Spanish Riding School
|Companies owned by the Republic of Austria
|Society under public law (Spanish Riding School - Federal Stud Piber )
|Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Regions and Tourism - Section II Agriculture and Rural Development
|1565 (spun off 2001)
|Sonja Klima and Erwin Klissenbauer
The Spanish Riding School is a riding institution located in the Michaelertrakt of the Hofburg in Vienna , which originally served the equestrian training of the imperial family. It is one of the most important places for the preservation of classical equestrian art , whereby only Lipizzaners are trained. The imperial-royal city riding school was probably since the beginning of the 19th century. usually called the Spanish Riding School .
As of 2010, the classical art of riding and the high school of the Spanish Riding School are part of the intangible cultural heritage of UNESCO , as declared by the Austrian Commission for UNESCO on the Austrian list of national cultural assets. In 2015 the Spanish Riding School was included in the international representative directory for the intangible world cultural heritage of UNESCO. In 2016, the knowledge of Lipizzaner breeding at the Piber Federal Stud , which supplies the riding school with the school stallions , was independently included in the Austrian UNESCO list.
The institution that houses it is older than the building . The “Spanish” in their name is derived from the horse breed native to the Iberian Peninsula, which proved to be particularly capable of classical equestrian art.
The high school experienced a rebirth at the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century. It spread relatively quickly over the whole of Europe and found its natural centers above all at the royal courts, where a venerable chevalesque tradition and a highly developed sense of the ceremonial and ceremonial favorably influenced school riding. This applies not only, but primarily, to the imperial court in Vienna, which was connected by threads of a very special kind with the Mediterranean region, which is so important for classical equestrianism. One Habsburg wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire, another resided in Spain and was at the same time lord of Naples, and between both and their countries the constant exchange of goods of ideal and material, economic, cultural and even equestrial nature flowed.
In the history of the Spanish Riding School, one thing is important. During the reigns of Joseph I and Charles VI, the "Reut-Schul" was a natural institution and therefore not particularly noteworthy. That she had been around for a long time and had wonderful stallions was nothing unusual. Neither head rider nor stable master in this century has published his teachings or otherwise gone public. At the Viennese court there was no Pluvinel or Löhneyßen , no Newcastle or Solleysel . Only the emperor and his head stable master represented the equestrian culture. The handwritten "directives" of a chief rider were only used for training by the scholars . No expert pushed himself between the emperor and the subject of his interest. In contrast to others, absolutism at the Viennese court prevented experts from coming to the fore. Riding facilities were a matter of course at all aristocratic courts, horse pools were artistically designed. The ruler's sphere of influence was the stables and riding arena and were treated as equal to the palace. The term “Castle of the Horses” was rightly used.
Ferdinand I (1503–1564), who grew up in Spain , stayed with his aunt and regent Margarete in Brussels and Mechelen from 1518 to 1521 and came to Vienna in 1521, introduced "Gineten" ( Andalusians ) in Prague and Vienna. He had stables built at the Prague and Vienna Castle . For this, Ferdinand I also had a planta de la traca de la cavalleriza, i.e. a plan for the construction of a stable (riding stable), sent from Spain .
Ferdinand used Spanish followers mainly in all areas that had to do with horses, hunting and animal breeding. Juan Maria (?), Of whom it is not possible to say with certainty whether he was Spanish, was commissioned by Ferdinand I in 1533 to found a “Dutch” stud in Himberg . Juan Maria ran the falconry , where Neapolitan horses were bred, until 1541. That year Pedro de Rada, who was with some certainty Spanish, became the new director and ran it until his death in 1549. This stud became in 1543, maybe only temporarily moved to Podebrady in Bohemia . Neapolitans were in Gahling ( Máriakálnok ) in the crown rule of Hungarian Altenburg Queen Mary (1538). The stud, which was moved to Halbturn in 1540, was taken over by the later Maximilian II in 1553, who in turn moved it to Mönchhof.
So Spaniards and Spanish horses were significantly involved in horse breeding in Vienna. The horses in the royal stable did not come exclusively from Spain. It was not always possible to meet the high demand in Spain. Transportation was expensive and risky, and costs and food had to be provided during the trip. It was certainly cheaper to bring horses to Austria overland and from nearby areas. From various invoice documents it can be learned that "to purchase a number of Neapolitan pherdt geldt" is to be prescribed. In addition to horses from Naples, Ferdinand I also had “Turkish phardt” bought for the court in Vienna.
The cavalry, too, remained in Spanish hands for a long time. Names from later years such as Luis Acarto, Antonio and Bartolomé Moreto and Juan de Salazar attest to this. Thus one can speak of a Habsburg Spanish court equestrian tradition since the time of Ferdinand I , and not just from the 17th century. Pedro de Rada was not only used as a rider, but also set up a fish pond in Himberg in 1549.
Archduke Maximilian , son of Emperor Ferdinand I and then from 1564 on himself lord and multiple of the empire for more than two decades, also tried to get regular deliveries of Spanish horses from Vienna, be it from southern Italy or from Spain itself. His favorite horses were initially in 1551 housed in Renngasse in Vienna. The renovation of the stable castle, which was built according to Spanish plans as a residence for Ferdinand I in 1560 but never used as such, took place between 1565 and 1569. Since then, the Habsburgs' body horses have been housed there.
First mentioned in 1565
In September 1565, a sum of money will be used "to set up the Thumblplatz in the garden in the castle alhie". This must be seen as the first mention of the later Spanish Riding School. The year 1572, which has always been cited so far as the first recorded mention of the Spanish Riding School, has to be corrected to 1672, and the source also mentions a "Spanish riding stable", not a "riding school". The institution is therefore older than previously assumed.
This Thumblplatz extended over the area of today's Josefsplatz and its immediate surroundings. On September 20 of this year, the Vizedom for Austria under the Enns was ordered to pay out a sum of 100 guilders “for the establishment of the Thumblplatz in the garden on the Purgkh alhie”. It was an open riding and tournament track , which in bad weather had to evoke the demand for a covered riding school. Another file, dated January 30, 1593, speaks about the deficiency of the “ Roß Dumbl Platz im Hoflustgarten” and demands: “So next to the Wahl (Wall) ain stuckmaur, 12 sleepers ( fathoms ) must be length and 5 sleepers high and high 2 1/2 schuech dic made, also all Seulln at 6 schuch high underpinned… “. The elongated and narrow Thumblplatz is probably located towards the city by the wall . Of course you couldn't make a lot of state with him, after all he was better than nothing. It guaranteed a more promising education in the sense of the high school, as this could be possible in the open air. The horses that romped there around 1593 included horses from Kladrub and Mönchhof (later Halbthurn) but not horses from Lipica. In 1580, a decisive event in the history of the imperial riding school came, when Archduke Charles of Inner Austria founded the Lipica court stud . But the horses from the Lipica Stud were still bred exclusively for the farm in Graz.
In 1641 and 1642, a structural combination of riding school and treasury was considered . The Hofbauschreiber fresh Hauser then calculated the building of a Treasury "with two gewelben on Reitschuell on Tumblblaz" on 22,820 Gulden and 22 Kreuzer . But the project fell through , and it was only when Emperor Leopold I ruled his hereditary lands and the empire that things came into flux with regard to a permanent home for the imperial riding school, closed on all sides. Under this richly gifted Habsburg ruler, not only was the foundation laid for the music and theater city of Vienna, the splendid carousels and those equestrial performances that were already en vogue at Italian courts under the name of horse ballets , but now in splendor in Leopoldine Vienna, began and lavish furnishings were far exceeded. Such a horse ballet was shown on the occasion of the marriage of the emperor to the Spanish Infanta Margareta Theresia on January 24, 1667 on the inner Burgplatz, and perhaps for the first time in Vienna human music guided the rhythm of the horses.
On August 20, 1672, the castle captain of Ebersdorf was instructed "to have several and twenty logs (logs of wood) collected from the Imperial Court Pau scribe. Various stands (pillars) in Spanish riding stables". For the first time the expression Spanish riding stables appears in this certificate.
More important than the openness to theatrical sensual pleasures, however, was that Emperor Leopold decided to build a new riding school “in Vienna on Tumelplatz”. So on July 31, 1681 - almost exactly one hundred years after the establishment of the court stud in Lipica - the imperial order to the court pay office "to prosequirung the building that was finally closed on Tumblplatz so the rollover made after itself to 44,304 fl. 30 kr . should run ”. Attached to the act is a letter from the court building clerk Johann Philipp Quenzer to the court chamber , from which it emerges that the old riding school on the Tummelplatz was "already completely closed". According to the cost estimate of July 27, 1681, which was also received, the new building should be 46 fathoms long and 6 fathoms wide and have "two floors". The ground floor was intended for the riding school, while the first floor was intended for the court library . Construction began that same year. He was making good progress, and on February 5, 1683, Quenzer, who possibly not only acted as court building clerk, but also was the artistic director, reported that “the entire roof structure over the fabricated thail of this fabric was now completely put on, and Mainstens had already been lathed “And the only thing missing is the hanging of the roof tiles. Soon afterwards the Turkish storm broke out and, like so many other things, severely affected the finished part of the riding school building facing the Augustinian monastery . A completion was out of the question at the moment. After all, the project was not shelved. On February 23, the court pay office was instructed to reimburse Count Ferdinand Bonaventura I of Harrach for the 1326 guilders and 26 cruisers that he “had to judge and Erpawung d. kay. Reitschuell ”had advanced to the court building authority. This order was followed by a report from the count to the court chamber, which refers to the imperial order, “die kayl. Reuttschuel wiedumben wiedumben to bawn and also allow accomodirn so that your Kayl. Maytt. Riding through this winter and the horse can be exercised and trained as soon as possible ... ”. The beautiful intention to take up riding exercises in the new house was not only realized in the winter of 1685. Year after year passed, and the completion of the building was still not mentioned. Emperor Leopold I had long been dead, his successor Joseph I had also blessed the time when, as invoices from 1713 prove, construction timber from Bavaria and firewood deliveries to the still “project manager kayl. Gebeu on the riding school, to better generate their required. Ziegl ”had to pay.
Emperor Charles VI. 1729–1735 had the winter riding school built. The master builder Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach designed the light-flooded riding hall, which many consider to be the most beautiful in the world. His son Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach carried out the design. Sources report that Fischer von Erlach took the palace chapel in the Palace of Versailles as a model. Even today, when entering the riding arena, the riders do not pull the bicorn in front of the guests present and onlookers of the morning work, but, as thanks for the construction of the winter riding school, in front of the portrait of Emperor Charles VI.
In 1808, one of the first free flights in the history of Jakob Degen was held in the winter riding school :
- “The skilled local watchmaker Degen recently showed with great success in the local riding house that he has since perfected the art he invented and successfully tried last year to fly through the air like a bird without a balloon. Two particularly artificial wings are attached to his body, which consist of small pieces of paper put together with the finest silk. By swinging these wings, it rises quickly and easily from the earth in both a vertical and an oblique line to a height of 54 feet. It was a surprising sight, which elicited an involuntary exclamation of joy from the numerous people present as this brave German artist rose from the ground to the ceiling of the building, and then flew high and low in different directions. When flying in an oblique direction, he currently needs a special device, a counterweight, but which only has a pulling force of 40 pounds, so that consequently he weighs 140 pounds himself, while his wings still lift a load of 100 pounds. He has not yet brought his art to perfection, but he hopes to give it to her soon; however, it already has the great advantage over all aerostats that the direction of flight depends entirely on it, if obstacles do not appear in the open. "
First World War
After the First World War , the Spanish Riding School was made accessible to the public and connected as an institution to the Ministry of Agriculture. Count Rudolf van der Straten transplanted the art of riding into the First Austrian Republic after the collapse of the monarchy. As the first stable master among the last head stable masters, Count Ferdinand Kinsky and Prince Nicolaus Pálffy , he was firmly anchored in the tradition of the riding school. Exceptional riders like Herold, Zrust, Polák and Lindenbauer were available to him, and they remained loyal to him. The most popular tournament rider in Austria at the time, General von Pongrácz, also helped, together with the riders, to ensure the continued existence of the school. The last head rider Mauritius Herold was particularly committed to the Spanish Riding School. On December 16, 1918, Herold sent a memorandum on the origins, use and future of the Spanish Riding School to the Viribus unitis equestrian association in Vienna , which forwards it to the German-Austrian State Office for Agriculture on January 12, 1919. This letter from the equestrian association also refers to the suggestion, discussed in many journals, to turn the winter riding school into a "second Burgtheater". On April 23, 1919, Oberbereiter Herold presented a memorandum on the expansion and future design of the Spanish Riding School in Vienna . Count van der Straten agreed in principle, but he was skeptical about any enlargement and expansion it suggested. For the first time, the Regional Association for Tourism for Vienna and Lower Austria sends an official letter to the Supreme Administrator of the Hofärar and to the State Office for Army Affairs regarding the maintenance of the riding school. Private individuals were also interested in the Spanish Riding School. On the cover of the file Zl. 367 of the German-Austrian state notary's office it can be read:
Consignor: Karl Geraus, riding instructor, Vienna VI., Gumpendorferstrasse 71; Purpose: to lease the Spanish Riding School; Departure / arrival day: 14.2.1919490
The question of maintaining the Spanish Riding School was much debated during this difficult time. Envoys from the former head stableman's office considered it impossible to continue the school in terms of scope and quality as it had before the war, as the necessary financial background was lacking and neither the young state, the state of Lower Austria nor the municipality of Vienna should be able to provide the necessary funds to provide in the long term. If the riding school were to be privatized, its value would be lost in a very short time and it would become a better circus. But great importance was attached to the financial security of the riding school. Occasional riding school productions should also contribute to this. The police commissioning of the winter riding school was carried out on December 10, 1919 for 332 seats, but the unfavorable time of year and concerns of various authorities whether a larger audience would be interested in the riding demonstrations formerly reserved for the court delayed the decision to set a date for the first riding production schedule to months. The first event of this kind was finally carried out as a charity campaign for the relief committee of the tuberculosis home on June 14, 1920. The event brought considerable proceeds, thanks to the dedication and preparation of the chief rider Herold. On June 22nd and 25th there was a repetition, this time at much lower admission prices. More followed in November and December 1920. Occasionally the Spanish Riding School made its premises available for sports and gymnastics festivals, for example on the national holiday of 1919, on November 12th. Chief Herald worked tirelessly for the maintenance of the school. He had a series of postcards printed, sold them and used the money raised to purchase the necessary utensils, e.g. B. from stable brooms ("broom fund"). He set about making the meaning and task of the institution understandable to the population. The aim was to increase the popularity of the riding school and to win allies with a view to its economic survival. Herold even tried to motivate the head of the Arbeiter-Zeitung , Austerlitz, to create a good mood for the Lipizzaner horses, and had induced workers' education associations to be instructed on the meaning and purpose of classical riding. Rumors were circulating that the winter riding school would be converted into a swimming pool or a cinema. After 1925, people and groups who viewed the Spanish Riding School merely as an "unproductive state enterprise" demanded its dissolution. On the other hand, numerous personalities in Vienna, such as the poet Richard Schaukal (in his feature section Philistines over you, Austria! ), Campaigned for the school to be preserved. Van der Straten took over the management of the riding school in 1921 and consolidated the internal and external conditions of the riding school. Above all, he knew how to make the "Spanish" so popular that - with the support of a broader public - it could no longer be given up so easily. The first foreign tours were also organized under the new director - solely for reasons of earnings. These tours - to Berlin (1925), London (1927), The Hague (1928) and Brussels (1932) - contributed significantly to the fame and popularity of the Spanish Riding School.
Second World War
After the Anschluss in 1938 it was renamed the Spanish Riding School and taken over into the Wehrmacht on June 18, 1939 with a festival performance (in the presence of Colonel General Wilhelm List ) . At that time, Alois Podhajsky (with the rank of major ) became the leader , who after the war also played a major role in the maintenance and renaming. He headed the institute until 1964. In 1945 the Stallburg was badly damaged by bombs. The stallions spent the period from 1945 to 1955 in Wels in Upper Austria .
Outsourcing from public administration
Since 2001 the riding school and federal stud have been outsourced from public administration and have been legally and economically independent based on the Spanish Riding School Act (Federal Law Gazette I No. 115/2000). The company is legally 'for the permanent preservation and traditional breeding of the horse breed "Lipizzaner", for the preservation of the tradition and the high school of classical equestrian art, for the traditional use of the relevant parts of the Hofburg and the Federal Stud Piber and thus to preserve the public interest in it represented Austrian and international cultural assets'. The shares in the company must remain 100% owned by the federal government.
The shops are run by Sonja Klima and Erwin Klissenbauer.
The riding arena is managed by First Chief Rider Wolfgang Eder, Chief Rider Andreas Hausberger, Chief Rider Rudolf Rostek and Chief Rider Herbert Seiberl.
All trainers are trained internally. The student starts school between the ages of 15 and 19. After four to six years of training, including several years on the lunge , he becomes a trainee rider. A rider candidate must train a young stallion to school quadrille maturity and ride him successfully in the school quadrille. Only then is he appointed rider. Only the most qualified riders are promoted to chief riders. The senior chief rider becomes the first chief rider. The Spanish Riding School currently has four chief riders, Wolfgang Eder , Andreas Hausberger , Rudolf Rostek and Herbert Seiberl.
In September 2008, Elevinnen began their training at the Spanish Riding School for the first time, along with male students. On October 9, 2010, for the first time in the history of the school, a woman (Hannah Zeitlhofer), in the traditional brown uniform of the rider, took part in a public performance. On April 19, 2012 Ms. Zeitlhofer was promoted to the first rider candidate and on September 14, 2016 to the first rider of the Spanish Riding School.
In the 19th century, the Spanish Riding School under Maximilian Weyrother became a Mecca for riders in Central Europe. Even his grandfather, his father and his brother Gottlieb were chief riders at the school. Max von Weyrother coined the term "thinking rider". His most famous students were Louis Seeger and E. F. Seidler .
The Empire - Uniform of the heater is almost unchanged for 200 years. The rider wears a coffee-brown high-necked riding tailcoat (with a hidden sugar pocket), white deerskin trousers, a bicorn with a narrow (rider-candidate) or wide (rider and head rider) gold braid as a badge of rank, top boots and white deerskin gloves . The uniform of the heater includes gooseneck spores . The rank of a rider can also be recognized by the gold borders on the red and green saddle pads . The head of the school has three gold borders with gold fringes. The chief rider has three, the rider two and the rider candidate has a gold border on his saddlecloth.
Worth mentioning, although not part of the uniform, is the traditional birch crop. It is specially cut by the riders every year in January. Only the trunk of a 6- to 8-year-old birch is used , the branches are cut off. For a longer shelf life, the dry device is placed in the water for a day before use.
Training the stallions
Only Lipizzaner stallions have been and are trained at the Spanish Riding School . Attempts to use stallions of other breeds for work failed. In addition to white horses, one or two browns are always trained at the school; they are the lucky charms, so to speak. Among the riders there is the opinion that "as long as there is a bay horse at the school, the Spanish Riding School will exist".
The riders follow the teachings of de la Guérinières .
The training of the Lipizzaner stallions is divided into three stages, whereby the individual stages can overlap:
The remont school begins at the age of four, when the stallions come to the riding school in Vienna. The stallions (usually six to eight) are moved freely in the group in the winter riding school in the first few weeks in order to get used to the new surroundings. The stallion is accustomed to the saddle and bridle and is then lunged for eight weeks to improve his obedience, to strengthen his muscles and to prepare him for the weight of the rider. The stallions are lunged and ridden by the younger riders, always under the supervision of a chief rider. After lunging, you will ride forward on straight lines at a relaxed pace. The aim is to have three correct basic gaits , even leaning against a longer frame, straightening and obedience. It is ridden with a whip but without spurs .
"Ride your stallion forward and straighten him!"
After more or less a year in the first stage , the stallion is ready for the campagne school , with the stallion determining the pace of training . The stallions are now assigned to experienced riders and chief riders for training. Is learned assembly , the riding of turns and circles in all three gaits , latching, suppleness , impulsion from the hindquarters and picking up weight on the hindquarters. The stallion learns the correct position and bending in the side gait and changes in tempo in all three gaits. The response to the help is refined. The manual work begins and the stallion is accustomed to the curb . The Campagne School takes up two thirds of the entire training.
"Take your time but don't waste it!"
In the high school level , the rider brings his horse to perfection. In the highest gathering the stallion learns piaffe , passage , canter pirouettes and canter changes from jump to jump. Stallions that are suitable for this learn the school jumps such as Levade , Kapriole and Courbette . At the end of this training level, the finished school stallion is given a white school saddle and a piece of gold and is used in the performance. The training lasts a total of 6 years.
"The only goal of classical equestrian art is to make the horse more beautiful and to keep it healthy for as long as possible."
Summer riding arena
The summer riding track is located between the treasure chamber and the winter riding school. If the weather permits, it is used by the riders for daily training of the stallions from April to November. The summer riding track measures 30 x 15 meters and is surrounded by shady trees. Around the summer riding track is the world's largest covered free walkway, in which the stallions can be moved all year round.
The daily (except Sunday and Monday) training (from 10:00 to 12:00) has not only been open to the public since the fall of the monarchy. In the morning work you can watch the riders working on their stallions. Stallions of all ages and training levels are shown in four groups of up to eight stallions.
- Young stallions: Six to eight young stallions enter the riding arena. You are presented on both hands in the three basic gaits, on straight lines and on the big tour. The stallions are shown with simple bridles and an English dressage saddle. Riding is done with a crop but without spurs.
- All courses and tours of the high school: Four fully trained school stallions show lessons of the high school, such as piaffe, passage, gallop pirouettes and canter changes from jump to jump. The bridle is on gold gear and a school saddle with a red saddle pad. The stallions have simple but well-groomed long hair, the mane is not twisted and combed to the left.
- Pas de deux : Two stallions “dance” in mirror image to classical music. This item on the program requires maximum concentration and very finely tuned horses.
- Work on the hand: Here the riders not only show the school jumps by hand, i.e. without a rider, but also the piaffe between the pillars (with or without a rider). The stallions are with bridle, cavesson , side reins , lead rein and / or jump lunge bridled school saddle and green valances.
- On the long rein: The rider is not sitting on the horse, but just follows the stallion. The hardest lessons of the high school are shown. Traversals, piaffe and piaffe pirouette, passage, canter pirouettes and canter changes from jump to jump are only performed with the help of a rein and a light whip. The bridle is on a red bridle and a red saddle cloth with a golden double eagle of the House of Habsburg .
- School above ground: Levade, caper and courbette under the rider are shown in this program item. The riders have no stirrups . The capers carry a tail bag. The bridle is on a curb and school saddle with a green saddle pad.
- School quadrille: "The ballet of the white stallions", as the school quadrille is also called, is the end of the performance and is performed with eight stallions. At 20 minutes, it is the longest and heaviest quadrille in the world.
Training center Heldenberg
Podhajsky introduced a summer stay in the stables of the Hermesvilla in the Lainzer Tiergarten for the stallions of the Spanish Riding School. A large part of the Walt Disney film The Escape of the White Stallions was shot in the Hermesvilla in 1962 .
The school stallions have been spending their seven-week summer vacation at the Heldenberg training center in Lower Austria since 2005. A modern training center for Lipizzaners has been available there since August 2010. For the first time in the history of the school, stallions are trained outside of school. From 2013 the TZ Heldenberg will be expanded into an international training center and the Spanish Riding School will be opened to foreign students.
- Erwin M. Auer: The dissolution of the Viennese "K. u. k. Hof-Marstalls “as part of the Supreme Administration of the Hofärars. In: Yearbook of the Association for the History of the City of Vienna. Vol. 37, 1981, , pp. 177-257.
- Georg Kugler, Wolfdieter Bihl : The Lipizzaner of the Spanish Riding School. Pichler, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-85431-284-9 .
- Christopher F. Laferl: The culture of the Spaniards in Austria under Ferdinand I. 1522–1564 (= Young Viennese Romance Studies. Vol. 14). Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 1997, ISBN 3-205-98780-2 (also: Vienna, Univ., Diss., 1996).
- Ann Tizia Leitich : The Spanish Riding School in Vienna. With a foreword by A. Podhajsky. Nymphenburger Verlags-Handlung, Munich 1956.
- Lorenz Mikoletzky : How old is the Spanish Riding School really? A supplement to the anniversary of 1972. In: Communications from the Austrian State Archives. Vol. 38, 1985, , pp. 326-330.
- Ferdinand Opll , Karl Rudolf: Spain and Vienna. Jugend & Volk, Vienna 1991, ISBN 3-224-17666-0 .
- Jaromir Oulehla, Leo Mazakarini , Henri Brabec d'Ipra: The Spanish Riding School in Vienna. Orac, Vienna 1986, ISBN 3-7015-0051-7 .
- Official website of the Spanish Riding School
- Recordings of the Spanish Riding School in the archive of the Austrian Media Library
- Classical horsemanship and the high school of the Spanish Riding School. ( Memento of the original from February 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Austrian Commission for UNESCO: List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Austria. intangible cultural heritage.unesco.at
- Classical horsemanship and the High School of the Spanish Riding School Vienna. UNESCO "Culture" Intangible Heritage.
- Riding school now a UNESCO World Heritage Site . orf.at, article dated December 2, 2015 (accessed December 2, 2015).
- Xavier Sellés-Ferrando: Spanish Austria . 2004, p. 88.
- Georg Kugler, Wolfdieter Bihl: The Lipizzaner of the Spanish Riding School. 2002, p. 100.
- Alfred Kohler : Ferdinand I., 1503–1564. Prince, King and Emperor. Beck, Munich, 2003, ISBN 3-406-50278-4 , p. 56.
- Salinas to Ferdinand, March 23, 1559, HHStA, Spain, Diplomatische Korrespondenz 5, lot 11.
- Cfr. The corresponding, but hardly verifiable information regarding a Spanish influence in the construction of the Wiener Stallburg in: Ferdinand Opll, Karl Rudolf: Spanien und Wien. 1991, p. 83.
- HKA, GB 40 (1533), fol. 197v; GB 41 (1534), fol. 25r, 39r, 55v, 92v + 93r.
- Christopher F. Laferl: The culture of the Spaniards in Austria under Ferdinand I. 1522–1564. 1997, p. 73.
- HKA, GB 54 (1543), fol. 100r + v.
- HKA, GB 41 (1534), fol. 39r.
- HKA, GB 60 (1546-1548), fol. 352r + v.
- Christopher F. Laferl: The culture of the Spaniards in Austria under Ferdinand I. 1522–1564. 1997, p. 73.
- Lorenz Mikoletzky : How old is the Spanish Riding School really? 1985, pp. 326-330; Ferdinand Opll, Karl Rudolf: Spain and Vienna. 1991, pp. 82-88; Georg Kugler, Wolfdieter Bihl: The Lipizzaner of the Spanish Riding School. 2002, p. 167.
- Christopher F. Laferl: The culture of the Spaniards in Austria under Ferdinand I. 1522–1564. 1997, p. 74.
- Moriz Dreger: Building history of the kk Hofburg in Vienna up to the XIX. Century (= Austrian Art Topography. Vol. 14). Schroll, Vienna 1914, p. 123.
- Lorenz Mikoletzky: How old is the Spanish Riding School really? 1985, pp. 326-330.
- Lorenz Mikoletzky: How old is the Spanish Riding School really? 1985, pp. 326-330.
- See Augsburgische Ordinari Postzeitung, Nro. 118, Tuesday May 17th. Anno 1808, p. 1. 54 Viennese feet (unit) correspond to approx. 17 meters.
- Waldemar Seunig : I don't count time in the saddle ... Verlag Sankt Georg, Düsseldorf, 1958, p. 107.
- Erwin M. Auer: The dissolution of the Viennese "K. uk Hof-Marstalls “as part of the Supreme Administration of the Hofärars. 1981, pp. 227f.
- Erwin M. Auer: The dissolution of the Viennese "K. uk Hof-Marstalls “as part of the Supreme Administration of the Hofärars. 1981, p. 229.
- ÖStA, entry by the regional association for tourism for Vienna and Lower Austria, Aug. 1919.
- Georg Kugler, Wolfdieter Bihl: The Lipizzaner of the Spanish Riding School. 2002, p. 236.
- Jaromir Oulehla, Leo Mazakarini , Henri Brabec d'Ipra: The Spanish Riding School in Vienna. 1986, pp. 279-281.
- Jaromir Oulehla, Leo Mazakarini, Henri Brabec d'Ipra: The Spanish Riding School in Vienna. 1986, pp. 282-284.
- Takeover of the Spanish Riding School in the Wehrmacht. In: Neuigkeits -Welt-Blatt , No. 138/1939 (LXVI. Year), June 20, 1939, p. 6, top left. (Online at ANNO ). .
- BKA RIS - Federal Law: Entire legal regulation for the Spanish Riding School Act