Badisches Oberland

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The areas of the margraviate from 1535 to 1771, with the southern parts of the Oberland

Badisches Oberland was originally an unofficial name for the upper (geographically south and topographically higher) areas of the margraviate of Baden-Durlach , namely the dominion Rötteln , the county Sausenberg , the dominion Badenweiler and the margraviate Hachberg with the dominion Prechtal - together also the upper margraviate called.

However, the term was and is also used for different area delimitations.

Demarcation from the Unterland

In 1515, Margrave Christoph I of Baden had to cede the reign to his sons Bernhard , Philipp and Ernst for health reasons . In 1516 he was placed under the tutelage of his sons and died in 1527 mentally deranged.

Philipp had inherited the margravial estates of Baden , Durlach , Pforzheim and Altensteig as well as parts of Eberstein , Lahr and Mahlberg from his father Christoph in 1515 . Bernhard received the holdings on the left bank of the Rhine, Ernst the southern Baden dominions of Hachberg, Üsenberg , Sausenberg / Rötteln and Badenweiler, which later became the Baden Oberland.

When Philip died without an heir in 1533, his brothers initially ruled his country jointly. In 1535, however, they divided the inheritance among themselves. The older Bernhard was allowed to define the parts after drawing lots and the younger Ernst was allowed to make the choice. Bernhard expected that his brother would choose the areas around Baden-Baden and Rastatt that were closer to his previous areas and assigned them to the significantly smaller half. However, Ernst chose the larger and territorially more closed half with the cities of Durlach and Pforzheim. In this way, the margraviate of Baden-Durlach was created in 1535 with the geographically clearly separated parts of the Unterland and Oberland.

When Margrave Karl Friedrich took office in 1746, the Baden Oberland was administratively divided into the upper offices of Rötteln , Badenweiler and Hochberg .

Delimitation to the Markgräflerland

The Markgräflerland was established in 1444 when the rule of Badenweiler was bequeathed by the last Count of Freiburg , Johann (Hans), to the sons of Margrave Wilhelm von Hachberg-Sausenberg , Rudolf IV and Hugo . The Markgräflerland was created through the merger of the lordships of Rötteln, Sausenberg and Badenweiler. The Markgräflerland does not include the margraviate Hachberg with the rule Prechtal . Nevertheless, the term Baden Oberland or upper Baden rulers is sometimes used in the literature for the Markgräflerland.

The circulation area of ​​the daily newspaper Die Oberbadische only covers part of the Markgräflerland.

Delimitation to southern Baden

The Baden Oberland originally only comprised the areas of the margraviate of Baden-Durlach in the extreme southwest of Germany, excluding the surrounding areas of Upper Austria and other territorial lords. In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803 Baden received nominal compensation for areas on the left bank of the Rhine lost to France, the areas of many abbeys and monasteries. In the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, large parts of Upper Austria fell to Baden, namely the Breisgau with the areas on the Upper Rhine on the German side of the Rhine. In the 19th century, the term Baden Oberland was also used for the entire south-west of the Grand Duchy of Baden between Laufenburg and Staufen .

In the literature on the three Baden revolutions in 1848/49, the term Oberland was even extended to include the so-called Seekreis ( Constance ), so that the term Baden Oberland can also mean the entire southern part of the former state of Baden .

Oberbaden in the margraviate of Baden-Baden

In the historical literature, the term Upper Baden occupation is used to describe the occupation of the heartland of the margraviate of Baden-Baden by Margrave Ernst Friedrich von Baden-Durlach . The heartlands around the city of Baden-Baden were also referred to in this context as Upper Baden in relation to the counties of Sponheim on the left bank of the Rhine and the lordship of Graefenstein , which also belonged to the margraviate of Baden-Baden .


Individual evidence

  1. a b Drais, pp. 31-37.
  2. ^ Nebenius, p. 15.
  3. Hans Jakob Wörner : The Markgräflerland. Notes on his historical career . In: Das Markgräflerland Volume 2/1994 , p. 62.
  4. ^ Christian Martin Vortisch: Landschreiber and jurists of the upper Baden rulers . In: Das Markgräflerland, issue 2/1988 , pp. 157–173.
  5. ^ Schneider, p. 15/16.
  6. z. B. Gustav Struve : History of the three popular uprisings in Baden . Publishing house by Jenni, Sohn, Bern 1849; Altered reprint: Verlag Rombach, Freiburg i. Br. 1980, pp. 39-42.