Palomino (grape variety)
Palomino , actually Palomino Fino , is an old white wine variety . It is the classic Sherry - Traube , and many sherries, mainly Finos and Manzanilla , consist exclusively of Palomino Fino. Accordingly, Palomino is mainly grown in the so-called sherry triangle ( Jerez de la Frontera - Puerto de Santa Maria - Sanlúcar de Barrameda ), where it takes up 90% of the vineyard area. In Spain it also has a meaning in DO Condado de Huelva and on the Canary Islands (here as Listán Blanco ). Further important cultivation areas are in South Africa, France, Argentina, Australia, USA (California), New Zealand and Cyprus. Around the world, around 60,000 hectares are planted with this vine, half of it in Spain. The grape probably comes from Andalusia . It is said that King Alfonso X of Castile and León (1221–1284) named it after one of his knights.
The late-ripening grape thrives best in summer-dry, sun-exposed but only moderately hot growing areas. Sufficient winter moisture and good ventilation are important for the grapes, as they are relatively susceptible to powdery mildew (Odium). The highest quality vines grow on the white chalk marl soils , the Albariza . The Palomino vine is vigorous and very rich. Without appropriate pruning, must quantities of over 200 hectoliters / hectare can be achieved. Usually, however, the yields are limited to less than 70 hectoliters / hectare.
The shouldered cluster is very large; it can weigh over two kilograms. The golden yellow, rather loosely sitting, somewhat translucent berries are quite pressure-resistant, not particularly sweet but very aromatic; That is why Palomino Fino grapes are also marketed as table grapes in the growing areas and their immediate vicinity.
The wines made from Palomino are both low in acid and sugar and quite neutral. For the acidic manzanilla , the grapes are harvested before they are fully ripe. The must of fully ripe grapes tends to oxidize due to the lack of acidity. This property makes Palomino ideal for the production of oxidatively developed wines such as sherry or rancio . Non-oxidized sherry ( Fino ) is kept under a layer of pile yeast , which ensures sufficient air exclusion. They are rarely used for the production of table wine .
The Portuguese grape varieties named Perrum and Malvasia Rei are believed to be identical to Palomino . Palomino has also spawned many varieties and mutations.