Heidelberg main station
|Heidelberg Central Station|
East facade of the counter hall at Willy-Brandt-Platz
|Location in the network||Junction station|
|Platform tracks||9 (1-5, 7-10)|
|Profile on Bahnhof.de||Heidelberg_Hbf|
|City / municipality||Heidelberg|
|Railway stations in Baden-Württemberg|
The Heidelberg Main with 42,000 travelers daily ( Stand : 2009 ) one of the largest passenger stations in Baden-Württemberg . It is classified in station category 2. The first train station was built in 1840 as a terminus near Heidelberg's old town . Urban development problems caused by the partial expansion to the through station in 1862 and the lack of expansion options led to the decision at the beginning of the 20th century to relocate the station a good kilometer to the west and build it as a through station. Interrupted by both world wars, the laying of the Heidelberg railway systems took over 50 years. The present reception building, inaugurated in 1955, is counted as "one of the most beautiful, structurally most interesting new buildings of the Deutsche Bundesbahn "; Since 1972 it has been under monument protection as a cultural monument of special importance .
Old train station 1840–1955
On September 12, 1840 in Heidelberg , a terminal station as the end point of the first route section in Mannheim beginning Baden Mainline opened. The shape of a terminus station was chosen to be as close to the city as possible. The station was between today's Poststrasse and Bahnhofstrasse; the station forecourt bordered on Rohrbacher Strasse.
The train station, designed by the architect Friedrich Eisenlohr , consisted of several “simply designed buildings with a classical character” with a “touch of romance through ornamental elements”. On the side facing the city was the "main service building" made of Neckar sandstone , whose red color contrasted with the slate- covered roof. The two-aisled platform hall covered four tracks, with a length of 75 meters and a width of a good 28 meters, it was comparatively large for the conditions at the time. The hall consisted of a wooden structure. In order to be able to bridge larger spans, Eisenlohr decided on a construction that had similar static conditions as later steel constructions. The track exit of the station was flanked by two gate towers that were used as high water tanks . Inside the station there were six switches and 15 turntables on which the still light wagons could be turned manually. According to the first timetable, there were four trains daily that took 35 to 40 minutes to get to Mannheim.
In 1843 the line from Heidelberg to Karlsruhe went into operation. The Main-Neckar Railway to Frankfurt opened in 1846 , and a second station was built for it by 1848, which was integrated into the existing system in an "architecturally exemplary manner". The station, which was also designed by Eisenlohr, was largely symmetrical to the existing facility, the construction of which had taken into account the possible extension to the north. Since the Main-Neckar Railway in contrast to 1600 millimeters wide-gauge Baden State Railway normalspurig was needed to gauging the Baden train all goods are transshipped in April 1855 for which a Güterhalle served in the middle of the station. To connect the two “main service buildings”, an arcade was built, in the middle of which was a gate as the main entrance to the station. In addition, there were two three-track locomotive sheds that could be reached via switches , as well as a shed for the wagons that was accessible via a transfer platform . The station, which had had one of the first station bookstores operated by the Carl Schmitt University Bookstore since 1854 , remained in this basic form until it was relocated a good 100 years later.
With the opening of the Odenwaldbahn in 1862, the station became a through station and, on this occasion, was expanded slightly to the south. In 1873 Heidelberg became the end of the branch line to Schwetzingen and Speyer . A 1864 was put into operation connecting curve "War curve" between the lines to Mannheim and Karlsruhe should serve to relieve the station, as well as the creation of a new goods and marshalling yard , the 1873 west of the Roman road along the route came to Mannheim. In 1888, both stations were adapted for right-hand traffic introduced that year. Two years later he was connected to the BASA network. In 1893, a pedestrian underpass was built at the level crossing east of the reception building with Rohrbacher Straße on its east side.
In the mid-1890s, the Baden train station and the Main-Neckar train station were merged. In 1896 the independent Main-Neckar-Bahn station was given up. There has been a station mission here since 1897 .
On July 1, 1911, the term “Hauptbahnhof” was dropped from the station name, so the station was simply called Heidelberg .
On January 23, 1923, new reception and check-in rooms were put into operation.
On October 6, 1934, the station was renamed "Heidelberg Hbf" again.
Relocation of the station from 1902 to 1955
At the beginning of the 20th century , a closed development was built around the station with Bergheim in the north and today's Weststadt in the south, which prevented an expansion of the railway site. In 1902 340 trains ran from Heidelberg Central Station on weekdays; in the 1954/1955 timetable the number had risen to over 400. Important long-distance trains circumnavigated Heidelberg, as the station's capacity was exhausted.
At the same time, the station impaired the urban development of the city. With increasing road traffic, the level crossing on Rohrbacher Strasse at today's Adenauerplatz , which was built in 1862 when the Odenwaldbahn was built, proved to be a nuisance. At the end of 1949, 10,800 vehicles passed the crossing, which was closed for three to four hours a day. An underpass had been available for pedestrians since 1893. Also lines of the Heidelberg tram were sometimes very late due to the level crossing, so from 1948 passengers had to pass the crossing on foot, as the tram lines ended on both sides of the level crossing. The level crossing is considered to be one of the main reasons for the relocation of the station.
As early as 1873 there were considerations to relocate the station. This met with resistance from hoteliers whose businesses had settled in the vicinity of the station. When one of the wooden station halls burned down in 1892, onlookers are said to have wanted the flames to spread to the entire station. The nationalization of the Main-Neckar-Bahn in 1895 facilitated the planning that began in the 1890s. Initially, the city preferred to raise the station at its old location in order to maintain the central location. In 1901 the Heidelberg Citizens' Committee approved a proposal by the Baden State Railways to build a new through station a good kilometer west of the old location. A first draft of the Baden State Railways from 1908 envisaged a through station with 20 platform tracks. These should be used in regular service. The total construction costs were estimated at 40 million marks .
After the first cut of the spade in 1902, what is popularly known as an excavator hole was created for the passenger station, about three kilometers long, up to 250 meters wide and four to five meters deep. The excavation was used to build a marshalling yard and freight yard in an elevated position. On July 10, 1913, the Czerny Bridge crossing the excavator hole was completed. On October 29, 1910, after 15 months of excavation, the almost 2500 meter long Königstuhl Tunnel was knocked through, which was to connect the Odenwald Railway to the new railway facilities. It was operational in 1912.
The marshalling yard, located southwest of the passenger station, went into operation on March 2, 1914 after seven years of construction. The water tower on Czernyring was built for this as early as 1907. With the beginning of the First World War , the construction work was stopped. At this time, the freight trains from the Odenwald could be directed through the Königstuhl tunnel, which reduced the load on the level crossings in the Heidelberg urban area.
After the end of the war, the construction project did not continue due to the economic situation. From 1926, a depot was built between the planned passenger station and Wieblingen , which went into operation on December 1, 1927. The corresponding systems in the old main station were then dismantled despite the further distance, as it was assumed that the new main station would soon go into operation. Between 1932 and 1936, the Karlstorbahnhof at the eastern portal of the Königstuhl tunnel was rebuilt. In 1933, the Reichsbahndirektion Karlsruhe was unable to finance the further construction of the station for the foreseeable future.
During the time of National Socialism , Carl Neinhaus , Lord Mayor of Heidelberg from 1929 to 1945, was the "key figure" in the planning for the relocation of the station. Neinhaus aimed for a comprehensive redesign of the city center, for which the evacuation of the railway area was necessary. In 1936 the city commissioned the architect Paul Bonatz with the preparation of drafts, and two years later also German Bestelmeyer , Hans Freese and Konstanty Gutschow . In 1938, Neinhaus contacted Albert Speer . At Speer's mediation, Adolf Hitler signed a decree in May 1941 which gave Heidelberg the status of a so-called redesign city . This should accelerate the planning so that construction work can begin immediately after the end of the Second World War . In the construction periods 1908 to 1914 and 1926 to 1939, around 80 percent of the total facilities of the new Heidelberg main station were built.
During the planning, which was discontinued due to the war in 1943, ideas from Freese prevailed: A wide boulevard in the area of the previous station area should connect the new station with the city center. The focal points of the street should be Heidelberg Castle in the east and the reception building of the new train station in the west . The station building should be arranged perpendicular to the street and at an angle to the tracks.
The station was only slightly damaged in the Second World War; Parts of the depot and the freight depot were particularly affected. From 1947, another public debate began about the further construction of the station. Of the planned facilities worth 70 million DM (after the value in 1952), 80% had been completed by the end of the war. When the plans were revised, the number of platform tracks was reduced from 20 to eight, so that the remaining construction costs amounted to DM 12 million. The state of Württemberg-Baden contributed to the financing with a loan of 2.5 million DM. Another groundbreaking ceremony on September 12, 1950 ushered in the first major construction project decided on January 19, 1950 by the Deutsche Bundesbahn, founded in 1949, in which the excavator hole, which has been largely unused since 1914, was deepened by 50 centimeters in order to gain space for the planned electrification .
New train station from 1955
As the first part of the new main station, goods handling was opened on April 7, 1952. On December 17, 1952, the topping-out ceremony for the new reception building took place.
On May 5, 1955, the new central station was inaugurated by Federal President Theodor Heuss . Heuss, who had lived in Heidelberg for a few years, had arrived in Heidelberg on a special train from Bruchsal. The actual commissioning of the station took place in the night of May 7th to 8th. Two dams through which the old train station was provisionally accessible had to be removed. The sidings to the new station were already prepared under the dams. The last scheduled train to leave the old main station on May 8th at 04:22 was a passenger train to Heilbronn. On the same day the rail post office moved from Ebertplatz to Czernyring. In the first few days after the start of operations, there were start-up problems that were attributed to technical problems with the switches and the lack of experience of the staff with the new systems. With the new timetable, 18 long-distance trains also stopped in Heidelberg, which had previously bypassed the city due to the overload at the main train station.
The station building of the new station was designed by the architect and director of the Stuttgart Federal Railway Directorate, Helmuth Conradi (1903–1973), who had studied architecture under Paul Schmitthenner and Paul Bonatz in the 1920s and was influenced by the Stuttgart School . The counter hall with its longitudinal glass façade is - as envisaged in Hans Freese's designs from the National Socialist era - at an angle of 50 degrees to the tracks. On the south wall of the 53 meter long, 16 meter wide and 12 meter high hall there is a sgraffito by JoKarl Huber on the subject of movement (“ Helios with the sun chariot ”). A second wing of the building, arranged parallel to the tracks, accommodated baggage and express goods handling , waiting rooms and the station restaurant on the ground floor , as well as Bundesbahn offices on the upper floors. In the corner between the two parts of the building there is a circular staircase interpreted as a "joint". Attached to the station building, a 91 meter long and around 20 meter wide hall spans the platforms. The roof of the fully glazed hall was made from prestressed concrete in curved shapes .
When it was inaugurated in 1955, the reception building was sometimes criticized as the “glass box of aloofness”; later voices acknowledge the cross-platform hall as a "architectural and operational top achievement". The longitudinal glass façades were ascribed an elegance and lightness previously unknown in “train station buildings”; they correspond to the "ideals of the architecture of the 1950s of transparency, lightness and spaciousness." The modernity of the glass facade contrasts with the "vertical structure of the reception hall facade with comparatively strong, classical-looking concrete roof supports", according to a publication of the State Monuments Office for Baden-Württemberg from 2010.
The central Siemens pushbutton interlocking Hf was housed in the reception building. It replaced ten signal boxes in the old station; the number of those employed in the signal boxes fell from 45 to seven. For the new storage sidings West next to the depot there was the turnout guards interlocking 3 the type Sp Dr L . In 1972 the signal box was rebuilt, the control area was expanded to include the Heidelberg-Wieblingen and Heidelberg Königstuhl branches and the Heidelberg-Kirchheim train station using a Sp-Dr-S-60 signal box. In addition, a control panel was installed, the operation of the old interlocking parts was adapted to that of a Sp-Dr-S-60 interlocking and remote control of the Dr-S-2 interlocking Heidelberg Karlstor was set up.
On the west side, a separate area with another platform was created for the United States Army . Two baggage tunnels were built for loading luggage and mail onto the passenger trains. Instead of the elevators that had been common up to that point, ramps were used for the first time to connect to the platforms. To park trains ending in Heidelberg in the west near the depot, the West Park Group with 12 tracks, a washing facility and a wagon workshop was built. Another storage group east of the station with four tracks was used there for trains turning briefly.
Since the new Heidelberg main station was fully electrified from 1955, electric shunting locomotives could be used. The E 69 series locomotives, initially based in Heidelberg , were replaced by the E 60 series in 1964 . The first express train locomotives of the E 10.12 series and local railcars of the ET 56 series were also stationed in the Heidelberg depot from 1962 . The stationing of steam locomotives in Heidelberg ended in 1965 , and the coaling plant was shut down in 1968 . From 1970 on, only shunting locomotives and railcars were maintained in Heidelberg, and the depot closed in May 1989.
In 1966 the branch line to Schwetzingen was closed. With the establishment of Mannheim Central Station, only 17 km away, as an ICE junction in the 1990s, many long-distance connections to Heidelberg were no longer available. On the 40th anniversary of the inauguration of the new main train station, the Heidelberger Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung stated that the train station was becoming increasingly insignificant in international rail traffic, which contradicted future forecasts from 1955. In 1989 the depot was given up.
In November 1971, the Heidelberg Tourist Office, which takes care of city marketing, opened an information pavilion on the western forecourt.
The marshalling yard was one of the junction stations in the InterCargo freight train concept until the Mannheim marshalling yard took over this function in 1989. On November 30, 1997, the line between the marshalling yard and the Königstuhl junction was closed. The line from Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld Südein / ausf via Heidelberg Rbf to Heidelberg-Kirchheim - and thus also the marshalling yard itself - was shut down on September 27, 1998. The marshalling yard area was cleared on November 30, 2000, and the facilities were dismantled from 2006 onwards.
In spring 2003, elevators were put into operation between the cross-platform hall and the platforms as barrier-free access . As early as 1987, escalators were installed on the platforms for InterCity traffic . Since December 2003, Heidelberg Central Station has been a hub of the RheinNeckar S-Bahn .
On November 27, 2006, an electronic signal box from Thales went into operation at the station. In addition to the main train station, it also controls the Heidelberg-Kirchheim / Rohrbach and Karlstor stations and the Heidelberg-Wieblingen branch. The signal box is remote-controlled from the Karlsruhe operations center. A total of around 50 million euros was invested. The signal box building remained unchanged.
By setting the mail transport by train , the railway post office was shut down in July 1997, the south was the main train station close to the Montpellier Bridge. On June 1, 1997, the Heidelberg freight yard and thus general cargo handling and handling of wagon loads in Heidelberg was given up. In the station, which was originally designed for a capacity of 2500 wagons per day, 400 to 500 wagons were finally processed daily. On the site of the freight yard and the depot, a new district is to be built with the Bahnstadt, the first buildings have been under construction since 2010. In order to develop the Bahnstadt, the cross-platform hall of the main station has been extended to the south since January 2011.
Further use of the old station area
With the relocation of Heidelberg Central Station in May 1955, 24 hectares of railway area became free. Development plans developed by the city administration at the beginning of the 1950s took up ideas from the plans that arose during the National Socialist era: The plan was to build a generously dimensioned connecting road in an east-west direction for the electoral complex, which was up to 70 meters wide . Around 60% of the area freed up was used to create streets and squares. Carl Neinhaus , who after his dismissal in 1945 was re-elected Mayor of Heidelberg seven years later, believed in 1955 that the hope that “the new connecting road will become a lively street with shops in a relatively short time” was justified. A “visiting card of the city” should emerge, according to Neinhaus.
In July 1956 a tram line was opened through the Kurfürstenanlage to the new central station. The road was built step by step, with administrative buildings in particular, including for the Heidelberg Regional Court . At the beginning of the 1960s, the Menglerbau was built on the site of the former main station , which is still the only high- rise residential building in downtown Heidelberg. On the new station forecourt, now named after Willy Brandt , the chemical trade association , today's BG RCI , erected a building in 1990 . In 2000 the Print Media Academy was built , an office and training building for Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG , in front of which the sculpture S-Printing Horse is located. Since May 1993, trains of the Upper Rhine Railway Company (OEG) have been using the tram stop immediately north of the reception building . For this purpose, the OEG route was relocated in the direction of Wieblingen and connected to the tram network at the main station.
With around 30,500 travelers per day, the station was the eighth largest in Baden-Württemberg in 2005.
The urban development of the Kurfürstenanlage was described in 2010 as "sobering". The hoped-for shops, cafes and restaurants have failed to materialize; for pedestrians the street is unattractive due to the high volume of traffic. The Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung stated in 1995 that the train station was "still a bit out of the way 'out in the west' ', without the expected strong pulling effect." The expected merging of the districts Bergheim and Weststadt had not materialized, the authorities buildings that were built on the Kurfürstenanlage were " very dreary ”. In 2011, the demolition of the office buildings along the Kurfürstenanlage began; these are to be replaced by apartments in the next few years, making this part of the city center more attractive.
In long-distance passenger rail transport , Heidelberg station is served by the following Intercity lines, individual EuroCity and Intercity Express trains and, until March 2020, the Flixtrain line FLX 10:
|line||Line course||Clock frequency|
|Stuttgart - Vaihingen - Heidelberg - Darmstadt - Frankfurt am Main - Erfurt - Halle (Saale) - Berlin||a train (Sat, Sun)|
|Hamburg-Altona - Hamburg - Hanover - Göttingen - Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe - Frankfurt am Main - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Stuttgart||a pair of trains|
|Dortmund - Bochum - Essen - Duisburg - Düsseldorf - Cologne - Cologne / Bonn Airport - Siegburg / Bonn - Montabaur - Wiesbaden - Mainz - Frankfurt am Main - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Bruchsal - Karlsruhe - Vaihingen - Ludwigsburg - Stuttgart - Ulm - Augsburg - Munich||a pair of trains|
|( Stralsund -) Hamburg - Hanover - Göttingen - Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe - Gießen - Frankfurt am Main - Darmstadt - Heidelberg - Bruchsal - Karlsruhe||Every two hours|
|Cologne - Cologne / Bonn Airport - Siegburg / Bonn - Montabaur - Wiesbaden - Mainz - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Vaihingen - Stuttgart||a pair of trains (Mon-Fri)|
|Westerland - Hamburg - Hanover - Göttingen - Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe - Gießen - Frankfurt am Main - Darmstadt - Heidelberg - Bruchsal - Karlsruhe||individual trains|
|(Ostseebad Binz - Stralsund -) or (Westerland -) Hamburg - Bremen - Osnabrück - Münster - Dortmund - Bochum - Essen - Duisburg - Düsseldorf - Cologne - Bonn - Koblenz - Mainz - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Vaihingen - Stuttgart||Every two hours|
|Berlin - Stendal - Hanover - (Osnabrück - Münster - Essen -) Duisburg - Düsseldorf - Cologne - Bonn - Koblenz - Mainz - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Vaihingen (Enz) - Stuttgart (- Reutlingen - Tübingen ) or (- Göppingen - Ulm - Aulendorf - Friedrichshafen - Lindau - Bregenz - Innsbruck ) or (- Ulm - Munich - Salzburg - Villach - Klagenfurt ) or (- Ulm - Memmingen - Kempten - Oberstdorf )||four to seven pairs of trains|
|Norddeich Mole - Norddeich - Emden - Münster - Recklinghausen - Gelsenkirchen - Oberhausen - Duisburg - ( Düsseldorf Airport -) Düsseldorf - Cologne - Bonn - Koblenz - Mainz - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Vaihingen (Enz) - Stuttgart||a pair of trains on the weekend|
In rail transport hourly operate regional train -line about Darmstadt to Frankfurt, two regional express -line to Heilbronn, two hourly alternately Sinsheim or Eberbach and Mosbach-Neckarelz, and a two-hourly regional express line over Muehlacker Stuttgart and a Regionalbahn- Line to Wiesloch-Walldorf via Heidelberg-Kirchheim / Rohrbach.
|Heidelberg - Mannheim - Neustadt - Homburg - Saarbrücken - Trier - Koblenz||a pair of trains|
|Mannheim - Heidelberg - Eberbach - Mosbach-Neckarelz - Bad Friedrichshall - Heilbronn||Every two hours|
|Mannheim - Heidelberg - Meckesheim - Sinsheim - Bad Friedrichshall - Heilbronn||Every two hours|
|Heidelberg - Wiesloch-Walldorf - Bruchsal - Bretten - Mühlacker - Vaihingen - Bietigheim - Ludwigsburg - Stuttgart||Every two hours|
|Frankfurt am Main - Darmstadt - Bensheim - Weinheim - Neu-Edingen / Friedrichsfeld - Heidelberg - Wiesloch-Walldorf||Hourly|
|Homburg - Kaiserslautern - Neustadt - Ludwigshafen - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Neckargemünd - Eberbach - Mosbach - Osterburken||Hourly|
|Kaiserslautern - Neustadt - Ludwigshafen - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Neckargemünd - Eberbach - Mosbach||Hourly|
|Germersheim - Speyer - Ludwigshafen - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Wiesloch-Walldorf - Bruchsal - Karlsruhe||Hourly|
|Germersheim - Speyer - Ludwigshafen - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Wiesloch-Walldorf - Bruchsal||Hourly|
|Mannheim-Waldhof - Mannheim - Heidelberg - Wiesloch-Walldorf||Individual trains|
|Heidelberg - Neckargemünd - Meckesheim - Sinsheim - Eppingen||Hourly
(Peak hours: every half hour)
|(Mannheim -) Heidelberg - Aglasterhausen||Hourly
(Peak hours: every half hour)
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- Press service of the Karlsruhe Federal Railway Directorate (ed.): 115 years of Heidelberg railway station 1840–1955. Festschrift for the opening of Heidelberg Central Station on May 5, 1955. Hüthig & Dreyer, Heidelberg 1955.
- Location, track systems, permitted speeds and signals of the station on the OpenRailwayMap
- Track plan of Heidelberg Hbf station on the Deutsche Bahn website (PDF; 392 kB)
- Heidelberg main station. 50 years of the new main station at www.pro-bahn-bw.de
- From the Rhine, Main and Neckar - inauguration of the Heidelberg train station (May 7th, 1955). Retrieved October 27, 2019 .
- From the Rhine, Main and Neckar - demolition of the old Heidelberg train station (October 9, 1955). Retrieved October 30, 2019 .
- Manfred Berger : Historic train station buildings. Volume III: Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse. Transpress, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-344-00267-8 , p. 97.
- Location of the old main station:
- Berger, Bahnhofsbauten , p. 93.
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- Avant-garde yesterday and today. Railway station buildings from the 1950s in Baden-Württemberg ( Memento from May 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Berger, Bahnhofsbauten , p. 97.
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- Quoted in Feitenhansl, Avantgarde , p. 136.
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- References: Relay Interlocking Systems . SIGNON Deutschland GmbH, archived from the original on March 24, 2016 ; accessed on March 24, 2016 .
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- Lurz, extension , p. 66 f.
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- Feitenhansl, Avantgarde , p. 137