In a narrower understanding, cultural policy describes all actions of a state in the field of art ( visual arts , performing arts , music , literature ). In a broader understanding, cultural policy also includes other forms of social relationships such as language and school policy .
Carrier of cultural policy
The sponsors of cultural policy are not exclusively state institutions, but also private institutions such as foundations , associations and sponsors . In Germany , cultural policy is primarily the responsibility of the federal states , which coordinate their cultural policy in the Standing Conference . In this context, one speaks of the cultural sovereignty of the countries.
After the Second World War, the occupation forces took over in Germany, first in the occupied zones the Kulturpolitik.jegliche In the Soviet zone was the 1945 Cultural Association founded as a cultural-political institution for the whole of Germany, was in the western zones but do not claim because of reasonable suspicion of communist infiltration. In East Germany, the Kulturbund integrated itself into the centralized cultural policy of the SED , with the supporting companies playing a fundamental role as cultural-political institutions. In West Germany, even after the founding of the Federal Republic, there were initially only exceptions to legislative powers in the field of cultural policy. These include B. foreign cultural policy, the protection of German cultural assets against migration abroad (Article 73 I No. 5a of the Basic Law) and copyright and publishing law (Article 73 I No. 9 of the Basic Law).
A large part of cultural policy is carried out at the municipal level ( municipal cultural policy ). Unless state laws oblige the municipalities to keep cultural facilities available (e.g. public libraries and municipal archives as mandatory self-administration tasks in some federal states), the maintenance of cultural institutions (e.g. museums) is a typical voluntary self-administration task of the municipalities.
On topics such as the future of the working society and new ways of cultural policy ( Hermann Glaser ), Is the Federal Republic a cultural state? ( Jost Hermand ), cultural politics and postmodernism ( Wolfgang Welsch ) and Societal value change and cultural policy innovation ( Helmut Klages ) and in the ambitious lead to concrete preparing a bid for the naming of the Ruhr as European Capital of Culture in 2010 (= RUHR.2010 ) found 1987 Essen a forum for cultural studies and cultural mediation took place, in which the author (and then head of the Essen Adult Education Center ) Gerd Hergen Lübben participated as a municipal representative; his text banner "KULTUR IST ..." was "hung out of the window" as a public contribution to the discussion during the cultural-political discourse project KULTUR 90 from the Essen House of Adult Education.
Areas of cultural policy
Cultural policy can be divided into six main areas, some of which are themselves defined as independent policy areas :
- Education including schools and adult education .
- Science including higher education and research .
- Art, including the protection and maintenance of cultural property .
- Religious policy including the relationship between state and church .
- Media policy including the regulation of the press and radio .
- Sports policy, including measures and guidelines for promoting sports
- Legal framework for the entire cultural scene
Promotion of culture and creation of framework conditions
One of the main tasks of cultural policy is to promote culture . In the traditional understanding of cultural policy, this includes direct financing of public institutions (e.g. theaters , museums , libraries ) and private cultural workers (e.g. film funding , art associations ). The financial variant of cultural funding also includes awarding prizes and grants. Culture continues to be promoted through the creation of legal and social framework conditions (e.g. tax law , media law , social policy ) stajeglichett. This also enables private cultural funding. At the federal level, the effects on cultural work through legislative activities are greater than the emphasis placed on direct cultural funding.
The coalition agreement between the SPD and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen for the formation of the federal government Schröder II from 2002 resulted in “the further improvement of the legal framework for art and culture. This includes taking greater account of the cultural dimension of federal legislation and, if necessary, of major planning projects ( cultural impact assessment ) ”.
International cultural relations
Intergovernmental cultural policy affects international cultural relations . These describe the active mediation of the culture of a state in the world. This is operated primarily through the establishment of cultural institutes (e.g. Goethe Institute ), in which the members of a country can use the culture of the host country primarily through language courses and the use of extensive libraries . Another variant is the establishment of television and radio stations that can be received worldwide, the programming of which is deliberately not aimed at residents. In the age of globalization , foreign cultural and educational policy, which is primarily pursued by industrialized countries , serves the competition for highly qualified workers.
In the current discourse on cultural policy, cultural diplomacy as a pure cultural export of a country is highly controversial. In Germany, German foreign cultural and educational policy has been the third pillar of foreign policy since Willy Brandt and is no longer just used to present a country to the outside world, but is also an instrument of mediation between nations. Foreign cultural and educational policy also supports exchange and dialogue. In cooperation with developing and transition countries, programs for capacity development and professionalization, e.g. for journalists, are offered.
In 2003, the scientific service of the German Bundestag published a 54-page study entitled "Cultural Policy Debates in Germany since 1945".
Criticism of the cultural policy in Germany
The state cultural policy, as it is pursued by the federal government, but above all also by the federal states and municipalities and churches in the Federal Republic of Germany , has been criticized in various respects . Among other things, the setting of priorities in the selection of " eligibility " is criticized . Furthermore, those affected criticize the failure to take cultural minorities ( subculture ) into account in urban development and in the public-law mass media (cultural mandate). This is also expressed in demonstrations such as the Fuckparade , the Frankfurt night dance demo and alliances such as the Berlin radio campaign.
European instead of national culture
“When we talk about Europe, we are essentially talking about an idea. And the core of the core of this idea is culture [.] "
"In the course of time, the realization broke out that an overarching European culture beyond national cultures constitutes 'European identity' before many others [.]"
The idea behind the two quotations was the basis for the proclamation of the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018. According to Matthias Wemhoff , the chairman of the National Program Advisory Board for the Cultural Heritage Year, this should make a contribution to questioning the idea of a "national guiding culture " and thus fighting nationalism in Europe by showing people that the spirit, out of which they lived, a "European spirit" is.
Cultural policy research
Cultural policy research is still in a research niche in Germany. Practitioners mainly reflect on their experiences in publications. As an application-oriented, non-university research institute, the Institute for Cultural Policy of the Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft is one of the formative research institutions on cultural policy in Germany.
So far, only a few authors have researched cultural policy in political science. In 2017, Kilian H. Lembke published a study on the case study Norderstedt on municipal cultural policy, and in 2018 Michael Flohr presented an analysis of the Free State of Thuringia, which describes itself as a "cultural land". Both studies relate to a. on a network analytical approach that has become widely used and proven as a method for investigating policy areas.
The World Report on Cultural Policy New | Gestalten (2018) of the UNESCO Convention for the Protection and Promotion of Cultural Diversity (2005) .
- Michael Flohr: Cultural Policy in Thuringia. Practices - Governance - Networks, transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-8394-4255-5 .
- Cultural Policy (APuZ From Politics and Contemporary History ). Volume 66, 20-22 / 2016 - 17 May 2016, Frankfurter Societäts-Druckerei, Mörfelden-Walldorf.
- Andreas Hansert: Citizenship Culture and Cultural Policy in Frankfurt am Main. A historical-sociological reconstruction, with an introduction by Ulrich Oevermann (Studies on Frankfurt History Volume 33), Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 3-7829-0426-5 .
- Dieter Kramer: Reinventing cultural policy. The citizens as users and actors in the center of cultural life (Edition Umbruch No. 28). Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft e. V./Klartext Verlag, Bonn / Essen 2012, ISBN 978-3-8375-0710-2 .
- Olaf Schwencke , Joachim Bühler, Marie Katharina Wagner: Cultural policy from AZ . B + S Siebenhaar, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-936962-41-3 .
- Andrea Raschèr , David Vitali: Cultural Policy. In: Andrea Raschèr, Mischa Senn (Hrsg.): Kulturrecht Kulturmarkt: Lehr- und Praxishandbuch. Dike, Zurich / St. Gallen 2012, pp. 27–37.
- Waldemar Ritter: Culture and cultural policy in the united Germany. (Ed.): German Culture Council, Bonn / Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-934868-05-3 .
- Ralf Rytlewski: cultural policy. In: Everhard Holtmann (Ed.): Political Lexicon. 2nd Edition. R. Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-486-22566-9 .
- Friedrich G. Schwegmann: cultural state / cultural policy. In: Dieter Nohlen (ed.): Small Lexicon of Politics. CH Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-89331-419-9 .
- Heike Schmoll : Cultural Policy. In: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning, Bernd Janowski, Eberhard Jüngel (Hrsg.): Religion inp history and present . Concise dictionary for theology and religious studies. Volume 4: I-K. 4., completely reworked. Edition. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2001, LXXI, ISBN 3-16-146944-5 .
- Andreas Joh. Wiesand: cultural policy. In: Uwe Andersen, Wichard Woyke (Ed.): Concise dictionary of the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany . Bonn 2003, ISBN 3-89331-389-3 .
- Mario d'Angelo: Cultural Policies in Europe: Local Issues. Council of Europe Publishing , Strasbourg 2001, ISBN 92-871-4229-7 .
- Annika Hampel: Fair Cooperation. Partnership-based cooperation in foreign cultural policy. Springer Verlag, Wiesbaden 2015, ISBN 978-3-658-07592-7 .
- Mario d'Angelo, Paul Vesperini: Cultural Policies in Europe: Method and Practice of Evaluation. Council of Europe Publishing , Strasbourg 1999, ISBN 92-871-3759-5 .
- Loock, Scheytt (Ed. :), Cultural Management & Cultural Policy , Dr. Josef Raabe Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-8183-0525-0 .
- Wolfgang Schneider (Ed. :) Basic texts on cultural policy. Glück & Schiller Verlag, Hildesheim 2007, ISBN 978-3-938404-11-9 .
- Zembylas, Tschmuck (Ed. :) The state as a culture-promoting authority. StudienVerlag, Innsbruck 2005, ISBN 3-7065-4141-6 .
- Marcello Sorce Keller: Why is Music so Ideological, Why Do Totalitarian States Take It So Seriously: A Personal View from History, and the Social Sciences. In: Journal of Musicological Research. XXVI (2007), no. 2-3, pp. 91-122.
- Bernd Wagner: Fürstenhof and civil society. On the origin, development and legitimation of cultural policy . (= Edition Umbruch, .and. 24). Cultural Political Society Bonn e. V., Klartext, Essen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8375-0224-4 .
- Bernd Wagner: Cultural Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. ed. v. German Music Information Center, Bonn 2007 online (PDF; 67 kB)
- Heimo Konrad : cultural policy. An interdisciplinary introduction. Facultas Verlag- und Buchhandel, Vienna 2011, ISBN 978-3-7089-0596-9 .
- Gabriele Clemens: British cultural policy in Germany 1945–1949: literature, film, music and theater. Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-515-06830-9 .
- Dieter Haselbach, Pius Knüsel, Armin Klein, Stephan Opitz: The cultural infarction: too much of everything and the same everywhere. A polemic about cultural policy, the cultural state, and cultural subsidies . Albrecht Knaus, 2012, ISBN 978-3-8135-0485-9 . Meeting at mdr.de
- Manfred Wagner : cultural policy. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 3, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-7001-3045-7 .
- Olaf Zimmermann : Cultural policy in a nutshell: comments and terms. (From Politics & Culture Volume 12), AZ Druck, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-934868-32-8 , .
- Kilian H. Lembke: Municipal cultural policy. Structures, processes, networks (Umbruch edition. Texts on cultural policy, Volume 33). transcript, Bielefeld 2017, ISBN 978-3-8376-3914-8 .
- Olaf Zimmermann (Ed.): Kissed awake - 20 years of new federal cultural policy 1998–2018 . German Cultural Council, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-947308-10-1 . on-line
- Olaf Zimmermann and Theo Geißler: The third pillar: Foreign cultural and educational policy (from politics & culture). German Cultural Council, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-947308-08-8 . on-line
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2017). Convention 2005 World Report. Cultural Policy New | Shape. Promote creativity. Promote development . Paris: UNESCO.
German-language magazines and yearbooks
- Cultural exchange - magazine for international perspectives, publisher: Institute for Foreign Relations (ifa)
- Yearbook for cultural policy , ed. from the Institute for Cultural Policy of the Cultural Political Society (2012 yearbook, volume 12 with the topic: New cultural policy of the countries. 2013 yearbook, volume 13, cultural policy and planning. ), Klartext Verlag, Essen; Yearbook 2015/16, Transformatory Cultural Policy. ed. Norbert Sievers, Patrick S. Föhl and Tobias J. Knoblich, transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2017; Yearbook 2017/18, Volume 16, World.Culture.Politics. Cultural Policy in Times of Globalization. transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-8376-4252-0 .
- Politics & Culture . Journal of the German Cultural Council (appears 10 times a year) online
- Kulturpolitische Mitteilungen (KuMi) (appear quarterly), ed. from the board of the Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft e. V. (Bonn),
- List of national cultural institutes
- Language policy
- UNESCO World Report Reshaping Cultural Policies (English)
- Information from the Federal Foreign Office on foreign cultural policy
- Cultural Political Society Bonn
- Politics and Culture magazine of the German Cultural Council
- 5th Federal Cultural Political Congress culture makes history , Berlin, 11. – 12. June 2009.
- Activities of the EU Council Formation Education, Youth and Culture
- Institute for Cultural Policy of the University of Hildesheim Foundation
- Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe (Germany)
- Gabriele Clemens: British cultural policy in Germany 1945–1949, 1997.
- Richard Erny, Wilhelm Godde, Karl Richter (eds.): Handbuch Kultur 90. Models and need for action for communal cultural work. Cologne 1988, pp. 274-278.
- SPD, Bündnis'90 / Die Grünen: Coalition Agreement 2002-2006 . Berlin 2002, p. 69 ( sustainability.info [PDF; 700 kB ; accessed on August 6, 2017]).
- PDF ( Memento of the original from January 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Michael Flohr: Cultural Policy in Thuringia. Practices - Governance - Networks . transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2018, p. 317 .
- Dieter Haselbach, Pius Knüsel, Armin Klein, Stephan Opitz: The culture infarction: From everything too much and everywhere the same. A polemic about cultural policy, the cultural state, and cultural subsidies . Albrecht Knaus, 2012.
- President of the Bundestag Lammert on the occasion of the public book presentation of Olaf Schwencke: The Europe of Cultures. Cultural Policy in Europe on October 25, 2006 in Berlin; quoted from the 2006 annual report of the Institute for Cultural Policy of the Kulturpolitische Gesellschaft, p. 18.
- T. Oppermann, CD Classen, M. Nettesheim: Europarecht. 4th edition. Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-58768-9 , § 36, p. 631, Rn. 1.
- European Cultural Heritage Year 2018: "Europe needs a spirit from which it can live". Matthias Wemhoff in conversation with Eckhard Roelcke . Deutschlandfunk . 20th March 2017.
- PrueferPR: Institute of cultural policy. Retrieved June 25, 2018 .
- transcript: Municipal cultural policy. Retrieved June 18, 2018 .
- Michael Flohr: Cultural Policy in Thuringia. Practices - Governance - Networks . transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-8394-4255-5 .
- World Report on Cultural Policy New Design (2018). UNESCO, accessed July 8, 2019 .
- Hilmar Sack: Review of: Wagner, Bernd: Fürstenhof and civil society. On the origin, development and legitimation of cultural policy. Essen 2009. In: H-Soz-u-Kult. March 19, 2010.
- google books