Cardinal (grape variety)
|Synonyms||see section synonyms|
|Art||Grape vine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera )|
|Berry color||dark red|
|origin||California , USA|
|breeder||Elmer Snyder and FN Harmon in Fresno , California .|
|List of grape varieties|
'Cardinal' is a late-ripening table grape variety .
'Cardinal' comes from a cross between ' Alphonse-Lavallée ' × ' Queen of the Vineyards ' ('Alphonse-Lavallée' is mostly called 'Ribier' in California; but not related to the French variety ' Ribier ').
This cross was made in 1939 by Elmer Snyder and FN Harmon in Fresno , California . According to earlier assumptions, it was a cross between 'Ahmer Bou Amer' (also called 'Flame Tokay') and 'Ribier' (Syn .: ' Alphonse-Lavallée '). A DNA analysis in 2007 showed, however, that there can be no relationship with 'Ahmer Bou Amer'. In 2009 the cross 'Alphonse-Lavallée' × Queen of the Vineyards was finally identified.
The variety 'Cardinal' was a cross-breeding partner in the new breeds ' Blanc Du Bois ', 'Carina, Diana', ' Flame Seedless ' and ' Zagore '. An early mutation called 'Cardinal Early' or 'Early Cardinal' arose in Italy .
'Cardinal' is grown in Spain (approx. 5,800 hectares), Italy (approx. 3,800 hectares), Romania (approx. 3,800 hectares) and Bulgaria (approx. 2,000 hectares), where it is one of the most important table grapes . In addition, there are notable vine stocks in California (→ viticulture in California , 35 hectares), Mexico, Chile (63 hectares, as of 2006), Argentina and southern France (227 hectares). In the countries of Thailand and Vietnam, 'Cardinal' is used to make wine. The worldwide population is around 28,000 ha.
The vigorous, late-ripening variety 'Cardinal' is susceptible to the diseases of powdery mildew , downy mildew and gray rot . In addition, it does not tolerate frost . The 'Cardinal' variety has large grapes with blue-red berries and small seeds. This variety tends to burst open when fully ripe, so the trade berries sold are sold mostly in the immature state, and thus have a rather sour flavor fades.
Nine clones are certified for cultivation . The most interesting are clones 80 and 83.
Synonyms for 'Cardinal' are: 'Apostoliatiko', 'Cardinal Crveni', 'Francesa', 'G 10-30', 'Karaburnu Rannii', 'Kardinal', 'Rannii Carabournu'
- Hans Ambrosi , Bernd HE Hill, Erika Maul, Ernst H. Rühl, Joachim Schmid, Fritz Schumann: color atlas grape varieties. 300 varieties and their wines. 3rd, completely revised edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-8001-5957-4 .
- Pierre Galet : Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages. Hachette, Paris 2000, ISBN 2-01-236331-8 .
- Jancis Robinson : The Oxford Wine Lexicon. 3rd, completely revised edition. Hallwag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-8338-0691-9 .
- Aziz Akkak, Paolo Boccacci, Roberto Botta: 'Cardinal' grape parentage: a case of a breeding mistake. In: Genome. Vol. 50, No. 3, 2007, pp. 325-328, doi: 10.1139 / g06-145 .
- Javier Ibáñez, Alba M. Vargas, Margarita Palancar, Joaquín Borrego, M. Teresa de Andrés: Genetic Relationships among Table-Grape Varieties. In: American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. Vol. 60, No. 1, 2009, , pp. 35-42.
- California grape acreage report, 2008 crop, Published April 2009 by the California Department of Food and Agriculture . ( Memento of the original from March 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 2.1 MB)
- Catastro Viticola Nacional 2006. (PDF; 135 kB) División Protección Agrícola - SAG, 2007, accessed on November 26, 2014 (Spanish).
- LES CEPAGES NOIRS DANS LE VIGNOBLE (PDF), statistics on red grape varieties per greater region, part 1, publication of the OFFICE NATIONAL INTERPROFESSIONNEL DES FRUITS, DES LEGUMES, DES VINS ET DE L'HORTICULTURE - ONIVINS for short, as of 2008 Source ONIVINS. ( Memento from January 20, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- LES CEPAGES NOIRS DANS LE VIGNOBLE (PDF), statistics on red grape varieties per greater region, part 2, publication of the OFFICE NATIONAL INTERPROFESSIONNEL DES FRUITS, DES LEGUMES, DES VINS ET DE L'HORTICULTURE - ONIVINS for short, as of 2008 Source ONIVINS. ( Memento from March 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive )