from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Habitat of the beach balm (Ruppia maritima).

Habitat of the beach balm ( Ruppia maritima ).

Subdivision : Seed plants (Spermatophytina)
Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Order : Frog-spoon-like (Alismatales)
Family : Balance growth
Genre : Balances
Scientific name of the  family
Scientific name of the  genus

The Salden ( Ruppia ) are the only genus in the family of the Saldengewächse (Ruppiaceae) in the order of the frog-spoon-like (Alismatales). The balances look like grass. They grow in undersea meadows, often in brackish water, and are an important source of food for seabirds there. The scientific generic name Ruppia honors the German doctor and botanist Heinrich Bernhard Rupp (1688–1719).


Illustration of the beach balance ( Ruppia maritima )
Screwy balances ( Ruppia cirrhosa )
Diaspores of the beach balance ( Ruppia maritima )

Habit and leaves

Balances grow as annual or perennial herbaceous plants . These submerged (submerged) aquatic plants thrive in brackish or sea water. They are anchored in the water bed with rarely monopodial rhizomes , but mostly with fibrous roots. The internodes are usually well developed.

Their alternate and two-line leaves are divided into leaf sheath and leaf blade. The narrow leaf blade has a conspicuous midrib and a serrated leaf margin. There are two scales in the leaf axils.

Inflorescences and flowers

The inflorescence axes lengthen and often turn into a spiral after pollination. The terminal, heady, spiky inflorescences have a spathe and no bracts or bracts and only two flowers.

The sessile, small flowers are hermaphroditic. Bracts are missing. There are only two stamens with at most very short stamens. The 4 to 16 upper carpels are free. Each carpel contains only one parietal and campylotropic ovule. There is no stylus; so the scar is sedentary.

Fruits and seeds

The stone fruit- like fruits contain a seed. The hanging seed has no endosperm . The embryo is straight.


The chromosomes are 0.7 to 4.4 µm long. The number of chromosomes is n = 8 or 10–12.

Systematics and distribution

The genus Ruppia is distributed worldwide from the temperate latitudes to the tropics. In Central Europe, only the two types of beach salde ( Ruppia maritima ) and screwy salde ( Ruppia cirrhosa ) occur naturally. They thrive in brackish water (rarely in fresh water) and in other saline habitats.

The genus Ruppia was established by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum in 1753 . Type species is Ruppia maritima L. Synonyms for Ruppia L. are: Bucafer Adans. , Buccaferrea P.Micheli ex Petagna , Dzieduszyckia Rehmann . The Ruppiaceae family was established in 1834 by Pawel Fjodorowitsch Gorjaninow in Primae Lineae Systematis Naturae , 46.

In the past, the balances ( Ruppia ) were assigned to the family of the pondweed plants (Potamogetonaceae). Molecular biological studies have recently led to the realization that the balances ( Ruppia ) are classified in a separate family. Within the order of the Alismatales , the Ruppiaceae are a sister group of the Cymodoceaceae .

The identification and delimitation of the species is difficult, and so a large number of synonyms have emerged . Subspecies or varieties are not currently recognized.

There are about seven (one to ten) species of Ruppia :

  • Spiral balances or spiral balances ( Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande , Syn .: Ruppia spiralis Dumort. , Ruppia lacustris Macoun , Ruppia occidentalis S. Watson , Ruppia truncatifolia Miki ): It is widespread in the temperate and subtropical zones worldwide.
  • Ruppia didyma Sw. ex Wikstr. (Syn .: Ruppia anomala Ostenf. ): It occurs only in Mexico and on islands of the Caribbean.
  • Ruppia drepanensis Tineo : It occurs in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Portugal, Spain, Sardinia, Italy and Sicily.
  • Ruppia filifolia (Phil.) Skottsb. (Syn .: Ruppia obtusa Hagstr. ): It spreads from Peru to Argentina including the Falkland Islands.
  • Beach-Salde , marine Salde or Beaked Salde ( Ruppia maritima L. , syn .: Ruppia brevipes Bertol. Ex Griseb. , Ruppia curvicarpa A.Nelson , Ruppia drepanensis Tineo ex G.Gussone , Ruppia obliqua Griseb. & Schenk , Ruppia pectinata Rydb. , Ruppia rostellata W.DJKoch ex Rchb. , Ruppia trichodes Durand , Ruppia salina Schur , Ruppia subsessilis Thwaites , Ruppia taquetii H.Lév. , Ruppia transsilvanica Schur , Ruppia zosteroides Lojac. ): It is distributed worldwide.
  • Ruppia megacarpa R. Mason : It occurs in New Zealand, in southeastern and southern Australia and from Russia's Far East to Japan and China.
  • Ruppia polycarpa R.Mason : It occurs in New Zealand, in southeastern and southern Australia.
  • Ruppia tuberosa J.S. Davis & Toml. : It occurs in western and southern Australia.


  • The family of Ruppiaceae in APWebsite . (Sections Description and Systematics)
  • Youhao Guo, Robert R. Haynes, C. Barre Hellquist: Ruppiaceae. In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (Eds.): Flora of China . Volume 23: Acoraceae through Cyperaceae . Science Press / Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing / St. Louis 2010, ISBN 978-1-930723-99-3 , pp. 118 (English). , online , PDF file (sections description, classification and distribution).
  • Robert R. Haynes: Ruppiaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico . Volume 22: Magnoliophyta: Alismatidae, Arecidae, Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae . Oxford University Press, New York / Oxford a. a. 2000, ISBN 0-19-513729-9 , pp. 75–76 (English, limited preview in Google Book Search). , Family , genus online (section description).
  • Khadija Aziz: Ruppiaceae at In: Flora of Pakistan . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Flora of West Pakistan 80, Stewart Herbarium, Rawalpindi 1975. (Description section).

Individual evidence

  1. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names . Extended Edition. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, Free University Berlin Berlin 2018. [1]
  2. Carl von Linné: Species Plantarum. Volume 1, Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae 1753, p. 127, digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/ IA% 3D ~ MDZ% 3D% 0A ~ SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D .
  3. ^ Ruppiaceae at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
  4. a b c d e f g h i Rafaël Govaerts (Ed.): Ruppia. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) - The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved June 22, 2018.

Web links

Commons : Saldengewächse (Ruppiaceae)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Salden ( Ruppia )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files