Calendar overview 1431
|Joan of Arc is burned at the stake.||
becomes Pope Eugene IV.
Kingdom of Castile defeats the Emirate of Granada
in the Battle of La Higueruela .
|1431 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||879/880 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||3rd rabbit - Jei Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 2nd house - Ome Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1974/75 (southern Buddhism); 1973/74 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||793/794 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||834/835 (turn of the year 8/9 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5191/92 (September 7/8)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1741/42 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1742/43 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1487/88 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Hundred Years War
- January 9th : Bishop Pierre Cauchon opens the inquisition trial against Joan of Arc in Rouen . The charges accuse her, among other things, of fairy magic, the use of the mandrake root, heresy, the worship of demons and murder because Jeanne was not recognized as a soldier and therefore all men she defeated in battles should be regarded as murder victims. On May 19, she was found guilty on twelve of the 67 charges. When she was told after the verdict was announced that the stake awaited her if she did not admit her erroneous beliefs, Jeanne renounced her convictions. On May 24th she was excommunicated in the St-Ouen cemetery . After her renunciation, she is sentenced as a heretic to life imprisonment.
- May 29th : After her confession is revoked, Joan of Arc is tried again. Under the chairmanship of John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford , she is sentenced to death by burning as a "notoriously recidivist heretic".
- May 30th : Joan of Arc is burned at the stake in Rouen , her ashes scattered in the Seine.
- December 16 : At the age of 10, the English King Henry VI. crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris .
- February 20 : The second siege of Bautzen by the Hussites begins. This, too, ultimately remains unsuccessful.
- February / March: A resolution to fight the Hussites is passed at the Reichstag in Nuremberg under King Sigismund .
- August 14 : The decisive victory of the Hussites under Andreas Prokop in the battle of Taus leads to the end of the Catholic crusade in Bohemia led by Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini and prompts Pope Eugene IV to strive for a negotiated solution.
- May: Ridwân Banûegas , vizier of the of Emir Muhammad IX. Muhammad VIII , murdered from the Nasrid dynasty , visits the Castilian King John II at his court in Cordoba and offers him his support to install a loyal ruler in Granada in Yusuf ibn al-Mawl .
- July 1st : Reconquista : In the battle of La Higueruela in the Vega des Genil near Granada , the kingdom of Castile, under the leadership of the condestable Álvaro de Luna, triumphs over the emirate of Granada . Emir Muhammad IX. is overthrown and replaced by the Castile-friendly Yusuf IV .
Other events in Europe
- July 2 : The battle of Bulgnéville for the inheritance of the Duchy of Lorraine after Charles II , who died on January 25, brings Count Anton von Vaudemont, despite his victory and the capture of his adversary Rene of Provence and Anjou, no long-term advantage, as the German King Sigismund opposes his enfeoffment.
- On the Italian expedition of King Sigismund , he was crowned King of Italy .
- The Portuguese begin colonizing the Azores on the island of Santa Maria . On the initiative of Isabella of Portugal , the sister of Henry the Navigator , who is married to Philip the Good of Burgundy , the early settlers not only include Portuguese farmers, but also Flemings , as the Netherlands belonged to the territory of Burgundy.
- The Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya conquers Angkor and ends the supremacy of the Khmer in Southeast Asia .
- The construction of the Cathedral of St. Jacob in Šibenik in Dalmatia begins. The Venetian Renaissance builder Giorgio da Sebenico is based on the basic plan of a three-aisled basilica with apses and transept dome .
- November 27th : Duke Philip III. of Burgundy issues the statutes of the Order of Knights of the Golden Fleece , which he brought into being .
- March 3 : Gabriele Condulmer is elected Pope by the conclave to succeed Martin V , who died on February 20, and takes the name Eugene IV .
- July 23 or 29 : Pope Eugene IV opens the Council of Basel convened by his predecessor .
- November 12 or December 18 : Eugene IV, who represents the primacy of the Pope , dissolves the council with the consistorial bull Quoniam alto and, alternatively, calls an assembly in Bologna .
- December 14th : The Basel Council sets its goals at its first session. With the extermination of heresy, the unification of all Christian peoples in one church, the end of wars between Christian princes and a reform of the church at its head and members, it undertakes a great program. The attitude prevails that a council is above the Pope .
- The very cold winter of 1431/1432 marks the beginning of a decade in Central Europe with cold winters combined with years of famine. Even large rivers such as the Rhine and Danube freeze over by the end of November.
Date of birth saved
- January 1st : Roderic Llançol i de Borja, under the name Alexander VI. Pope († 1503 )
- March 22nd : Juan de Castro , Bishop of Girgenti and Apostolic Administrator of Schleswig († 1506 )
- October 26 : Ercole I. d'Este , Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio († 1505 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Borommatrailokanat , King of Ayutthaya († 1488 )
- Margarete von Baden , Electress of Brandenburg († 1457 )
- Johann Filipec , Bishop of Oradea († 1509 )
- Keckhans von Gemmingen , German nobleman, Lord of Gemmingen († 1487 )
- Andrea Mantegna , Italian painter and engraver († 1506 )
- Antonio Pollaiuolo , Italian sculptor, engraver and painter († 1498 )
- François Villon , French poet, scholar, vagante and criminal († after 1463)
Born around 1431
- Vlad III. Drăculea , ruler of Wallachia, known from Bram Stoker's Dracula († 1476 )
- William Hastings , English nobleman, 1st Baron Hastings († 1483 )
- Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford , English nobleman, uncle of King Henry VII of England († 1495 )
Date of death secured
- January 25 : Charles II , the Bold, Duke of Lorraine (* 1364 )
- February 20 : Martin V , Italian Pope (* 1368 )
- April 1st : Jean Jouvenel , French lawyer
- April 5 : Bernhard I , Margrave of Baden (* 1364 )
- April 19 : Adolf III. , Count of Waldeck zu Landau (* 1362 )
- May 6 : Boleslaus I , Duke of Teschen (* after 1363)
- May 20 : Guillaume de Challant , Bishop of Lausanne (* around 1350 )
- May 30th : Joan of Arc ("Maid of Orléans"), French national heroine (* 1412 )
- July 2nd : Johann I , Count of Saar Werden
- July 2nd : Philipp von Ingelheim , aldermen at the Ingelheimer Oberhof and knight
- July 3 : Antonio Panciera , Patriarch of Aquileia and Cardinal (* 1350 )
- August 13 : Violante von Bar , Queen of Aragón (* 1365 )
- August 24 : Ruprecht II , Duke of Lüben and Haynau, Grand Prior of the Order of Malta (* 1392 )
- November 1 : Nuno Álvares Pereira , Portuguese military leader and Carmelite (* 1360 )
- November 23 : Walter Fitzwalter, 7th Baron Fitzwalter , English nobleman and military man (* 1400 )
- December 1 : Elisabeth von Ziegenhain , Countess of Hanau (* around 1375 )
- December 12th : Ulrich von Albeck , Bishop of Seckau
- December 24th : Konrad von Vechta , Bishop of Verden, and Olmütz, Archbishop of Prague (* around 1370 )
Exact date of death unknown
- before January 27th: Thomas Carew , British military
- Arnault Guilhem de Barbazan , French military leader in the Hundred Years War (* 1360 )
- Muhammad VIII , Sultan of Granada (* 1411 )
- Stanisław von Skarbimierz , Polish lawyer, Canon of the Wawel Cathedral in Krakow (* around 1362 )