Duchy of Friuli

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Historical banner of Friuli

The Duchy of Friuli was a Lombard duchy in what is now Friuli , which existed from 568 to 776.


After the occupation of Veneto, Alboin appointed his nephew Gisulf I as dux of Friuli with Forum Iulii ( Cividale ) as the capital . Gisulf settled longobard farae (family associations) selected by him there. Friuli was bordered in the east by the Julian Alps , in the north by the Carnic Alps , in the west by the later founded Ducat Ceneda on the other side of the Tagliamento and in the south by the Exarchate Ravenna , to which the coastal region of the Adriatic belonged. Along with Benevento , Spoleto and Trento , Friuli was one of the largest ducats in the Longobard Empire. The importance of Friuli was based on the border with the Slovenes , Avars and the Byzantine Empire .

Grasulf I and Gisulf II established contact with the Byzantine exarch Romanus and King Childebert II of Austrasia .

Around 610 the Avars invaded Friuli and plundered. Gisulf II is killed in defense. The capital, Forum Julii, was conquered, women and children were deported to Pannonia and the men were killed. Under his sons Taso and Cacco (610–616), who ruled together , the ducat was extended to Windisch-Matrei . After their murder by patricius Gregor in Opitergium ( Oderzo ), her uncle Grasulf II took over the ducat.

Dux Pemmo fell out of favor and King Liutprand installed 739 Ratchis as dux . In 742 Ratchis accompanied King Liutprand on a campaign against the rebellious dux Transamund of Spoleto.

When King Liutprand and shortly afterwards his nephew and successor Hildeprand died, Ratchis was elected king in 744 and his brother Aistulf became dux of Friuli. When Aistulf became king in 749, he handed the ducat Friuli over to his brother-in-law Anselm . When Anselm became abbot of the Nonantola monastery in 751, he was followed by dux Peter .

Hrodgaud was installed as Duke of Friuli in 774 by Charlemagne , who had defeated Desiderius , the last king of the Longobard Empire. Hrodgaud rebelled against Charlemagne in 776, but was quickly defeated and killed.

With Hrodgaud's death, the Duchy of Friuli became extinct and from 776 to 828 it became a mark of the Frankish Empire .

At the end of the 9th century in four counties ( Friuli (m. Istria ), Carantania , Carniola (m. Liburnia ) and Savia ) was divided . Later the area went to the Patriarchs of Aquileia . In 952 the former Duchy of Friuli was incorporated into the margraviate of Verona .

Under Napoleon, Géraud-Christophe-Michel Duroc was made an honorary Duke of Friuli.

Dukes of Friuli

Dukes of the Carolingian Empire

The following rulers of Friuli still carried the title dux Foroiulanus (Duke of Friuli), but were no longer tribal dukes , but integrated into the Franconian state and had lost their independence.

Counts of Friuli after the division of the Mark

The Franconian Empire after Verdun 843 and Mersen 870: the Friuli march belongs to the kingdom of Lothar and his successors

Reichstag zu Worms (829) , reorganization of the kingdom of Louis the Pious and his sons in favor of Charles the Bald, division of the old Lombard margraviate into four margraviates

Part of the Lotharii Regnum :

Berengar's Marca Veronensis et Aquileiensis :



Web links

Wikisource: Historia Langobardorum  - Sources and full texts (Latin)

Individual evidence

  1. Paulus Diaconus , Historia Langobardorum II, chap. 9, ed. Ludwig Bethmann and Georg Waitz , in: Monumenta Germaniae Historica , Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum saec. VI – IX , Hahn, Hanover 1878
  2. Thomas Hodgkin: Italy and her Invaders , Vol VI, p. 36ff
  3. Thomas Hodgkin: Italy and her Invaders , Vol VI, p. 45ff
  4. Thomas Hodgkin: Italy and her Invaders , Vol VI, p. 50ff
  5. Historia Langobardorum VI, 51
  6. ^ Historia Langobardorum VI, 56
  7. Franconian Reichsannals
  8. Karl Joseph Freiherr von Czoernig, Ethonography of the Oesterreichischen Monarchy, K.-K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna, 1857. pp. 34-35, on Google Books
  9. See John Martindale: The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire . Vol. 3a. Cambridge 1992, p. 537 and p. 545; Norbert Wagner: On the origin of the Agilolfinger. In: Journal for Bavarian State History. Vol. 41 (1978), p. 19ff., Here p. 40.
  10. ^ Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum IV, 37
  11. ^ Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum IV, 39
  12. ^ Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum VI, 3
  13. ^ Einhard , Vita Caroli Magni