district of Heidelberg
|Population density||1205 inhabitants / km²|
|Source: City of Heidelberg (PDF; 141 kB)|
The core of the district lies between Tiefburg and Vituskirche , the (inner) townscape is characterized by old farmhouses, winding streets and a number of restaurants and taverns. One of the oldest restaurants is the Gasthaus Zum Roten Ochsen on Mühltalstrasse. There are some villas from around 1900 on the slopes of the Heiligenberg .
Handschuhsheim is located in the north of the city of Heidelberg, at the exit of the Siebenmühlental between Hohem Nistler and Heiligenberg am Mühlbach , which enters the Rhine valley here and later flows under the name Rombach into the Kanzelbach and with this into the Neckar. The path along the mountain road at the foot of the Auerstein in the north of the city is an important, old trade route. Handschuhsheim borders in the north on the municipality of Dossenheim , in the west on the Neckar , in the east on the Ziegelhausen district and in the south on the Heidelberg district of Neuenheim , the district boundary is the middle of Blumenthalstrasse. 53% of the area is forest, 26% is used for agriculture.
In the Middle Ages, the village of Hillenbach was located in the area of today's Handschuhsheim am Höllenbach, which is mentioned for the first time in the Lorsch Codex in 767 and which was probably deserted around 1300 . A memorial stone has been commemorating the site since 1994.
There is evidence that people have lived in the Handschuhsheim area since the third millennium BC. From around 500 BC Chr. Settled Celts in the area; Remains of a double Celtic ring wall from the 4th century BC have been found on the Heiligenberg. Received. People probably climbed the Heiligenberg earlier to worship their deities there. Around the year 100 BC The Celts had to give way to the rush of Germanic crowds: The Suebi , who came from central northern Germany and settled large parts of southern Germany, also settled in the Neckar region - even if a not inconsiderable remnant of Celts stayed.
Shortly after the beginning of our era, the Romans crossed the Rhine from Gaul and soon became masters of the area. The conquered land - today's area of almost all of Baden with parts of Upper Hesse , Württemberg and Bavaria - was sealed off against free Germania by the Limes . In the Handschuhsheim district, however, only relatively few traces of the Roman era can be found. There was probably a Roman estate in the Entensee lake. Traces of Roman settlement have also been found immediately south of the church. Various finds on the Heiligenberg indicate that the mountain remained a place of worship even in Roman times. The Romans built small temples here, which were mainly dedicated to Mercury .
In the third century the power of the Romans began to waver under the onslaught of the Germanic tribes. The Limes hinterland on the right bank of the Rhine was abandoned at the latest in AD 259/60 ( Limesfall ). The Alemanni , which then exercised the rule, did not stay long in power: 496 made the Frankish king Clovis her triumph to the west of the conquest of the Rheinpfalz and Alsace had made an end and incorporated its territory the Frankish kingdom a - the advance of Christianity began. When Handschuhsheim was first mentioned in a document in the second half of the 8th century, its residents had long since been won over to Christianity, even if it was little more than a thin skin over old pagan ideas.
The place is first mentioned as Hantscuhesheim in 765 in the Lorsch Codex , so it was owned by the Lorsch Monastery at that time , which later assigned the place to the Schauenburg above Dossenheim. It is likely that the place existed for several centuries, but the ending -heim indicates a Franconian foundation. The place is probably named after a landowner in the early Middle Ages named Ansco (from "Ansgar" or "Hansco"?), From which "glove" became over the years. In any case, the coat of arms of Handschuhsheim actually shows a silver, red-lined glove in blue. In 774 a chapel is mentioned in the area of the village, which was consecrated to Saint Nazarius, who was particularly venerated in Lorsch .
Transfer of ownership to the Electoral Palatinate
With Lorsch and the office of Schauenburg, Handschuhsheim came to Kurmainz in the 13th century . Around 1400 Handschuhsheim was given market justice . In 1460, Elector Friedrich I. occupied Handschuhsheim and Dossenheim. In 1461 the Kurmainzer properties were pledged to the Electoral Palatinate . Handschuhsheim stayed with the Electoral Palatinate as a pledge. After the Archbishop of Mainz renounced his rights in 1653, the Palatinate Electors were formally enfeoffed with the place.
While the place was under the rule of Lorsch, later Kurmainz and from 1460 the Electoral Palatinate, the ministerial family of the Lords of Handschuhsheim , which died out in 1600 , managed a fiefdom in the Tiefburg . The same property owned a neighboring estate, while the neighboring castle goes back to a mansion of the Knebel family , but has often changed hands in modern times. The Tiefburg and the manor house came to the Lords of Helmstatt in 1624 .
Wars of the 17th and 18th centuries
At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War , the place served the imperial General Tilly as the headquarters for the conquest of Heidelberg. In general, the place suffered greatly from the wars of the 17th century. What had survived the Thirty Years' War was damaged by a French invasion in 1674. During the War of the Palatinate Succession , Handschuhsheim was burned three more times in 1689, except for a few buildings.
In the early 18th century, Handschuhsheim recovered from the major war damage. Immigrants from Switzerland settled in the place where the name Schweizer Gass for the Handschuhsheimer Landstrasse comes from. In 1700 Georg Adam von Helmstatt built an aristocratic estate not far from the castle on the site of the dilapidated manor of the Lords of Handschuhsheim, and the castle was also rebuilt. Georg Adam's sons Damian Hugo and Johann Ferdinand Joseph von Helmstatt moved their center of property to Hochhausen , but the Tiefburg and the Freiadlige Gut remained in the family's possession until the 20th century.
In the course of the 18th century the place was affected by further acts of war. During the Seven Years War, the French were billeted in the village and looting took place. In the Revolutionary Wars towards the end of the century in 1795 Austrian and French troops faced each other in a battle on the district of Handschuhsheim. In one of the last French advances on Heidelberg in 1799, Handschuhsheim was looted again.
During the reorganization of the German southwest following the Napoleonic Wars, Handschuhsheim came to Baden in 1803.
Horticulture and fruit growing up
The purely agricultural place experienced an initial boom through the agricultural knowledge of Stephan Gugenmus (1740–1778). Gugenmus reformed agriculture and introduced horticulture . In the famine years of the early 19th century, the population could not get by with this, so that there was a large wave of emigration until after the revolution of 1848/49. The gardener Karl Friedrich Bechtel successfully developed horticulture in Handschuhsheim in the second half of the 19th century. While agriculture and viticulture declined, the place developed into a prosperous center of horticulture and fruit growing. In particular, strawberries and cherries and various greenhouse plants were grown.
Incorporation to Heidelberg
In the late 19th century, the number of votes calling for the town to be incorporated into Heidelberg increased. In 1898, 313 citizens of Handschuhsheim submitted a request to the Grand Ducal District Office. In 1900 the citizens' committee still rejected incorporation by a majority; through renegotiations, the request was then met with broad approval in 1901. The incorporation was completed on January 1, 1903.
The connection to Heidelberg brought about a renewal of the infrastructure. Handschuhsheim received gas from the Heidelberg gas pipe network as early as 1903, and in 1908 the town received a new sewer system. In 1904, Handschuhsheim was also connected to the tram , so far only the Upper Rhine Railway , which had a train station on the outskirts of the village , operated to Heidelberg .
District of Heidelberg
Handschuhsheim has shared the economic and political history of Heidelberg since it was incorporated in 1903 . In the 1920s and 1930s, interrupted by times of crisis, major construction projects were carried out, including the construction of the large residential complex on the site of the former Atzelhof from 1921 to 1927 and the construction of the garden wholesale market hall in 1930. The city also acquired the small palace in 1919 and set up a building in it Youth hostel a.
The place survived the Second World War unscathed. With the acquisition of the Tiefburg from the von Helmstatt family in 1950, the city of Heidelberg came into possession of one of the most important properties in the area. From that time onwards, the town expanded in all directions with the construction of commercial areas, residential complexes and university facilities. The most important new building projects included the extensive medical facilities in Neuenheimer and Handschuhsheimer Feld, the university's swimming center and the Heidelberg-Nord district heating power plant on Klausenpfad , built in 1972 , which supplies the university grounds with district heating. In the late 1970s, the residential and commercial areas Langgewann , Andreas-Hofer-Weg and Weiher were added, and in the 1980s the technology park at the combined heat and power plant. At the end of 1984 Handschuhsheim had over 16,000 inhabitants.
Catholic parish church of St. Vitus and St. Georg
The Vitus Church is the oldest church in Heidelberg. In addition to wall remnants from Carolingian times, the oldest surviving parts, including the triumphal arch , come from an early Romanesque building that was rebuilt in 1053–1057. Around 1200 the nave was extended to a three-aisled basilica, further alterations (Gothic choir) took place in 1483 and 1933/34, with the church oriented to the north and enlarged with an extension. In 1650 the church became a simultaneous church . Until 1905, Catholics and Protestants shared the room. In 1911 and 1961, wall paintings were uncovered in the church: a cycle of frescoes with the life of Christ from 1400 and images of several saints from the first half of the 15th century. The church was completely renovated between 1960 and 1972. In 1964, seven new stained glass windows by Valentin Feuerstein were added to the choir. Some tombs from the 15th and 16th centuries are also important. Century, including the double tomb of Dieter and Margarethe von Handschuhsheim († 1483/87) and the Renaissance tomb of Heinrich von Handschuhsheim and his wife Amale Beusser von Ingelheim († 1588/1622). Tombstones from the floor are now outside on the south wall of the church.
The Handschuhsheimer Tiefburg is the only moated castle on the Bergstrasse. It covered a much larger area (approx. 5 ha) than the residential castle still visible today suggests. It was badly damaged in the Thirty Years War and finally destroyed in January 1689 in the War of the Palatinate Succession. 1911–1913 the Tiefburg was renovated by the owner, Raban Graf von Helmstatt , and the residential building made usable again. Bleickard von Helmstatt (1871–1952) sold the castle to the city of Heidelberg in 1950. The residential castle is surrounded by a modern moat. Since its transfer to the city of Heidelberg, it has been used by the Handschuhsheimer district association, and numerous local festivals take place in its courtyard. The Tiefburg is the focus of Walter Laufenberg's historical novel "Knight, Death and the Devil", which was published in 1992 by Langen Müller in Munich.
Helmstatt manor house
The Helmstätter manor house near the castle was built around 1700 by Georg Adam Christoph von Helmstatt (1676–1714) on the site of an older manor as a free aristocratic estate to replace the destroyed castle. One of the last noble residents was Viktor von Helmstatt (1851–1935), who moved to Neckarbischofsheim after the death of his mother in 1905 and had the estate managed by a manager. Later, his nephew Bleickard von Helmstatt (1871–1952) lived in the property again temporarily until 1930. After his uncle's death, he gradually sold the Handschuhsheim property. The property now houses a restaurant.
The Handschuhsheimer Schlösschen goes back to the late medieval Knebelhof . Except for the stair tower from 1609, the building dates from the early 18th century. The colonial merchant Carl Adolf Uhde is one of the numerous, rapidly changing owners , who uses the building as a museum for his Indian collections acquired in Central and South America, which later became part of the collection of the Ethnological Museum in Berlin-Dahlem. He also designed the park to the south as a small botanical garden. The park is now called after the other previous owner, the Englishman John Benjamin Graham . The castle has been owned by the city since 1919 and has been the seat of the city music school since 1973. The orangery, which was converted into a lecture hall, is now called Carl Rottmann Hall after the Romantic painter who was born here .
Evangelical Peace Church
The Friedenskirche , whose tower characterizes the townscape, was built under the direction of the Grand Ducal Senior Building Councilor Hermann Behaghel in 1908–1910 for the Protestant community of Handschuhsheim. The first renovation took place from 1959 to 1961. The altar, pulpit and baptismal font, the so-called principal pieces, were renewed, and a Walcker organ was installed. The Friedenskirche has the layout of a Greek cross and, with its four galleries and 1,200 seats, is a sermon church . Along with the Christ Church in Weststadt, it is one of the most important works by the Oberbaurat Behaghel.
Former Lutheran Church
The former Lutheran Church at Oberen Kirchgasse 20 was the place of worship for the Lutheran congregation of the village from 1784 to 1821 and has been a residential building since 1870. The Kirchel with the striking gabled once had a Vierungstürmchen in which two bells were located.
The town hall was built in 1877/78 and had this function until it was incorporated in 1903. The five-axis building is reminiscent of the Italian palace architecture of the Renaissance.
Other historical buildings
The place is characterized by numerous other historical buildings from different epochs. The so-called Charlottenburg with its very old stone basement on the outer wall of the deep castle probably originally belonged to the extended building complex of the castle. The Pollich-Haus in Dossenheimer Landstrasse 9 is a listed historic farmhouse that reminds of the former agricultural character of the town center.
Many other historical buildings in the town date from the Wilhelminian era and Art Nouveau. In 1902, in the Villa Orotava, built in 1889 at Handschuhsheimer Landstrasse 72, an important meeting of the Russian composers Rimsky-Korsakov and Stravinsky took place. Villa Krehl , located on the corner of Bergstrasse and Hainsbachweg, was built in 1909 as the residence of the internist Ludolf von Krehl and was subsequently used as the Friedrichsstift student home , the Luftwaffe test institute and the chamber building. From 1969 to 2012 the villa was the German headquarters of the Schiller International University , and since then it has been used by other educational institutions.
The summit of the Heiligenberg ( ) is also on the territory of Handschuhsheim. Here are the ruins of Michael's monastery from the 11th century, as well as the Thingstätte open-air theater from the time of National Socialism. Below the Michael Monastery (locals the ruins of buildings called after the church also "Michael Basilica") is on Neuenheimer which also decayed area Stephan Monastery , and the "Heidenloch" which is about 56 meters deep and probably the monks in past times as a cistern served.
Today's Mühltalstraße, on which the eponymous mills were located, stretches from the town center to the east up the Siebenmühlental and is built up almost to the Turnerbrunnen on the edge of the forest. The mills are all in the part of the street that runs parallel to the Mühlbach , which leads to Mühltalstrasse. 120 flows down openly and from there is partially perverted until it disappears completely underground at the height of No. 61. When there were no drinking water reservoirs, the Mühlbach drove the Handschuhsheimer mills and ensured the millers their prosperity. A mill in Handschuhsheim was first mentioned in 891, which was donated to St. Nazarius, the patron saint of Lorsch Monastery, with the stipulation that the founder should read masses for the soul. In the 13th century, two mills were bequeathed to the Schönau monastery, one in 1238, the other in 1287. Until 1755, only the lower six mills were in operation in Handschuhsheim, which today bear the house numbers 52, 67, 81, 91, 120 and 122 . There is nothing left of the sixth mill today, in its place there is a house from the 1970s. Above this there were temporarily two small grinding mills , which probably went up in the seventh mill (Mühltalstrasse 124).
- The lowest mill, today Mühltalstraße 52, originally belonged to the Schönau monastery and is one of the donations mentioned above. In 1545 it is reported that this mill took on the obligation to deliver the wafers and hosts for Holy Communion, an obligation that partly remained after the Reformation, from then on only the communion bread for Holy Communion had to be delivered.
- The second bottom mill, today's Mühltalstrasse 67 property, was once owned by the von Handschuhsheim family and had to pay them a long lease on Martin's Day. After the death of Amales, the last baroness of Handschuhsheim, whose children died at a young age, the mill came into the possession of the Helmstätter, their heirs, from whom the owner Heinrich Eberhard probably bought the upper property in 1844.
- The third from the bottom, Mühltalstrasse 81, had to pay taxes to the Handschuhsheimer orphanage and later to the Schönau nursing home. A coat of arms stone from 1591 is walled in on the street side, which Derwein already mentions in his Handschuhsheim book from 1933.
- The fourth from the bottom, today Mühltalstrasse 91, is probably the second of the above-mentioned donations to the care of the Schönau monastery; it is probably on the site of the mill, which was first mentioned in 891.
- The fifth lowest, Mühltalstrasse 120, was one of the two orphanage mills.
- The sixth, Mühltalstrasse 122, was the other orphanage mill. For a long time it was called "the obriste" or "Obermühle", that is, as the highest on the brook.
- As early as the 17th century, however, there were two grinding mills above it, which belonged to Heidelberg armories. One of these developed into the seventh mill, Mühltalstraße 124, which is the last of the Handschuhsheimer mills that has been described.
After the construction of the large, steam-powered mills in Mannheim in the course of industrialization, the milling trade could no longer compete, and so one mill after another was shut down.
Infrastructure and traffic
Handschuhsheim has, among other things, two elementary schools ( Tiefburgschule and Heiligenbergschule), a Protestant and a Catholic parish and two hospitals (Salem and St. Elisabeth ). The Handschuhsheim cemetery is the second largest cemetery in Heidelberg.
Handschuhsheim also includes the northern part of Neuenheimer Feld with the new building of the University of Education , the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law , the Technology Park and the Heidelberg thermal power station .
Handschuhsheim is traversed by tram lines 5, 21, 23 and 24 of the RNV , the central transfer hub is the former OEG train station on Hans-Thoma-Platz. From there, bus line 38 opens up the old village center and the Mühltal, and at times it runs as far as the Heiligenberg.
With 16.4%, Handschuhsheim has the second lowest proportion of foreigners among the Heidelberg districts after Pfaffengrund with 14.4%.
The Handschuhsheim district advisory board is composed as follows:
|Party / list||2019|
- Stephan Gugenmus (1740–1778), agricultural reformer, worked in Handschuhsheim from around 1769
- Johann Michael Rummer (1747–1821), artisan, born in Handschuhsheim
- Friedrich Rottmann (1768–1816), painter, born in Handschuhsheim
- Carl Adolf Uhde (1792–1856), antiquities and natural history collector, lived in Handschuhsheim
- Eduard Mühling (1795–1859), pastor and local historian, lived in Handschuhsheim
- Carl Rottmann (1797–1850), painter, born in Handschuhsheim
- John Benjamin Graham (1813–1876), mine owner, lived temporarily in Handschuhsheim
- Raban von Helmstatt (1844–1932) restored the Tiefburg from 1911 to 1913
- Johann Fischer (1852–1921), last mayor of Handschuhsheim
- Philipp Lenz (1861–1926), dialect researcher, born in Handschuhsheim, documented the local dialect
- Emil Reimold (1863–1946), brush manufacturer and writer, lived temporarily in Handschuhsheim
- Albert Ludwig (1868–1957), theologian, lived temporarily in Handschuhsheim
- Bleickard von Helmstatt (1871–1952), last noble owner of the Tiefburg
- Karl Friedrich Heck (1874–1934), priest, teacher and local history researcher
- Fritz Frey (1881–1962), local history researcher, born in Handschuhsheim
- Irma von Drygalski (1892–1953), actress, lived in Handschuhsheim
- Herbert Derwein (1893–1961), local history researcher, lived in Handschuhsheim
- Friedrich Kuhn (1895–1976), local history researcher, born in Handschuhsheim
- Josef Kreisch (1897–1975), craftsman, born in Handschuhsheim
- Georg Adam Klemm (1902–1985), lawyer and local politician, First Mayor of Heidelberg
- Erich Hübner (1917–1985), church musician, cantor in Handschuhsheim from 1951 until his death
- Raingard Tausch (* 1949), draftsman, painter and artist
- Anton Kartak (1924–2011), basketball coach and sports official, lived in Handschuhsheim
- Literature on Handschuhsheim. Heidelberger Geschichtsverein eV HGV, accessed on August 9, 2014 : "Hendesse"
- Heidelberg data atlas , as of 2016: 18,200 residents with their main residence in Handschuhsheim as of December 31, 2016.
- Minst, Karl Josef [transl.]: Lorscher Codex (Volume 2), Certificate 281, Jul. 22, 765 - Reg. 5. In: Heidelberg historical stocks - digital. Heidelberg University Library, p. 70 , accessed on March 9, 2016 .
- Winfried Wackerfuß : 220 years ago: The battle near Handschuhsheim on September 24, 1795. In: Der Odenwald . Journal of the Breuberg-Bundes 63/1, 2016, pp. 39–41.
- ww2.heidelberg.de Data Atlas Heidelberg, as of December 31, 2016
- City of Heidelberg - Handschuhsheim District Advisory Board. Retrieved December 12, 2019 .
- Ed. Joh. Jos. Mühling: Historical and topographical monuments from Handschuhsheim; a contribution to its history from its construction to our days. Tobias Löffler, Mannheim 1840.
- Hans Heiberger: Handschuhsheim. Chronicle of a Heidelberg district. Heidelberg 1985.
- Martin Jordan: The Handschuhsheimer before 1900. Ortssippenbuch of Heidelberg-Handschuhsheim (= Badische Ortssippenbuch. 56). Guderjahn, Heidelberg 1988, ISBN 3-924973-07-5 (processed period 1650–1900).
- Herbert Derwein : Handschuhsheim and its history. Brigitte Guderjahn Verlag, Heidelberg 1997, ISBN 3-924973-04-0 .
- Jürgen Brose: Located at the foot of the mountain. Handschuhsheim from the beginning until today - a chronicle. Handschuhsheim district association, Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-936866-04-9 .
- Melanie Mertens, among others: Stadtkreis Heidelberg (= monument topography Federal Republic of Germany : cultural monuments in Baden-Württemberg. Volume II.5). Volume 2, Jan Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2013, ISBN 978-3-7995-0426-3 , pp. 78–164 (introduction to history and settlement history, description of all cultural monuments in the district).
- Julia Becker: Handschuhsheim as a village from the Carolingian era and its first mention in the Lorsch Codex. In: Christoph Mauntel, Carla Meyer, Achim Wendt (eds.): Heidelberg in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. A search for clues in ten walks. Jan Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2014, ISBN 978-3-7995-0520-8 , pp. 20–37.
- District association Handschuhsheim eV
- History of Handschuhsheim on the homepage of the parish of St. Vitus
- Description of some of Heidelberg's sights for the Open Monument Day 2005 (PDF; 160 kB)
- Handschuhsheim on badischewanderungen.de
- Digital Tiefburg archive . Collection of motifs from old photo albums, donations and bequests from the citizens of Handschuhsheim