, in the Mexikoplatz area. The machines were connected to the bridge by means of steel cable bundles. The recovery began at the end of November 1976: the bridge was pulled 30 meters ashore in an hour-long procedure and then cut off by flame cutting . The ropes were then reattached to the bridge and the process was repeated a total of seven times. The recovery was completed on January 25, 1977.

Part of the bridge overlay can still be viewed in the bridge information center of Municipal Department 29 (bridge construction). Some rivets and screws are exhibited in the Donaustadt district museum. The legendary "Danube bus" could be repaired after the salvage and was used for another 13 years in the regular service. It is shown as an operational museum vehicle in the Remise transport museum .

In the months after the collapse, the steel parts of the Reichsbrücke were transported to Linz, where they were melted down and reused by Voestalpine . The concrete and granite parts were partially used on the spot for the new road construction. Much of the broken bridge, however, was transported to the Rautenweg landfill in northeast Vienna. Only a few years ago, the workers at the landfill came across around 30,000 tons of stone and granite remains of the old Reichsbrücke, the exact location of which had not been recorded. They were uncovered (coordinates: 48 ° 15 ′ 35.5 ″  N , 16 ° 28 ′ 46.5 ″  E ) and are to be recycled for road construction. 31 years after the collapse of the bridge, the municipal department 48 responsible for waste disposal (municipal cleaning and vehicle fleet) made 500 Reichsbrücken memorial stones for selected recipients from part of the granite quarry. For this purpose, small granite cubes from the old Reichsbrücke were attached to wooden boards and given to people who have made a special contribution to waste disposal and environmental protection in Vienna.

Replacement bridges

Replacement tram bridge over the Danube during the endurance test

On August 1st, the Vienna city government decided to build two replacement bridges over the Danube, a tram bridge and one for private transport. The plans were ready on August 4th, and the armed forces began building the temporary bridges on August 17th together with road construction companies. After five weeks a single-track tram bridge was ready, the second track was laid a few weeks later. The construction of the bridge for private traffic lasted until December. The traffic routes of both replacement bridges were "looped" into the undamaged inundation bridge on the left, northern bank of the river.

In 1977 the Danube replacement bridges received the steel construction award of the European convention of steel construction associations. The jury justified its decision by saying that the bridges would demonstrate "how a disaster situation can be quickly and safely remedied with steel as a constructive material".

After the dismantling, the replacement bridges were used several times in other projects. a. for the new construction of the Floridsdorfer bridge and for the new construction of the bridge for the Krems expressway S33 over the new Westbahn east of St. Pölten .

The third Reichsbrücke

Third Reichsbrücke, seen from the north, left bank of the Danube
Central part of the Reichsbrücke, over the Danube (looking north)
Part of the Reichsbrücke further away from the center, over the New Danube (looking northeast)

The third Reichsbrücke was opened on November 8, 1980. It is a two-story prestressed concrete bridge consisting of three sections: the river bridge over the Donauländebahn, the Danube and the Danube Island , the bridge over the New Danube and the bridge over the Danube bank motorway parallel to Hubertusdamm. There are six lanes for road traffic on the upper deck. The Vienna underground line U1 runs on the lower deck of the bridge with the Donauinsel underground station . Covered bicycle and footpaths are laid out on both sides of the lower deck. As with the previous bridge, pipelines for gas, water and district heating and cable routes for high-voltage current and telephone also run over the third Reichsbrücke. The bridge has already been completely renovated several times.

The total length of the bridge is 865 meters, of which 528 meters are accounted for by the supporting structure over the Danube and the Danube Island, 213 meters by the supporting structure over the New Danube and 124 meters by the supporting structure over the Danube embankment motorway.


Three days after the Reichsbrücke collapsed, the then Vienna City Planning Director Anton Seda set up a Reichsbrücke planning group , which consisted of 23 people and was headed by Gerhard Gilnreiner . The city government commissioned this working group to carry out the preparatory work for the planning of the new bridge.

Before the disaster, the plan was to build a separate Danube crossing for the U1 subway line right next to the Reichsbrücke, which was to be extended to Kagran. The necessary new building made this plan obsolete. It was now clear that the new bridge should guarantee the Danube crossing for the U1. This also made tram tracks on the bridge obsolete. In addition, the height of the new structure was specified high enough in the tender to enable a Danube power plant in the Vienna area. For example, when the Freudenau power plant was built in 1998 , the Reichsbrücke did not have to be raised to the corresponding congestion targets.

A few months later, in December 1976, the international competition for the construction of the new Reichsbrücke began. The bridge building expert Fritz Leonhardt took over the chairmanship of the jury . By the end of the submission period, May 2, 1977, 19 planning teams had submitted 31 projects for the competition. On June 13th, the jury announced that five designs would be shortlisted. The planners of the five drafts were invited to a joint discussion to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of all five submissions. The jury finally announced its decision on June 17th. With eight to five votes in direct vote, the project called " Johann Nestroy " had the support of the jury. With a planned construction cost of 564 million Schillings, this project was the cheapest of the five projects in the final selection. The planning group consisted of the architects Norbert Kotz from Vienna and Heikki Siren from Helsinki, the civil engineer Alfred Popper and the construction companies Hofmann & Maculan , Züblin , Negrelli , Hamberger Baugesellschaft and Stuag .


The project envisaged a bridge that - although, strictly speaking, would cross two different rivers as a result of the embankment of the Danube Island - presented itself as a uniform structure. This should emphasize their unifying character. The planners deliberately left out high structures on the bridge: it should be subordinate to the urban environment.

The draft of the planning group was only changed in details. The main construction was retained: The Reichsbrücke is a two-story girder bridge made of prestressed concrete . The largest span over the Danube is 169 meters, over the New Danube it is 76 meters. The maximum width of the lane is 26.10 meters. In cross-section, the structure consists of a superstructure with two hollow boxes over its entire length. Each of them has space for a subway track. The lateral, covered pedestrian areas on the lower deck are arranged on the cantilevered floor slab of the hollow box. In the main span over the Danube, the bridge superstructure is haunched , the maximum construction height is 8.8 meters above the river pillar, the minimum construction height is 5.5 meters.

The modern, spherical street lights on the sides should also provide a boulevard-like character. They were later awarded the Austrian State Prize for Design.


September 1979, construction work on the left bank of the Danube
December 1979, the two replacement bridges can be seen upstream behind the bridge under construction

Construction began in January 1978. The groundbreaking ceremony was originally planned for November 1977, but there were disagreements between representatives of the City of Vienna and the Federal Government about the allocation of the construction costs. It was finally agreed to split the costs 50 percent between the federal government and Vienna. Five companies were involved in the construction: Hofman & Maculan, Züblin, Negrelli, E. Hamberger and Stuag.

The new Reichsbrücke was built on the axis of the collapsed bridge. For the substructure of the new bridge, both the abutment and the old pillar on the right bank were reused after thorough renovation. The construction of the bridge was carried out in a free porch . This means that the bridge was built piece by piece from three banks (north bank, south bank and the Danube Island, which had already been built up at this point) towards the middle of the river and the ends of the bridge floated freely in the air, so to speak.

The only river pillar was built using pile foundations . For this purpose, a service bridge was built in the Danube from the southern bank of the Danube , which was 140 meters long and reached to the middle of the river. A steel platform measuring 23 by 23 meters at the stream-side end of the bridge enabled the construction vehicles to turn around. Protected by a dam and several steel sheet pile walls , 37 bored piles, each 1.50 meters in diameter, were sunk to a depth of 28 meters. Then the pillar was inserted and covered with granite stones. The two pillars of the bridge over the New Danube could be built on dry land because the relief canal that the bridge crosses today was not completed until 1988. Two people were killed in work-related accidents during construction.

In October 1979 construction workers came across a pillar of the old Kronprinz-Rudolf-Brücke, the first Reichsbrücke. It had "outgrown" the river bed through natural changes and caused a shoal in the river bed. The Federal Electricity Building Authority decided to remove the shoal by means of dredging work. Otherwise, the construction went according to plan: The so-called bridge building (the connection of the three structural parts erected in the free porch) could be carried out as planned on May 6, 1980. Shortly after 7:00 a.m., Mayor Leopold Gratz and Building Minister Karl Sekanina symbolically set the keystone of the bridge. The work continued until November 1980.


Opening of the Reichsbrücke on November 8, 1980

Three days before the official opening of the bridge, City Councilor Heinz Nittel spoke at an unofficial presentation that the bridge had cost a total of 914 million schillings and that 50,000 cubic meters of concrete , 3,100 tons of reinforcing steel and 2,400 tons of prestressing steel were used. He also announced that the City of Vienna and the Ministry of Construction had agreed on a direct departure from the bridge to the Danube Island. The use of this descent is still reserved for emergency vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians.

The official opening of the bridge took place on November 8, 1980 in front of an audience of around 10,000 people. Federal President Rudolf Kirchschläger , Mayor Gratz, Building Minister Karl Sekanina and Archbishop-Coadjutor Franz Jachym were present at the opening and gave speeches. All speakers spoke of the collapse. Kirchschläger made moral considerations: “Were other pillars in our lives so hollow that they could break in the morning light?” Before the archbishop consecrated the bridge, he said in his celebratory address: “I was also present at the opening of the old Reichsbrücke and heard similar praise for the services. The words faded away too quickly, and the blessing of the Church could not prevent the events of the years after. "

The opening was accompanied by special editions of daily newspapers that were distributed directly on the bridge. The Arbeiter-Zeitung donated thousands of roses, a cake model of the bridge was made and allegedly cut into 400 portions and distributed. According to eyewitness reports, there should have been scuffles over a piece of the opening tape, which had to be settled by the police. After the official celebrations ended, thousands of pedestrians crossed the new bridge. After that, at around noon, it was opened to traffic.

Subway opening

The subway station "Donauinsel" under the Reichsbrücke

While car traffic had been routed over the new Reichsbrücke since 1980, public transport still had to be routed over the replacement bridge. The opening of the U1 towards Kagran was planned for autumn 1982.

In March 1982 several daily newspapers reported that there were problems with the first test drives of the subway over the Reichsbrücke. Vibrations caused by the trains are dangerous for the bridge. Therefore, only a very limited underground service can be allowed. On March 8th, City Councilor Hofmann called a press conference at which he refuted this rumor as untrue. It turned out that an anonymous caller had evidently deliberately encouraged the daily newspapers to take these newspaper picks.

The first subway to be filled with passengers passed the Reichsbrücke on September 3, 1982 at 5:30 p.m. On the same day, a tram crossed the Danube for the last time at this point - the operation of tram lines 25 and 26 across the Danube was discontinued on September 4th (the lines themselves remained in the 22nd district). The two replacement bridges were finally demolished in March 1983.

On the roadway of the Reichsbrücke, direction Kagran.
Separate footpath and bike path on the Reichsbrücke after the widening. (West side with a view of Donau City and the Vienna International Center .)

Repair and reconstruction

Between 2003 and 2005 the Reichsbrücke was repaired and rebuilt at project costs of € 30 million. The entire road surface including the waterproofing was renewed. The two lanes in the direction of the road were newly secured with system H2 steel baffles (tested for bus impact at 70 km / h). The existing bus stop on the bridge towards the city center at the level of the left Donaudamm was rebuilt, 2 additional stops were built in the area of ​​the two ramps to the Danube Island. A new efficient and energy-saving lighting was created.

The 3.65-meter-wide supporting structures for pedestrians and cyclists, which were attached on both sides of the underground line, were demolished and replaced by steel structures, each 5.27 meters wide. By widening the separately guided footpaths and cycle paths, the original one-way cycle paths (east out of town to the north; west inwards to the south) have been opened for bicycle traffic in both directions. Handicapped accessible access was created by ramps on both sides. The pedestrian path system now covers an area of ​​10,000 square meters.

The supporting structure underside as well as the bridge edge constructions (access routes of the lanes as well as footpaths / bike paths including ramps and stairs) were clad in the most modern lightweight construction with sandwich panels made of aluminum and plastic - the original appearance of the bridge was coordinated with architect Norbert Kotz (architect for the new building) while at the same time maintaining significant weight savings. All new ramps and stairs were also subordinated to this look.

A novelty is the comprehensive coordination with the blind associations - in the entire walking and cycling area, tactile marking of the respective destinations was carried out on the bars of the railing at all stairways and ramps as well as at the station entrances to the U1. Unfortunately these were damaged several times by vandals. Furthermore, the MA29 commissioned and paid for 2,000 tactile plans for the network of paths from Mexikoplatz to Schüttaustraße through the Vienna Institute for the Blind.

In coordination with the organizers, thanks to efficient project and construction process planning, the Vienna City Marathon could be held every year despite the ongoing construction site - of course with a reduced usable width

Bridge operation

Vienna City Marathon 2015 on the Reichsbrücke

In June 2004 the Reichsbrücke was rammed by a German passenger ship. There was one seriously injured and several slightly injured. The bridge was not seriously damaged in the process.

Today, the Reichsbrücke is daily an annual average of approx. 39,000 vehicles and used by over 43,000 vehicles on working days. It thus represents one of the most important connections between Vienna's inner city and the districts on the left bank of the Danube and the surrounding area in northeastern Vienna. The Reichsbrücke also has access to the Donauinsel recreational area and at the end of the bridge further away from the Minopolis children's amusement park , which was closed in November 2013 . At peak times (June, July and August) more than 4,000 cyclists ride over the Reichsbrücke on some days.

The Vienna City Marathon has been held every spring since 1984, and its route crosses the Reichsbrücke. In 2004, Vienna Municipal Department 29, together with Arsenal Research, installed a measuring system to determine the effect of the vibrations of 25,000 travelers on the bridge. This measurement was carried out, among other things, because on the days of the marathon, runners and passers-by perceived very strong vibrations in the bridge. According to the results of the study, there is no danger at the Reichsbrücke. The influence of the underground line U1 is five to six times higher in the vertical direction, and even 16 times higher in the cross direction than the influence of the thousands of marathon runners. The researchers explained the discrepancy between the perceived and actual movement of the bridge with the fact that the vibrations caused by the runners are effective in the lower frequency range and are therefore more clearly perceptible than those of the subway.


  • Walter Jaksch (ed.): Fate of a bridge, the Reichsbrücke. From planning to collapse. Böhlau, Graz 1976, ISBN 3-205-07121-2 .
  • Alfred Karrer: The collapse of the Reichsbrücken in 1976. A stream of traffic squeezes through the Danube Canal. Martin Fuchs, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-9501581-3-8 .
  • Alfred Pauser : Bridges in Vienna. A guide through building history. Springer, Vienna a. a. 2005, ISBN 3-211-25255-X .
  • Peter Payer : The Reichsbrücke: On the history of a myth (PDF; 457 kB). In: Walter Hufnagel (Ed.): Crossings. Bridges - City - Vienna. Sappl, Kufstein 2002, ISBN 3-902154-05-5 , pp. 111-122.
  • Günter Ramberger, Francesco Aigner: Danube bridges in Vienna: history, construction, special features. In: Robert Ofner u. a. (Ed.): Festschrift for Univ. Prof. Richard Greiner. Self-published by Graz University of Technology, Graz 2001, OCLC 642935939 , pp. 161–199. ( Online version ( Memento from September 22, 2007 in the Internet Archive ))
  • Friedrich Schneider: The Reichsbrücke. The fateful story of a 110 year old Danube crossing. 1876-1986. Austrian Danube Bridge Association, Vienna 1987, DNB 210749938 , OCLC 159892190 .

Individual evidence

  1. Payer 2002, p. 111
  2. Schneider 1987, p. 9
  3. Jaksch 1976, p. 2
  4. Payer 2002, p. 111 f.
  5. Schneider, p. 27
  6. Schneider p. 13
  7. Schneider 1987, p. 37f.
  8. Ramberger / Aigner 2001, p. 166f.
  9. The Danube Bridge at Stadelau ; P. 174 (quote): “The Danube bridge near Stadelau in the line of the Austrian State Railways has recently been in the workshops of Schneider & Comp. Superstructure made at Creuzot has been provided. The bridge over the actual river is 400 m (5 openings of 80 m span each), the flood bridge 360 ​​m, the entire structure is 760 m long; the weight of the iron structure is given as 60,000 ct. The individual girders are mounted on land and pushed out onto their pillars from there. ” (PDF; 1.6 MB)
  10. Schneider 1987, p. 9
  11. Ramberger / Aigner 2001, p. 167
  12. Schneider 1987, p. 22
  13. Payer 2002, p. 112
  14. Schneider 1987, p. 25
  15. Schneider 1987, p. 22
  16. ^ Krobot, Slezak , Sternhart: Tram in Vienna - the day before yesterday and the day after tomorrow. Slezak, Vienna 1972, p. 43
  17. Schneider 1987, p. 27
  18. No new building, but remodeling of the Reichsbrücke. Construction work began in 1933. In:  Neue Freie Presse , Abendblatt, No. 24171/1931, December 30, 1931, p. 3. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / nfp.
  19. Jaksch 1976, p. 4
  20. Ramberger / Aigner 2001, p. 169f.
  21. Jaksch 1976, p. 15
  22. Jaksch 1976, p. 42
  23. Payer 2002, p. 116
  24. Schneider 1987, p. 39
  25. Payer 2002, p. 114
  26. Bernd Nebel, The Collapse of the Reichsbrücke
  27. Schneider 1987, p. 44f and Jaksch 1976, p. 23
  28. Schneider 1987, pp. 45f.
  29. Jaksch 1976, p. 23
  30. Schneider 1987, p. 57f.
  31. Jaksch 1976, p. 25
  32. Payer 2002, p. 113
  33. a b Payer 2002, p. 115
  34. Schneider 1987, p. 59f.
  35. quoted from Schneider 1987, p. 67
  36. a b Payer 2002, p. 117
  37. Jaksch 1976, p. 39
  38. Renato Schirer: The Reichsbrücke in World War II . In: Pro civitate Austriae. Information on urban history research in Austria . New episode, issue 17, Vienna 2012, p. 83 ff., Quote p. 102
  39. quoted from Jaksch 1976, p. 32
  40. Renato Schirer: The Reichsbrücke in World War II . In: Pro civitate Austriae. Information on urban history research in Austria . New series, issue 17, Vienna 2012, p. 106
  41. ^ Ludwig Faber: The repair work on the bridge of the Red Army (Reichsbrücke) over the Danube in Vienna. In: Journal of the Austrian Association of Engineers and Architects. Born 1953, ISSN  0372-9605 , pp. 1-9.
  42. Report of the commission of experts assessing the cause of the collapse of the Vienna Reichsbrücke. In: the structure. Born 1977, ISSN  0004-7805 , pp. 303-313.
  43. quoted from Schneider 1987, p. 87
  44. Payer 2002, p. 118
  45. Schneider 1987, p. 87
  46. Schneider 1987, p. 123
  47. cf. on this (Reichsbrücke) (status: November 19, 2007), Schneider 1987, p. 123, Jaksch 1976, p. 84f. and Payer 2002, p. 120
  48. Arbeiter-Zeitung of March 16, 1977 online version (as of December 24, 2007) and Karrer 2002, p. 26
  49. Schneider 1987, p. 127
  50. Schneider 1987, p. 90
  51. Schneider 1987, p. 111f.
  52. Karrer 2002, p. 63ff.
  53. Schneider 1987, p. 112f.
  54. a b c cit. according to Schneider, 1987, p. 93
  55. Payer 2002, p. 119
  56. quoted from Schneider 1987, p. 141
  57. a b Die Zeit , issue 35 of August 23, 2007: online version (as of December 24, 2007)
  58. ^ Gert Jonke : Reichsbrücke . In: Jonke, Gert: Himmelstraße - Erdbrustplatz or the system of Vienna. Residenz-Verlag, Salzburg / Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-7017-1172-0 , pp. 80–83 (first published in 1980).
  59. ^ Orthofer, Peter: Apropos bridges. In: wien aktuell. Issue 10/1980, ISSN  0043-5279 , p. 32.
  60. quoted from Jaksch 1976, p. 90
  61. Schneider 1987, p. 116
  62. Payer 2002, p. 122
  63. Verkehrsmuseum from September, from July 12, 2014
  64. Schneider 1987, p. 111
  65. See - Reichsbrücke (as of November 19, 2007)
  66. Schneider 1987, p. 145
  67. Payer 2002, p. 120
  68. Schneider 1987, p. 149
  69. m53ber: Historical review of the town hall correspondence from June 1977. Retrieved on October 28, 2019 .
  70. ^ Wilhelm Schmaus, Sigfried Rölling: Interdisciplinary Plane - Project Competition Reichsbrücke Vienna. In: Concrete and reinforced concrete construction. Vol. 1979, ISSN  0005-9900 , pp. 101-109.
  71. Schneider 1987, p. 153
  72. Payer 2002, p. 121
  73. Schneider 1987, p. 171
  74. Ramberger / Aigner 2001, p. 178
  75. Schneider 1987, p. 175ff.
  76. (Reichsbrücke Neubau)  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (As of December 24, 2007)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  77. ^ Wiener Zeitung, November 10, 1980
  78. cit. after Schneider 1987, p. 182
  79. cit. after Schneider 1987, p. 185
  80. A bridge with symbolic value . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna November 10, 1980, p. 5 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  81. Schneider 1987, p. 185
  82. Schneider 1976, p. 190
  83. ^ The Vienna Reichsbrücke - Repair 2005. In:, Bridge Construction Department. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  84. Road traffic census Vienna 2015 (PDF, 5.9 MB)
  85. Data from the Lassallestrasse bicycle traffic counting point towards Reichsbrücke. Online graphics  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (As of November 21, 2007)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  86. APA-Journal Bauen & Wohnen v. May 17, 2004 and Bau.zeitung No. 25/04 v. June 18, 2004

Web links

Commons : Reichsbrücke  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on March 24, 2008 in this version .