|languages||German , 75 more|
subsidiary of Google LLC
Google account (optional;
for uploading, subscribing, commenting and rating)
|Annual income||15 billion US dollars (2019)|
|On-line||February 14, 2005|
YouTube (pronunciation [ ˈjuːtuːb or ˈjuːtjuːb ]) is a video portal founded in 2005 by the US company YouTube, LLC , a subsidiary of Google LLC since 2006 , based in San Bruno, California . On the portal, users can view, rate, comment and upload video clips free of charge . In 2019, YouTube had annual sales of $ 15 billion. Most of the income is generated by playing commercials .
There are all kinds of videos on YouTube, including: a. Film and - television cutouts, music videos , trailers and home movies and slideshows . Thus, in addition to professional information or entertainment, there is also all sorts of technically immature, funny and sad things, tutorials and disinformation , propaganda , conspiracy theories or even philosophical thoughts in addition to the staging of virtual violence, but also the documentation of real violence on the platform.
The YouTube partner program has made it possible for video producers to earn money since 2007. Producers often organize themselves to cooperate in networks (“ multi-channel network ”).
YouTube was founded on February 14, 2005 by three former PayPal employees, Chad Hurley , Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim . The term part of "Tube" (actually: tube ) called colloquially a television , derived from the previously used it, "cathode ray tube" ( dt. CRT ). The name as a whole (literally: you tube ) could be understood as “you send”. The first video on this platform, entitled Me at the zoo , was uploaded by Karim himself on April 23, 2005.
On October 9, 2006, YouTube was bought by the search engine operator Google for the equivalent of 1.31 billion euros (in shares). The YouTube brand remained; the company with 67 employees - including the founders Chad Hurley and Steve Chen - initially continued the business independently.
In 2007, YouTube launched an annual competition to promote talent on the platform. Under the name “Secret Talents” ( Secret Talents Award ), the major casting shows were countered with an online casting. The winners were offered funding budgets and a professional YouTube channel as prizes.
A study by the market research institute Hitwise from March 2008 assigned 73 percent of all visits to US video portal sites to YouTube. The own video offer of the parent company Google came to 8.4 percent during this time.
On April 3, 2010, a new design was introduced that included the ratings that users could give to a video if the video supported ratings, from a scale of one to five stars through the "likes" and "likes" that are still used today not me ”fields. This measure was taken because users previously mostly only gave five or one star when rating.
The design of YouTube has been changed several times since the website was launched, but mostly only slightly. On the night of December 1st and 2nd, 2011, there was a major change and on March 7th, 2012 all channels on YouTube received a new, uniform design.
In August 2012, YouTube Movies was launched in Germany after the offer had been available in the United States for some time. YouTube Movies is a separate area of the platform in which only professional films and documentaries are offered, including Dune or Dawn of the Dead .
From September 2012, new designs from YouTube could be accessed using cookies . For example , if you opened the YouTube mobile website with your smartphone , you could already see the new design.
In December 2012 the design was revised again.
In October 2013, YouTube presented a new design based on the Google+ design. Since the changeover, only Google+ members are allowed to comment on videos.
Since the end of 2015, Google has been offering an alternative YouTube interface with YouTube Gaming , which specializes in video games . For example, it should make it easier to find video game channels.
In autumn 2017, YouTube got a new design based on Google's material design .
In addition, since 2017 Google has been testing the “ Community ” tab, which allows video creators to post text, images or surveys in a similar way to a social network. In the winter of 2017, the function was also activated for larger channels outside the USA. The new "Community" tab replaces the "Discussion" tab.
On April 3, 2018 was just before 13:00 ( UTC an "active shooter" () active shooter ) in the YouTube headquarters in San Bruno , San Francisco reported. The suspects Nasim Aghdam Najafi was with a gun armed, approached a terrace and opened fire. Three people were gunshot wounds , including one critical injury. Another person was injured while escaping the building . Police reported that the shooter died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound . The San Mateo County Sheriff and local San police advised the public to stay out of the area. Several YouTube employees posted live updates from campus on Twitter and Snapchat . The authorities initially thought that the 39-year-old shooter Aghdam had been motivated to do the crime by a domestic quarrel. However, she complains on her website that she only got $ 0.10 in ad revenue with over 350,000 views . The San Francisco General Hospital and the Stanford University Medical Center treated the victims of the incident, a 36-year-old man, a 32-year-old and a 27-year-old woman.
YouTube Premium was launched in Germany in mid-June 2018. This allows users to watch advertising-free YouTube videos as well as exclusive series and films for a monthly fee .
The music streaming service YouTube Music was also launched in Germany in mid-June . The two services started in Switzerland in November 2018.
On March 20, 2020, YouTube announced that it would reduce image quality in Europe due to the COVID-19 pandemic .
YouTube uses Apache as its web server ; a modified version of Lighttpd with improved load distribution is used for images and other static content . The Flash container format (file name extension: flv) and the 3gp container format intended for mobile devices were initially used to save the published video films . However, the company later began to offer its videos in MPEG-4 container format and in WebM container format. The corresponding video versions can be accessed via a link below the normal version. Since November 25, 2008, suitable videos have also been shown in 16: 9 widescreen format.
Since the beginning of 2010, it has also been possible to view a large part of the videos in HTML5 format and thus with standard browser tools. This could be activated on a special page. All videos have been available in HTML5 format since mid-2014. This is now supported by all common browsers and is now the standard format on YouTube. When it was introduced in 2014, it was only partially possible to use the offer with Internet Explorer . This also required the Google Chrome plug-in for full support.
The YouTube interface is implemented in the Python programming language . MySQL is used as the database management system .
View and archive videos
The videos can be viewed online as a stream in the web browser . Up until 2010, this required the installation of the Adobe Flash plug-in. Since the beginning of 2010, it has also been possible to play videos ( using the HTML5 video and audio tag ) without a plugin.
YouTube had neither planned nor implemented permanent storage of the videos. However, server-based services such as Filsh can be used for local storage . It is also possible to simply back up the videos by copying temporary files . Another popular option is downloading using special software that can convert the videos to other file formats.
Examples of Flash video-compatible playback programs under Windows are the Media Player Classic (with ffdshow filter), the VLC media player , the MPlayer and the FLV media player , which is designed exclusively for .flv files . By installing special codecs , playback is also possible with the widely used Windows Media Player and Winamp programs .
Every user can create a free account on YouTube and save videos as favorites. The favorites list can in turn be viewed by other users. If you don't want others to be able to look through your own favorites list, you can hide it from other visitors to the site.
Videos can be uploaded to YouTube in various formats (such as AVI , MPEG , WMV or QuickTime ). A video resolution of 480 × 360 pixels or higher is recommended . During the conversion, the videos are transferred to Flash video format and MP4 / WebM containers with H.264 codec. The scaling eliminates any loss of quality that can result from a lossy format conversion . The file size limit on the client side is 20 GB, but from 2 GB Java is required. A resumable upload is also possible.
Some users have lost this privilege again. However, the file size limit still applies. In 2011, it was possible to deactivate the 15-minute limit by confirming the account via SMS.
Since December 2008 it has been possible to upload and view videos in HD . These are displayed in a resolution of 1280 × 720 pixels, i.e. 720p . 1080p has been supported since mid-November 2009 . Uploading in 3D has also been possible since July 2009.
Since July 2010, YouTube has also been accepting videos in 4K resolution. These are four times the size of HD videos and have a resolution of 4096 × 2304 pixels . A Google account is now also required for a YouTube account, even if you have been the owner of one for many years.
The video platform supports a 360 ° video function. This creates an all-round movement of the perspective. The perspective results from the point of view from which the viewer can independently choose the rotation of the chamber activity. This function can be used on the computer with position buttons. The function is not enabled on mobile devices via interface buttons, but via the built-in rotation sensor. In addition, the user can use VR glasses. Playback is possible up to a resolution of 4K.
Dating in California
According to the location of the company's headquarters (San Mateo, then San Bruno) in California, United States, the uploading date is in the time zone UTC −8 and thus numerically 9 hours earlier than CET (= UTC + 1). So if a video is uploaded in the morning before 9 a.m. CET, it will be dated “from the previous day”.
A YouTube channel (English Channel ) is the individual area of a YouTube user. Here you can find the public videos, playlists and information about the channel, among other things. The channel can be designed individually; For example, you can change the cover picture, change the title of the channel and add and delete modules such as playlists.
For some time now, YouTube has also been publishing its own channels under the name YouTube TV , some of which are created in cooperation with major television broadcasters . In October 2012, the company announced that it would also start the service in Germany. Of a total of 60 channels, 12 should be available for local users, with eNtR berlin being broadcast on the web through a collaboration with RTL subsidiary UFA / Fremantle , for example .
On October 22, 2012, Ponk, the first original YouTube channel in Germany, was launched. Original channels are or have been financially supported by YouTube.
The best-known German-speaking YouTube channels include Freekickerz , BibisBeautyPalace , Julien Bam , Gronkh , The Voice Kids , Simon Desue , Dagi Bee , Julienco , ApeCrime and ConCrafter . The operators of YouTube channels are also known as YouTubers or, in the company's official jargon, video artists . Multichannel or YouTube networks bundle video channels in order to increase the reach for advertisers, offer help with marketing and build stars on their video platform.
In November 2019, YouTube announced a change to its terms and conditions, according to which channels can be closed from December 10, 2019 if the "provision of the service is uneconomical". This was of particular concern among operators of smaller channels.
YouTube offers the option of embedding videos on your own website. For this purpose, YouTube provides a code excerpt itself on the respective video page under Forward → Embed, which displays the video in an inline frame .
In the summer of 2011, this method replaced the previously widespread method of integrating Adobe Flash using object code.
As with the comparable portal Google Video , the mostly poor quality of the films was criticized in the early days. However, it is now possible to switch to a higher audio and picture quality (HQ). Videos are available in the resolutions 720p and 1080p and, since July 2010, also 4096 × 2304 pixels ( 4K2K ), provided they have been uploaded in the appropriate resolution. Since October 2014, YouTube has supported the usual frame rates of 24 to 30 frames, as well as the frame rate of 60 frames per second. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2016, YouTube announced that it would also support HDR videos in the future. HDR support was then implemented in the fall of the same year.
YouTube currently accepts videos up to a resolution of 8192 × 4320 pixels ( 8K ), with each video being a maximum of 12 hours and 128 GB (for channels confirmed by SMS, 20 GB for unconfirmed channels), whichever comes first is achieved.
The popularity of YouTube is based on the large number of members who upload, rate and comment on video files ( network effect ). Since its founding, YouTube has rapidly risen to become the leading video portal on the Internet. In March 2008, the United States had a market share of about 73 percent. However, YouTube only ranked 5th in downstream traffic in America in 2018 (leading: Netflix ), while YouTube is the leading platform in Europe.
After the success of YouTube, private television stations in Germany tried similar offers. In August 2006, RTL announced that it was the initiator of the Clipfish video platform ( Watchbox since 2017 ), and a few weeks later ProSiebenSat.1 Media acquired a 30 percent stake in its competitor MyVideo . Nevertheless, YouTube is still the market leader in Germany.
On the platform have become so over time big fan - Communities of successful influencers developed. The Videodays are Europe's largest YouTuber festival, where fans can meet their stars. VidCon is also taking place in the USA , the largest video convention in the world, which is heavily influenced by the YouTube scene.
Languages and partners
The YouTube interface is available in 76 different language versions, including German . YouTube works with national partners who provide material for the portal. For example, if you go to the German version of YouTube (de.youtube.com), you will find film material from partners such as the broadcaster ZDF or the soccer club FC Bayern München on the homepage in the “Promoted Videos” category .
The platform developed rapidly. In 2006, around 65,000 new videos were uploaded every day and 100 million clips viewed, which corresponds to three new videos every four seconds (as of October 2006). In October 2009, the company announced that it had over a billion video views per day. On May 17, 2010, YouTube reported more than two billion views per day. In May 2013, over 100 hours of video material per minute were loaded onto the platform. As of August 2017, 73 videos on YouTube had more than a billion views, of which only three were not music videos. With over five billion views, the music video by Despacito by the artist Luis Fonsi is the most clicked video, and with over 17 million "likes" it is also the most liked video. In August 2017, it replaced the music video of See You Again by artist Wiz Khalifa , which only held the title for just under a month. This in turn replaced the most-clicked music video for Gangnam Style for four years .
Videos complained about by users or reported as offensive are checked by YouTube employees and deleted if necessary.
According to calculations by a US company, YouTube accounts for 10 percent of all data traffic on the Internet and 20 percent of HTTP traffic.
Similar to Google Analytics , YouTube Analytics can be used to determine the traffic analysis of videos and video clips . This service is only available to the owner of the respective YouTube account .
Today the electricity consumption per gigabyte is 0.2 kilowatt hours, about as much as if you blow-dry your hair for five minutes. It used to take 20 kilowatt hours to download a gigabyte of data from the Internet.
The simple click fraud to increase the number of visitors is punished by YouTube by deleting the supposedly achieved number of visitors. Users are also warned of certain vendor techniques that violate the guidelines; At the same time, the fee-based “TrueView” function ( Google Ads ) is recommended to increase visitor numbers. By August 2015, the control algorithm was activated for over 300 visits, so that the counter for viral videos remained “frozen” at 301 for around half a day. Unsuspicious calls are now counted immediately and only suspicious calls are added later, if necessary, only after a check.
Part of the political discourse on classic TV talk formats takes place on YouTube. There the viewers have the opportunity to express their opinion directly through the comment function.
In addition, YouTube almost completely replaced music television , which was booming in the 1990s and which until then had almost exclusively spread current “pop culture”.
For many producers, live broadcasts of concert events (for example in larger movie theaters) and corresponding online offers have already become "routine". Short YouTube video clips are used to advertise these events in the form of “ trailers ” (without this name being used explicitly) and at the same time for the associated “documents” (online concerts), which are presented, for example, by the Berliner Philharmoniker in a “Digital Concert Hall ”are collected and available.
Apps for mobile devices
The app pre-installed up to the fourth beta version of iOS 6 , known as "YouTube", enabled iOS users to watch YouTube videos even though the operating system did not include a Flash player . Like the desktop portal, the app also offered a comment and favorites function and played videos in H.264 format . Apple has removed the YouTube app from the operating system as of said version . The reason given was the expiry of the license to use YouTube by Google Inc. , but industry representatives saw the distance rather in the increasing competition between the two companies. As part of this, Google presented its own iOS app at the beginning of September 2012, which offers a range of functions similar to the Apple counterpart. The YouTube application could still be used on iOS devices with older iOS versions until the beginning of 2015, after which Google finally discontinued server-side support.
In contrast, there is a corresponding application for Google's own Android operating system .
An app developed by Microsoft also existed for Windows Phone , but after a short time it could no longer access YouTube due to a dispute between Microsoft and Google. For this reason, it has been replaced by an app that, when launched, opens the YouTube mobile website in Internet Explorer Mobile .
With the app version 5.0 released on August 21, 2013, it was then possible to drag videos as a pop-up into the lower corner while using other functions.
In 2013, YouTube released the “YouTube Capture App”, which should make it easier for smartphone owners to record films and publish them directly from their smartphone via their own YouTube user account. This app was later renamed "YouTube Studio".
In November 2005 YouTube received 3.5 million dollars from Silicon Valley - venture capitalists Sequoia Capital , who is also Google had helped with the initial financing. In April 2006, the young company received an additional $ 8 million from Sequoia.
YouTube's valuation rose from $ 600 million in early 2006 to $ 1.5 billion in the fall of the same year when it was acquired by Google for that amount. According to a report in the New York Post newspaper , companies like Viacom , Disney , AOL , eBay, and Rupert Murdochs News Corp. - the parent company of the New York Post - interested in buying YouTube. Murdoch's media empire sparked a new internet shopping frenzy in 2005 with the purchase of the Myspace portal for 580 million US dollars.
Since May 2013 there have been paid channels that help finance YouTube. It started in the United States with partners such as National Geographic or ES.TV , whose episodes could be subscribed to for 99 cents . Paid channels are available on the website as well as on smartphones and tablets .
Although YouTube is the most-visited video portal in the world with a billion hits per day, it is unclear whether it has even broken even so far .
Affiliate program and multi-channel networks
After initial reluctance, YouTube began showing advertisements for videos from selected partners in August 2007. The partners receive a share of the advertising revenue from their videos. Videos that have been uploaded by private individuals should not be linked to advertising for the time being.
The affiliate program was also available in Canada, Great Britain, Japan, Australia, and Ireland after the United States. The prerequisites for participating in the partner program are the regular uploading of original videos whose copyright you own. In addition, according to YouTube, the videos must be watched by thousands of users. On June 26, 2008, Google Germany announced that the partner program is now also available in France and Germany.
As an alternative to the YouTube partner program, YouTube channel owners have the option of joining a so-called multi-channel network (MCN), i.e. a network consisting of a large number of YouTube channels. The MCN negotiate independently with advertising partners and should theoretically be able to achieve higher prices for the adverts placed due to their enormous reach. In addition, they sometimes offer channel owners other services, such as licensing of protected content, access to high-performance recording technology, financing, advice, help in acquiring subscribers, etc. For their service, they receive a contractually stipulated share of the advertising income of the YouTube channels they have joined Google is transferred directly to the MCN. There are software interfaces for this, which are also used in a similar form by rights holders to mark and, if necessary, block copyrighted content on YouTube (content ID system). Well-known MCNs from Germany are Mediakraft Networks , Studio71 , Divimove , TubeOne Networks and Endemol Beyond .
If content is shown in the videos of a YouTube channel to which third parties hold the copyrights, it is not possible to independently participate in the YouTube partner program with this channel. If such a channel is to generate advertising revenue, it is necessary to join an MCN, which takes care of the licensing of the protected content. In a sense, the MCN acts as a trustee for Google. At the beginning of the MCN system, Google only permitted individual MCNs to license content in certain categories. The sole licensing partner for content from computer games was, for example, the Machinima company , which had a monopoly on this YouTube content. In the meantime, other MCNs are authorized to license, so that there is now competition in this area.
The pros and cons of the MCN system have been critically discussed by several major YouTubers, including Hank Green , and Freddie Wong . The MCNs are sometimes criticized for their business conduct, for example with regard to contracts with unlimited duration or the sheer size of their channel portfolio, which often consists of thousands, sometimes very small, YouTube channels.
A sub-network is a virtual network under a multi-channel network that does not have a direct contract with YouTube, but rather has limited access to network functionalities via a network. Working as a subnetwork is simplified by many American networks through special software. Subnetwork partners sign a contract with two companies at the same time and are then invited to the multi-channel network that maintains the subnetwork.
Due to the many sub-networks that flood the market and are inflexible to YouTubers, YouTube introduced a policy in June 2016 that bans sub-networks.
In Germany, according to the legal scholar Thomas Hoeren, watching YouTube videos is in no way punishable and downloading them only if the sources are obviously illegal. According to Hoeren, there are no clear definitions of "obviously illegal", and he is also unaware of warnings about such sources.
In the terms and conditions, YouTube reserves the right to resell or license uploaded content (videos) without asking the author beforehand.
According to the applicable US law, YouTube must only delete copyrighted content after a warning from the rights holder ( opt-out procedure ).
Disputes with GEMA
According to a press release dated November 9, 2007, the German collecting society GEMA concluded an agreement with YouTube, LLC that entitles German users to use the world repertoire of musical works on the YouTube platform. This agreement expired on March 31, 2009. Both sides could not agree on an extension. In May 2010, GEMA broke off negotiations with YouTube.
On the way of provisional legal protection, GEMA, in conjunction with several other collecting societies, wanted to ensure that a total of 75 compositions should not be made publicly available on YouTube. In a judgment of September 3, 2010, the Hamburg Regional Court banned the distribution of three videos on YouTube in violation of copyright law. On April 20, 2012, the Hamburg regional court ruled in the first instance in a test case involving twelve music titles that the Internet portal may not provide videos on music titles for which GEMA has asserted copyright rights of use. As a content provider, YouTube is not primarily responsible for music videos that are illegally posted on the music platform, but rather the user who uploads them. At the same time, however, YouTube must pay more attention to which videos are discontinued. In the future, this must also be done through the use of word filters. In the event of a violation, the court imposed a fine of up to 250,000 euros or a regular detention of up to six months in individual cases.
On May 21, 2012, GEMA appealed because the judgment “did not go far enough”. She also complained that YouTube did not want to disclose the results of the negotiations. On the grounds that the “use of filters would impair innovation and freedom of expression on the Internet”, YouTube also appealed the April 20 ruling. On July 1, 2015, the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court confirmed the ruling of the Hamburg Regional Court: YouTube and the parent company Google are responsible for uploaded videos within the scope of interference liability and, to a certain, reasonable extent, are also obliged to check them and the Block title if necessary. The day before, the Munich Regional Court decided in another process that YouTube did not have to pay compensation to GEMA for certain titles that had already been called up. On the basis of 0.375 cents per request for 1,000 exemplarily selected titles, the amount in dispute was around 1.6 million euros.
Blocking of music videos
In Germany, many music videos were not available from 2009, including those from the music group joint venture Vevo , but also those that are not represented by GEMA or another collecting society. In 2013, after evaluating the 1000 most popular YouTube videos , data journalists from Opendatacity found that 62% of them are not available in Germany. Videos that are not actually music videos at all, but rather contain music to accompany artistic or sporting presentations or background music, but also music that runs randomly during a private video of a party, were also often affected. When visiting such a page, the video was blocked. The following notice was displayed until February 2014:
"This video is not available in Germany because it may contain music for which the necessary music rights have not been granted by GEMA."
GEMA described this as misleading: YouTube never applied for a license from GEMA; the selection of videos is also purely random. GEMA had therefore applied for an injunction against the display of the notice boards at the Munich Regional Court. On February 25, 2014, the lawsuit was upheld. The Regional Court of Munich I ruled that the notice boards were an “absolutely distorted representation of the legal dispute between the parties to the detriment of GEMA”. The text was then changed to:
"Unfortunately, this video is not available in Germany as it could contain music that we have not yet been able to agree on with GEMA."
On May 7, 2015, the judgment was largely upheld by the Munich Higher Regional Court .
However , by taking special precautions (for example the use of proxy servers ) it was possible to bypass these locks. Various unblocker add-ons have been offered on the Internet for the Firefox , Chrome , Safari and Opera web browsers to simplify use .
On November 1, 2016, YouTube announced that it had reached an agreement with GEMA. The future licensing fees and payments with retroactive effect until 2009 were agreed and the ban on music videos with music by the musicians represented by GEMA was lifted. It was agreed not to disclose the amount of the amounts paid by YouTube to GEMA per view.
On July 14, 2006, US journalist Robert Tur sued YouTube for $ 150,000 for posting a video he had recorded without his consent.
In March 2007, the US media group Viacom announced a lawsuit for damages against Google for copyright infringement on YouTube. It is about a total of one billion US dollars in damages. Previously, Viacom, which owns television stations such as MTV and Comedy Central , had requested that more than 100,000 videos be removed from YouTube pages. The claims were rejected in the first instance.
At the end of December 2008, the Warner Music Group asked YouTube to delete all illegally uploaded videos. This demand is justified by the fact that it was not possible to agree on a license agreement with the portal operator Google . Some pieces of music by Warner artists were then withdrawn from the site.
In 2010, YouTube was able to assert itself against the television broadcaster Telecinco before a Spanish court in Madrid : YouTube was not responsible for copyright infringements by its users. Google celebrated this as a "victory for the Internet".
At the beginning of November 2008, music from the Christmas album A Winter Symphony and concert recordings from Sarah Brightman's Symphony Tour were posted on YouTube with pictures and videos. The LG Hamburg granted the lawsuit with regard to three pieces of music. The Hamburg Higher Regional Court has sentenced YouTube in terms of seven pieces of music, they are no longer willing to endure for download and also information on names, addresses and e-mail addresses that had set the contents of the user, to give. In the appeal proceedings , the Federal Court of Justice referred the matter to the European Court of Justice (EUGH) because some legal questions in connection with the interpretation of European directives are unresolved and have to be decided by the ECJ.
To avoid further lawsuits, YouTube introduced the Content ID system :
Copyright holders can upload so-called reference files into the reference file database (or: "Content ID database"). Each uploaded video is compared with all reference files. If matches are found, depending on the selection made by the copyright holder, the video is blocked, advertising in favor of the person who uploaded the file is deactivated or advertising is shown in favor of the copyright holder. In November 2018, the Content ID database contained more than 80 million files from more than 9,000 organizations and people. The Content ID system is heavily criticized by many YouTube users; the algorithms often recognize legally uploaded and monetized videos and YouTube does not check whether the person who uploaded the reference file is actually the author of the file, which allows abuse.
The following content and posts are undesirable under YouTube's YouTube Community Guidelines:
- Nudity or pornographic content
- harmful or dangerous content
- violent or cruel content
- Posts with unresolved copyright or copyright infringement
- hateful content or incitement to violence against individuals or groups based on ethnicity, religion, disability, gender, age, nationality, veteran status or sexual orientation or gender identity
- harassment, stalking, threats, harassment, intimidation, invasion of privacy or disclosure of the personal data of others.
Activities of YouTube's own "enforcement team"
Uploaded videos can be checked for their content on YouTube by an “enforcement team” (German: “Enforcement Working Group”). A pre-censorship would hardly be possible technically. In order to be able to remove unwanted films from the portal, YouTube depends on users reporting problematic videos to the portal so that a post can be deleted by YouTube if necessary. Since “censorship” (in the narrower sense of the word) is used when it is carried out from outside (especially by state or state-related agencies), it is a mistake to call the “enforcement team” on YouTube “censorship agency”.
One problem is the technical possibility of circumventing youth media protection measures for videos that are not deleted, but only given an age.
A contribution from Report Mainz in August 2007 reported that various racist and seditious video clips were available on YouTube that were not deleted despite several tips from the reporter team and the youth media protection facility jugendschutz.net . As a result, the Central Council of Jews in Germany announced criminal proceedings against YouTube.
According to journalist Karolin Schwarz (2020), "countless conspiracy friends , right-wing commentators, activists and channel operators who are a mixture of all three have found a home on YouTube ". In the New York Times, the sociologist Zeynep Tufekci described YouTube as the “great radicalizer”. When watching Donald Trump's campaign appearances on YouTube for research purposes, she said videos were presented by racists or Holocaust deniers . YouTube users from Brazil also reported to the New York Times how they familiarized themselves with right-wing ideologies on YouTube. An analysis by Jonas Kaiser , Yasodara Córdova and Adrian Rauchfleisch also confirmed that, after videos on political and entertainment topics , Brazilian YouTube users were mainly suggested right-wing, conspiracy-theoretical videos and channels. The communication scientists Rauchfleisch and Kaiser had already found out in an earlier study of German YouTube users that when viewing a channel from the right spectrum - even if it was out of curiosity or if you searched for a certain term and accidentally clicked on the video - rather, other channels from the same spectrum in Germany were suggested.
A major (purely technical?) Problem is the speedy removal of videos of hostage-taking and the use of force by terrorists.
Deletion requests from state bodies
State bodies in constitutional states repeatedly assert violations of the laws of the respective state against YouTube, which result in a request for deletion on YouTube. Between July and December 2015, 6,144 deletion requests were received by YouTube, of which 4,242 cases were removed. There were only 744 violations of the community guidelines.
However, there are a large number of country or culture-specific legal provisions in individual states that cannot claim worldwide validity. Examples of such regulations are the provisions of the German and Austrian penal codes , which are intended to take into account the National Socialist past of both countries, e.g. B. Section 86a of the German Criminal Code (“ Use of symbols of unconstitutional organizations ”). According to this, anyone who uploads videos from Germany in which swastikas are clearly recognizable and which do not fall under the exception provision under Section 86 (3) of the Criminal Code is liable to prosecution . However, YouTube refuses to generally delete such videos, as current American law makes it legal to show swastikas in public.
This means that a German-language video can be shown on YouTube that is permitted under foreign law and is therefore not deleted. However, the user who uploaded it from Germany can still be prosecuted in Germany.
Authenticity of the videos
Like other online services with a social networking character, YouTube is increasingly being used as a platform for guerrilla marketing . The authenticity of content is often difficult to assess.
In the past, a political video that critically dealt with the former US presidential candidate Al Gore and his commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the diary-like publications of a video blogger with the pseudonym lonelygirl15 , which addressed the supposed everyday life of a supposedly strictly religiously raised 16-year-old US teenager named "Bree".
In both cases, videos were deliberately produced by media agencies, but distributed with the appearance of being produced and published by private individuals. Critical voices, who questioned the credibility and origin of the videos at an early stage, initially had no negative impact on the high level of attention and popularity that the publications achieved.
In the case of the Al-Gore video, the advertising agency's relationships with the oil company Exxon and the automobile manufacturer General Motors were shown. In the case of lonelygirl15 , according to the producers, it was an experiment in storytelling (“an experiment in storytelling”). The role of "Bree" was played by the New Zealand actress Jessica Lee Rose .
In the narrower sense of the word, censorship is the intervention of state or other power-based institutions through which, in the sense of these institutions, undesired content is to be kept away from the media public. If the accusation is raised that YouTube is being "censored" in a state, then it should be noted that there are no legal free spaces in constitutional states. The fact that YouTube does not delete a video does not offer users who upload a video any protection from “post-censorship”, especially in the form of criminal prosecution by organs of the state concerned , even in constitutional states.
On March 6, 2007, access to YouTube was blocked for the first time in Turkey . The main reason for this was a video in which the memory of the state's founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was insulted, which is punishable under Law No. 5816 of July 25, 1951. The longest continuous ban took place in accordance with Art. 8 Para. 1 lit. b) the so-called "Internet Act" i. V. m. Art. 1 of Law No. 5816 from May 2008 to the end of October 2010. In March 2014, the Turkish government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan blocked the YouTube website as a result of the corruption scandal in Turkey.
Since January 31, 2008, YouTube has been blocked and inaccessible in the People's Republic of China with a few interruptions. The Chinese media authority has announced that it is intended to prevent access and distribution of pornographic material. In addition, they supposedly want to ensure that no videos are shown on the Internet that could reveal state secrets and thus harm the stability of society.
This censorship does not only apply to YouTube, but to all video portals on the Internet. Since January 31, 2008, video portals permitted in China have only been allowed to be operated by state-controlled companies. This allows the Chinese government to determine which videos can and cannot be shown.
In Pakistan , on February 22, 2007, following a decision by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority, YouTube was blocked because of the large number of "non-Islamic objectionable videos". One report named Fitna as the cause of the lockdown.
After the offending content had been removed from the servers, the ban was lifted on February 26, 2007. On May 20, 2010, on Everybody Draw Mohammed Day , YouTube was blocked again. The lock was later lifted.
In September 2012 the portal was blocked after protests against the video Innocence of Muslims .
At the end of December 2012, the portal was accessible for three hours before the government blocked it again for no reason.
- Morocco : From May 25-30, 2008, access to YouTube was blocked.
- Thailand : Access was blocked from 2006 to 2007 because of offensive videos regarding King Bhumibol Adulyadej .
- Iran : On December 3, 2006, YouTube and other sites were blocked after being declared immoral . The lock was briefly lifted, but reactivated after the Iranian presidential election in 2009 .
- Libya : The site was indefinitely blocked on January 24, 2010 after videos were uploaded showing demonstrations by the families of the prisoners killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996 .
Sabotage and hacker attacks
Well-known video channels on YouTube are repeatedly attacked and changed.
In October 2011, the YouTube channel of the American edition of Sesame Street was manipulated. In addition to the renaming, pornographic content was uploaded to the channel and rude comments were published. The channel had around 140,000 subscribers and nearly 500 million video views at the time of the attack.
Strangers gained access to Microsoft's YouTube account on October 23, 2011, and deleted various content, changed the background and uploaded their own videos. However, Microsoft regained control of the channel the next day.
According to a study by Ellacoya Networks, a US company that creates network traffic analyzers, YouTube played 10% of the total 18% of streaming video in all Internet traffic in 2007.
Currently, the most watched video is Despacito by Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee (published January 12, 2017), which surpassed the 5-billion-view. It overcame the See You Again by Wiz Khalifa and Charlie Puth (published on April 6, 2015), which was the most watched video for a few weeks. Gangnam Style held the leadership for several years until July 2017 .
Together with the RIAA , YouTube is also taking action against music download portals through which copyrighted music titles can be downloaded from YouTube. In June 2018, several services had to cease operations under pressure from the RIAA, IFPI and BPI .
YouTube Secret Talents Award
The “YouTube Secret Talents Award” was launched in 2007 and last held in 2011. It was started in parallel with the YouTube campaign “Germany Star”. The competition served to promote the “creative users” of the platform. Users should demonstrate their talent through uploaded videos. A prominent jury then nominated the best 25 or 6 in 2011 from the submitted videos. These nominated videos were then rated by the YouTube community. The competition ended with a gala to which all nominees were invited. In addition to the winner, places 2 and 3 were also honored with an award.
YouTube TV has existed since February 28, 2017 with a fee-based video-on-demand and streaming offer with mandatory registration. YouTube TV's offering includes the most important US broadcasters such as ABC , CBS, NBC , Fox, FX Network , AMC , CNN , FoxNews , TBS, Discovery Channel and ESPN , whose programs can be accessed. The service is currently only available to users with a US IP address (as of November 2019). In total, more than one million users (2019) can access more than 70 channels as well as in-house productions from YouTube at a price of 50 US dollars per month (November 2019).
From summer 2012, Google opened “YouTube Spaces” at several locations around the world in order to be able to support successful partners with production capacities and training. These are professional studios for recording YouTube videos that are equipped with high-resolution cameras, the latest audio technology and rooms for recordings with blue screen technology . As the first in July 2012 the "YouTube Space" went in the London district of Soho in operation. This was followed in November 2012 by the largest facility of this type to date with a good 3,800 m², the “Youtube Space Los Angeles ”. This was built in a former helicopter hangar at the former Hughes Airport in Playa del Rey . A third “Space” went into operation in February 2013 in Tokyo . Another “Space” followed in autumn 2014 for the US east coast in New York City . In April 2015, Google opened the first “YouTube Space” in Germany in Berlin .
"YouTube Premium" is a paid subscription to YouTube that is currently available in 29 countries. Before it was renamed, “YouTube Premium” was known as “YouTube Red”. Its functions are ad-free, the ability to watch videos on Android and iOS offline and in the background, and an included Google Play Music subscription . Films and series produced in-house can be found under the so-called “YouTube Red Originals”. "YouTube Premium" has also been available in Germany since mid-June 2018 and in Switzerland and Austria since November 14, 2018.
In 2007, founders Steve Chen and Chad Hurley of the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences were named People of the Year at the eleventh Webby Awards . In 2009, Jawed Karim, who was born in Merseburg, received the special prize of the German IPTV Award .
YouTubers with the greatest reach
According to subscribers
WR = World Ranking
Wikipedia: WikiProjekt video platforms - Wikipedia-internal specialist editorial team on the subject of video platforms
- List of the most viewed YouTube videos
- List of the most subscribed YouTube channels
- List of the most subscribed YouTube channels in Germany
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- Joachim Gerloff: Successful on YouTube. Social Media Marketing Using Online Videos. mitp, Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-8266-8192-9 .
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- Christoph Krachten, Carolin Hengholt: YouTube. Have fun and succeed with online videos. 2nd updated edition. dpunkt, Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-89864-817-2 .
- Roman Marek: Understanding YouTube: about the fascination of a medium , Transcript, Bielefeld 2013, ISBN 978-3-8376-2332-1 (dissertation University of Paderborn 2012, 393 pages).
- Pelle Snickars: The YouTube reader. National Library of Sweden, Stockholm 2009, ISBN 978-91-88468-11-6 .
- Reto Stuber: Successful social media marketing with Facebook, Twitter, XING and Co. Fourth, revised edition. Data Becker, Düsseldorf 2011, ISBN 978-3-8158-3063-5 , pp. 421-446.
- Christian Tembrink, Marius Szoltysek, Hendrik Unger: The book on successful online marketing with YouTube. O'Reilly, Cologne 2014, ISBN 978-3-95561-520-8 .
- Hendrik Unger, Christine Henning , Anne Unger: Play! The manual for YouTubers. 2nd updated edition. Rheinwerk, Bonn 2019, ISBN 978-3-8362-6623-9 .
- Lutz Frühbrodt, Annette Floren: Unboxing YouTube. In the network of professionals and profiteers. Otto Brenner Foundation, Frankfurt 2019, ISSN-Online 2365-2314.
- Official YouTube website (multilingual)
- Official German blog from YouTube
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- ↑ Luis Fonsi & Daddy Yankee's 'Despacito' Is First Clip to Hit 4 Billion Views on YouTube . In: Billboard . October 11, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
- ↑ "Gangnam Style" no longer the most viewed YouTube video . In: heise online . July 11, 2017. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
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- ↑ YouTube video counter: 301+ is a thing of the past August 7, 2015 PC-WELT Accessed on January 18, 2016
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- ↑ Mac Rumors: YouTube App No Longer Available on Older Apple TV, iOS Devices
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- ↑ GEMA and YouTube reach a decisive agreement. Society for Musical Performance and Mechanical Reproduction Rights (GEMA), November 9, 2007, accessed on November 25, 2018 (press release).
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- ^ Statement by GEMA ( Memento from January 29, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
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- ↑ GEMA press release: Munich Higher Regional Court confirms: GEMA blocking panels on YouTube are illegal . ( gema.de [accessed on November 25, 2018]).
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- ↑ Kotaku: Here's YouTube's Reply To Angry YouTubers About This Content ID Mess
- ↑ Forbes: The Injustice Of The YouTube Content ID Crackdown Reveals Google's Dark Side
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- ↑ cf. Jan Wiele: The dialectic of the navel fluff . Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . February 25, 2013, accessed May 21, 2015
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- ^ A b Münstersche Zeitung : Pakistan: YouTube blocked again , news and comments, December 31, 2012
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- ↑ Mobile phones, Facebook, YouTube cut in Iran. (No longer available online.) In: AFP. June 13, 2009, archived from the original ; accessed on August 28, 2012 .
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- ↑ Jürgen Schmieder: Youtube TV: Youtube is now doing Internet TV. Retrieved November 2, 2019 .
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- ^ Introducing the YouTube creator space. In: The Official YouTube Partners & Creators Blog. July 25, 2012, accessed August 2, 2012 .
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